K-12 TLC Header
Link to About K-12 TLCLink to The Bridge Builder poemLink to Persistence EssayLink to the K-12 TLC Policies

Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery

Journals: January, 1806

K-12 TLC Guide to Thomas Jefferson
K-12 TLC Guide to U.S. History

K-12 TLC Guide to Native American History: Initial Contact with Europeans
K-12 TLC Guide to the Oregon Trail
K-12 TLC Guide to Westward Expansion

Link to General Resources Section

Meriwether Lewis, William Clark
Members of the Expedition
Camp DuBois, Fort Clatsop National Memorial, The Lewis and Clark Trail
Keelboats, Maps, Scientific Discoveries
Lewis and Clark Bicentennial

1803 1804 1805

Link to Related LiteratureTeacher Resources
Link to the Search Button

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
February March April May
June July August September
January 1
Lewis: This morning I was awoke at an early our by the discharge of a Volley of Small arms, which were fired by our party in front of our quarters to usher in the new year, this was the only mark of respect which we had it in our power to pay this Selibrated day.

our repast of this day tho' better than that of Christmas Consisted principally in the anticipation of the 1st day of January 1807, when in the bosom of our friends we hope to participate in the mirth and hilarity of the day, and when with the relish given by the recollection of the present, we Shall Completely, both mentally and Corparally, the repast which the hand of Civilization has produced for us.

at present we were Content with eating our boiled Elk and Wap-pato, and Solacing our thirst with our only beverage pure water.

two of our hunters who Set out this morning returned in the evening haveing killed two Bucks Elks; they presented Capt. Lewis and my Self each a marrow bone and tongue on which we Suped—

we are visited to day by a fiew of the Clatsops by water they brought some roots and berries for the purpose of tradeing with us.

our fortification being now Complete we issue an order for the more exact and uniform dicipline and government of the garrison.

A List of the Tribes near the mouth of the Columbia river as given by the Indians, the Places they reside, the names of the Tribes and principal Chiefs of each all of which speak the same language



       1st Clot-sop Tribe in Several Small villages on the Sea Cost to the S. E. of the Mouth & on the S. E. bank of the Columbia river—not noumerous



1st Chief Con-ni a    Co-mo-wool
2      do Sha-no-ma
3      do War-ho-lote


       2nd Chin-nook Tribe reside opposit on the N. W. Side & in Small villages & Single houses made of Split boards on a Creek of Haleys bay, and on Small lakes or ponds, at no great distance from the river or bay.    Tolerably noumerous—so said





1st Chief is Stock-home
2d     do Com-com-mo-ley
3       do Shi-lar-la-wit
4       do Nor-car-te
5       do Chin-ni-ni


       3rd Chiltch Tribe reside <on> near the sea Coast & north of the Chinnooks    live in houses and is said to be noumerous    Speak same Language



1st Chief Mar-lock-ke
2d    do Col-chote
3rd   do Ci-in-twar


       4th Ca-la-mox Tribe reside on the Sea coast to the S. E of the Columbia River and on a Small river,   and as I am informed by the Clot-sops inhabit 10 Villages 6 of them on the ocian & 4 on the Little river, those Ca-la-mmox are said not to be noumerous    Speake the Clotsop language



1st Chief O-co-no


       5th Calt-har-mar Tribe reside in one village of large Houses built of Split boards and neetly made, on the S. E. Side of the Columbia River, behind a Island in a Deep bend of the River to the S. E.    they are not noumerous, and live as the others do on fish, black roots Lickuerish berries, and Wap-pe-to roots, and is as low as those Wapeto roots grow, which is about 15 miles on a Direct line from the Sea.



1st Chief Clan-nah queh at war against the
   Snake Inds. to the S of the falls
2d     do       Cul-te-ell
3       do       [blank] at war    Do.


       6th Clan-nah queh Nation      This nation reside on [blank] Side of the Columbia River in [blank] villages above about [blank] and are <said to be> noumerous    they latterly <resided> floged the Chinnooks, and are a Dasterly Set



1st and Great Chief Qui oo


       7th <Scum as qua up> War-ci-a-cum Tribe reside on the N W. Side of the Columbia in the great bend behind Some Islands    this tribe is not noumerous    reside in 2 village of Houses



The Chief Scum ar-qua-up

January 1st 1806  

       A List of the names of Sundery persons, who visit this part of the Coast for the purpose of trade &c. &c. in large Vestles; all of which Speake the English language &c.—as the Indians inform us



Moore     Visit them in a large 4 masted Ship, they expect
him in 2 moons to trade.—
1 Eyd. Skellie    in a large Shit, long time gorn.—
Youin  In a large Ship, and they expect him in 1 moon to
trade with them.—
Swepeton    In a large Ship, and they expect him in 3 month back to
Mackey     In a Ship, they expect him back in 1 or 2 moons to
trade with them.—
Meship     In a Ship, the[y] expect him 2 moons to trade.—
Jackson    Visit them in a Ship and they expect him back in 3
months to trade.—
Balch     In a Ship and they expect him in 3 months to
Mr. Haley  Visits them in a Ship & they expect him back to trade
with them in 3 moons to trade—    he is the favourite
of the Indians (from the number of Presents he givs)
and has the trade principaly with all the tribes.—
Washilton  In a Skooner, they expect him in 3 months to return
and trade with them—    a favourite.—
Lemon In a Slupe, and they expect him in 3 moons to trade
with them.—
Davidson  Visits this part of the Coast and river in a Brig for the
purpose of Hunting the Elk    returns when he pleases
he does not trade any, Kills a great maney Elk &c &—.
<Washilgton> Fallawan  In a Ship with guns    he fired on & killed Several In-
dians, he does not trade now and they doe not know
when he will return, well done


       A List of the Names as given by the Indias of the Traders Names and the quallity of their Vessels which they Say visit the mouth of the Columbia 2 [times] a year for the purpose of Tradeing with the nativs, and from their accounts Spring and autum—



Mr. Haley their favourite Trade visits them in a 3 masted vessel
Youens visits in a 3 Masted vessle—
Tallamon   do         3         do       no trade
Swipton   do         3         do       Trader
Moore   do         4         do          do
Mackey   do         3         do          do
Washington   do         3         do          do
Meship   do         3         do          do
Davidson   do         2         do       Hunts Elk
Jackson   do         3         do       Trader
Bolch   do         3         do          do
Skelley has been along time gorn— one Eye
Callallamet   do         3                     Trader has a wooden Leg.

Fort Clatsop, January 1st 1806  

       The fort being now completed, the Commanding officers think proper to direct: that the guard shall as usual consist of one Sergeant and three privates, and that the same be regularly relieved each morning at sunrise.    The post of the new guard shall be in the room of the Sergeants rispectivly commanding the same.    the centinel shall be posted, both day and night, on the parade in front of the commanding offercers quarters; tho' should he at any time think proper to remove himself to any other part of the fort, in order the better to inform himself of the desighns or approach of any party of savages, he is not only at liberty, but is hereby required to do so.    It shall be the duty of the centinel also to announce the arrival of all parties of Indians to the Sergeant of the Guard, who shall immediately report the same to the Commanding officers.


       The Commanding Officers require and charge the Garrison to treat the natives in a friendly manner; nor will they be permitted at any time, to abuse, assault or strike them; unless such abuse assault or stroke be first given by the natives.    nevertheless it shall be right for any individual, in a peaceable manner, to refuse admittance to, or put out of his room, any native who may become troublesome to him; and should such native refuse to go when requested, or attempt to enter their rooms after being forbidden to do so; it shall be the duty of the Sergeant of the guard on information of the same, to put such native out of the fort and see that he is not again admitted during that day unless specially permitted; and the Sergeant of the guard may for this purpose imploy such coercive measures (not extending to the taking of life) as shall at his discretion be deemed necessary to effect the same.


       When any native shall be detected in theft, the Sergt. of the guard shall immediately inform the Commanding offercers of the same, to the end that such measures may be pursued with rispect to the culprit as they shall think most expedient.


       At sunset on each day, the Sergt. attended by the interpreter Charbono and two of his guard, will collect and put out of the fort, all Indians except such as may specially be permitted to remain by the Commanding offercers, nor shall they be again admitted untill the main gate be opened the ensuing morning.


       At Sunset, or immediately after the Indians have been dismissed, both gates shall be shut, and secured, and the main gate locked and continue so untill sunrise the next morning: the water-gate may be used freely by the Garrison for the purpose of passing and repassing at all times, tho' from sunset, untill sunrise, it shall be the duty of the centinel, to open the gate for, and shut it after all persons passing and repassing, suffering the same never to remain unfixed long than is absolutely necessary.


       It shall be the duty of the Sergt. of the guard to keep the kee of the Meat house, and to cause the guard to keep regular fires therein when the same may be necessary; and also once at least in 24 hours to visit the canoes and see that they are safely secured; and shall further on each morning after he is relieved, make his report verbally to the Commandg officers.—


       Each of the old guard will every morning after being relieved furnish two loads of wood <each> for the commanding offercers fire.


       No man is to be particularly exempt from the duty of bringing meat from the woods, nor none except the Cooks and Interpreters from that of mounting guard.


       Each mess being furnished with an ax, they are directed to deposit in the room of the commanding offercers all other public tools of which they are possessed; nor <are> shall the same at any time hereafter be taken from the said deposit without the knowledge and permission of the commanding officers; and any individual so borrowing the tools are strictly required to bring the same back the moment he has ceased to use them, and no case shall they be permited to keep them out all night.


       Any individual selling or disposing of any tool or iron or steel instrument, arms, accoutrements or ammunicion, shall be deemed guilty of a breach of this order, and shall be tryed and punished accordingly.— the tools loaned to John Shields are excepted from the restrictions of this order.



Meriwether Lewis
Capt. 1st U. S. Regt.
Wm. Clark Capt. &c

Clark: This morning proved cloudy with moderate rain, after a pleasent worm night during which there fell but little rain—

This morning at Day we wer Saluted from the party without, wishing us a "Hapy new year" a Shout and discharge of their arms—

no Indians to be Seen this morning— they left the place of their encampment dureing the last night—

The work of our houses and fort being now Complete, we Ishued an order in which we pointed out the rules & regulations for the government of the Party in respect to the Indians as also for the Safty and protection of our Selves &c.

two Clotsops Came with a mat and Some fiew roots of Cut wha mo, for which they asked a file they did not trade but Continued all night

Sent out 2 hunters this morning who returned, haveing killed 2 Elk about 3 miles distant,

Some fiew Showers or rain in the Course of this day. Cloudy all the day.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Clatsop Indians The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

January 2
Lewis: Sent out a party of men and brought in the two Elk which were killed yesterday.

Willard and Wiser have not yet returned nor have a party of hunters returned who set out on the 26th

the Indians who visited yesterday left us at 1 P M today after having disposed of their roots and berries for a few fishinghooks and some other small articles.

we are infested with swarms of flees already in our new habitations; the presumption is therefore strong that we shall not devest ourselves of this intolerably troublesome vermin during our residence here.

The large, and small or whistling swan, sand hill Crane, large and small gees, brown and white brant, Cormorant, duckan mallard, Canvisback duck, and several other species of ducks, still remain with us; tho' I do not think that they are as plenty oas on our first arrival in the neighbourhood.

Drewyer visited his traps and took an otter. the fur of both the beaver and otter in this country are extreemly good; those annamals are tolerably plenty near the sea coast, and on the small Creeks and rivers as high as the grand rappids, but are by no means as much so as on the upper part of the Missouri.

Clark: A Cloudy rainey morning after a wet night.

dispatched 12 Men for the two Elk Killed yesterday which they brought in at 11 oClock.

the day proved Cloudy and wet, the Indians left us at 1 oClock P. M,

Drewyer visited his traps which had one otter in one of them.

The flees are verry troublesom, our huts have alreadey Sworms of those disagreeable insects in them, and I fear we Shall not get rid of them dureing our delay at this place.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Clatsop Indians The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

January 3
Lewis: At 11 A. M. we were visited by our near neighbours, Chief or Tiá, Co-mo-wool; alias Conia and six Clatsops. they brought for sale some roots buries and three dogs also a small quantity of fresh blubber. this blubber they informed us they had obtained from their neighbours the Callamucks who inhabit the coast to the S. E. near whose vilage a whale had recently perished. this blubber the Indians eat and esteeme is excellent food.

our party from necessaty have been obliged to subsist some length of time on dogs have now become extreemly fond of their flesh; it is worthy of remark that while we lived principally on the flesh of this anamal we were much more healthy strong and more fleshey than we had been since we left the Buffaloe country. for my own part I have become so perfectly reconciled to the dog that I think it an agreeable food and would prefer it vastly to lean Venison or Elk.

a small Crow, the blue crested Corvus and the smaller corvus with a white brest, the little brown ren, a large brown sparrow, the bald Eagle and the beatifull Buzzard of the columbia still continue with us.—

Sent Sergt. Gass and George shannon to the saltmakers who are somewhere on the coast to the S. W. of us, to enquire after Willard and Wiser who have not yet returned.

Reubin Fields Collins and Pots the hunters who set out on the 26th returned this evening after dark. they reported that they had been about 15 Miles up the river at the head of the bay just below us and had hunted the country from thence down on the East side of the river, even to a considerable distance from it and had proved unsuccessful having killed one deer and a few fowls, barely as much as subsisted them.

this reminded us of the necessity of taking time by the forelock,

[In Roman mythology Opportunity, or Time (Saturn), was represented as having hair on the front of the head, but being bald behind. The expression has been used by Rabelais, Spenser, and Shakespeare.]

and keep out several parties while we have yet a little meat beforehand.—

I gave the Chief Commowooll a pare of sattin breechies with which he appeared much pleased.—

Clark: The Sun rose fair this morning for the first time for Six weeks past, the Clouds Soon obscure it from our view, and a Shower of rain Suckceeded—

last night we had Sharp lightening a hard thunder Suckceeded with heavy Showers of hail, and rain, which Continud with intervales of fair moon Shine dureing the night.

Sent out Sergt. Gass & 2 men to the Salt makers with a vew to know what is the Cause of the delay of 2 of our party Willard & Wiser who we are uneasy about, as they were to have been back 6 days ago.

Gass: The weather is still cloudy and wet.

I set out this morning with one of the men to go to the salt-works, to see what progress those engaged in that business had made; and why some of them had not returned, as they had been expected for some time.

We proceeded along a dividing ridge, expecting to pass the heads of some creeks, which intervened. We travelled all day and could see no game; and the rain still continued. In the evening we arrived at a place where two of the men had killed an elk some time ago. Here we struck up a fire, supped upon the marrow-bones and remained all night.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Clatsop Indians The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

January 4
Lewis: Comowooll and the Clatsops who visited us yesterday left us in the evening. These people the Chinnooks and others residing in this neighbourhood and speaking the same language have been very friendly to us; they appear to be a mild inoffensive people but will pilfer if they have an opportuny to do so where they conceive themselves not liable to detection. they are great higlers in trade and if they conceive you anxious to purchase will be a whole day bargaining for a handfull of roots; this I should have thought proceeded from their want of knowledge of the comparitive value of articles of merchandize and the fear of being cheated, did I not find that they invariably refuse the price first offered them and afterwards very frequently accept a smaller quantity of the same article;

in order to satisfy myself on this subject I once offered a Chinnook my watch two knives and a considerable quantity of beads for a small inferior sea Otter's skin which I did not much want, he immediately conceived it of great value, and refused to barter except I would double the quantity of beads; the next day with a great deal of importunity on his part I received the skin in exchange for a few strans of the same beads he had refused the day before. I therefore believe this trait in their character proceeds from an avaricious all grasping disposition. in this rispect they differ from all Indians I ever became acquainted with, for their dispositions invariably lead them to give whatever they are possessed off no matter how usefull or valuable, for a bauble which pleases their fancy, without consulting it's usefullness or value.

nothing interesting occurred today, or more so, than our wappetoe being all exhausted

Gass: The weather is still cloudy and wet.

The morning was wet; but we proceeded on, and passed the head of a creek which we supposed was the last in our rout to the salt works. Immediately after passing the creek, the man with me killed an elk; when we halted and took breakfast off it, and then went on.

We got into low ground, passed through a marsh about ½ a mile in breadth, where the water was knee-deep; then got into a beautiful prairie, about 5 miles wide,

[The coastal plain in Clatsop County, north of Gearhart, in the vicinity of Sunset Beach.]

and which runs along the sea shore about 30 miles from Point Adams on the south side of Hayley's Bay, in nearly a southwest course and ends at a high point of a mountain, called Clarke's View on the sea shore. Through this plain or prairie runs another creek, or small river which we could not pass without some craft: so we encamped on the creek and supped on the elk's tongue, which we had brought with us.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Clatsop Indians The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

January 5
Lewis: At 5 P. M. Willard and Wiser returned, they had not been lost as we apprehended. they informed us that it was not untill the fifth day after leaving the Fort that they could find a convenient place for making salt; that they had at length established themselves on the coast about 15 Miles S. W. from this, near the lodge of some Killamuck families; that the Indians were very friendly and had given them a considerable quantity of the blubber of a whale which perished on the coast some distance S. E. of them;

part of this blubber they brought with them, it was white & not unlike the fat of Poark, tho' the texture was more spongey and somewhat coarser. I had a part of it cooked and found it very pallitable and tender, it resembled the beaver or the dog in flavour. it may appear somewhat extraordinary tho' it is a fact that the flesh of the beaver and dog possess a very great affinity in point of flavour.

These lads also informed us that J. Fields, Bratton and Gibson (the Salt makers) had with their assistance erected a comfortable camp killed an Elk and several deer and secured a good stock of meat; they commenced the making of salt and found that they could obtain from 3 quarts to a gallon a day; they brought with them a specemine of the salt of about a gallon, we found it excellent, fine, strong, & white; this was a great treat to myself and most of the party, having not had any since the 20th ;

I say most of the party, for my friend Capt. Clark declares it to be a mear matter of indifference with him whether he uses it or not; for myself I must confess I felt a considerable inconvenience from the want of it; the want of bread I consider as trivial provided, I get fat meat, for as to the species of meat I am not very particular, the flesh of the dog the horse and the wolf, having from habit become equally formiliar with any other, and I have learned to think that if the chord be sufficiently strong, which binds the soul and boddy together, it does not so much matter about the materials which copose it.

Colter also returned this evening unsuccessfull from the chase, having been absent since the 1st.—

Capt. Clark determined this evening to set out early tomorrow with two canoes and 12 men in quest of the whale, or at all events to purchase from the Indians a parcel of the blubber, for this purpose he prepared a small assortment of merchandize to take with him.

Gass: This was a very wet day. We killed a squirrel and eat it;

made a raft to cross the creek; but when it was tried we found it would carry only one person at a time; the man with me was therefore sent over first, who thought he could shove the raft across again; but when he attempted, it only went half-way: so that there was one of us on each side and the raft in the middle. I, however notwithstanding the cold, stript and swam to the raft, brought it over and then crossed on it in safety; when we pursued our journey, and in a short time came to some Indian camps on the sea shore.

The rain and wind continued so violent that we agreed to stay at these camps all night.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Clatsop Indians The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

January 6
Lewis: Capt Clark set out after an early breakfast with the party in two canoes as had been concerted the last evening; Charbono and his Indian woman were also of the party; the Indian woman was very impotunate to be permited to go, and was therefore indulged; she observed that she had traveled a long way with us to see the great waters, and that now that monstrous fish was also to be seen, she thought it very hard she could not be permitted to see either (she had never yet been to the Ocean).

The Clatsops, Chinnooks, Killamucks &c. are very loquacious and inquisitive; they possess good memories and have repeated to us the names capasities of the vessels &c of many traders and others who have visited the mouth of this river; they are generally low in stature, proportionably small, reather lighter complected and much more illy formed than the Indians of the Missouri and those of our frontier; they are generally cheerfull but never gay.

with us their conversation generally turns upon the subjects of trade, smoking, eating or their women; about the latter they speak without reserve in their presents, of their every part, and of the most formiliar connection. they do not hold the virtue of their women in high estimation, and will even prostitute their wives and daughters for a fishinghook or a stran of beads.

in common with other savage nations they make their women perform every species of domestic drudgery. but in almost every species of this drudgery the men also participate. their women are also compelled to geather roots, and assist them in taking fish, which articles form much the greatest part of their subsistance;

notwithstanding the survile manner in which they treat their women they pay much more rispect to their judgment and oppinions in many rispects than most indian nations; their women are permitted to speak freely before them, and sometimes appear to command with a tone of authority; they generally consult them in their traffic and act in conformity to their opinions.

I think it may be established as a general maxim that those nations treat their old people and women with most deference and rispect where they subsist principally on such articles that these can participate with the men in obtaining them; and that, that part of the community are treated with least attention, when the act of procuring subsistence devolves intirely on the men in the vigor of life.

It appears to me that nature has been much more deficient in her filial tie than in any other of the strong affections of the human heart, and therefore think, our old men equally with our women indebted to civilization for their ease and comfort. Among the Siouxs, Assinniboins and others on the Missouri who subsist by hunting it is a custom when a person of either sex becomes so old and infurm that they are unable to travel on foot from camp to camp as they rome in surch of subsistance, for the children or near relations of such person to leave them without compunction or remose; on those occasions they usually place within their reach a small peace of meat and a platter of water, telling the poor old superannuated wretch for his consolation, that he or she had lived long enough, that it was time they should dye and go to their relations who can afford to take care of them much better than they could.

I am informed that this custom prevails even among the Minetares Arwerharmays and Recares when attended by their old people on their hunting excurtions; but in justice to these people I must observe that it appeared to me at their villages, that they provided tolerably well for their ages persons, and several of their feasts appear to have principally for their object a contribution for their aged and infirm persons.

This day I overhalled our merchandize and dryed it by the fire, found it all damp; we have not been able to keep anything dry for many days together since we arrived in this neighbourhood, the humidity of the air has been so excessively great. our merchandize is reduced to a mear handfull, and our comfort during our return the next year much depends on it, it is therefore almost unnecessary to add that we much regret the reduced state of this fund.—

Clark: The last evening Shabono and his Indian woman was very impatient to be permitted to go with me, and was therefore indulged; She observed that She had traveled a long way with us to See the great waters, and that now that monstrous fish was also to be Seen, She thought it verry hard that She Could not be permitted to See either (She had never yet been to the Ocian).

after an early brackfast I Set out with two Canoes down the Ne tel R into Meriwether Bay with a view to proced on to the Clatsop town, and hire a guide to conduct me through the Creeks which I had every reason to beleeve Comunicated both with the Bay and a Small river near to which our men were making Salt.

Soon after I arrived in the Bay the wind Sprung up from the N. W and blew So hard and raised the waves so high that we were obliged to put into a Small Creek Short of the Village. finding I could not proceed on to the Village in Safty, I determined to assend this Creek as high as the Canoes would go; which from its directions must be near the open lands in which I had been on the 10th., and leave the canoes and proceed on by land.

at the distance of about 3 miles up this Creek I observed Some high open land, at which place a road Set out and had every appearance of a portage, here I landed drew up the Canoes and Set out by land, proceeded on through 3 deep Slashes to a pond about a mile in length and 200 yards wide, kept up this pond leaving it to the right, and passing the head to a Creek which we Could not Cross, this Creek is the one which I rafted on the 8th & 9: and at no great distance from where I crossed in Cus ca lars Canoe on the 10th ulto. to which place I expected a find a canoe, we proceeded on and found a Small canoe at the place I expected, calculated to Carry 3 men,

we crossed and from the top of a ridge in the Prarie we Saw a large gange of Elk feeding about 2 miles below on our direction. I divided the party So as to be Certain of an elk, Several Shot were fired only one Elk fell, I had this Elk butchered and carried to a Creak in advance at which place I intended to encamp, two other Elk were badly Shot, but as it was nearly dark we Could not pursue them,

we proceeded on to the forks of the Creek which we had just Crossed turning around to the S W. and meeting one of equal Size from the South, the two makeing a little river 70 yards wide which falls into the Ocian near the 3 Clat sop houses whcih I visited on the 9th. in the forks of this Creek we found Some drift pine which had been left on the Shore by the tide of which we made fires.

the evening a butifull Clear moon Shiney night, and he 1st fair night which we have had for 2 months

Gass: We had a fair morning and the weather cleared up, after two months of rain, except 4 days. We therefore set out from these lodges; passed the mouth of a considerable river; went about two miles up the shore, and found our salt makers at work. Two of their detachment had set out for the fort on the 4th and the man that had come with me and two more went to hunt.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Clatsop Indians The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

January 7
Lewis: Last evening Drewyer visited his traps and caught a beaver and an otter; the beaver was large and fat we have therefore fared sumptuously today;

this we consider a great prize for another reason, it being a full grown beaver was well supplyed with the materials for making bate with which to catch others. this bate when properly prepared will intice the beaver to visit it as far as he can smell it, and this I think may be safely stated at a mile, their sense of smelling being very accute. To prepare beaver bate, the castor or bark stone is taken as the base, this is gently pressed out of the bladderlike bag which contains it, into aphiol of 4 ounces with a wide mouth; if you have them you will put from four to six stone in a phiol of that capacity, to this you will add half a nutmet, a douzen or 15 grains of cloves and thirty grains of cinimon finely pulverized, stir them well together and then add as much ardent sperits to the composition as will reduce it the consistency mustard prepared for the table; when thus prepared it resembles mustard precisely to all appearance. when you cannot procure a phiol a bottle made of horn or a tight earthen vessel will answer, in all cases it must be excluded from the air or it will soon loose it's virtue; it is fit for uce immediately it is prepared but becomes much stronger and better in about four or five days and will keep for months provided it be perfectly secluded from the air. when cloves are not to be had use double the quantity of Allspice, and when no spice can be obtained use the bark of the root of sausafras; when sperits can not be had use oil stone of the beaver adding mearly a sufficient quantity to moisten the other materials, or reduce it to a stif past. it appears to me that the principal uce of the spices is only to give a variety to the scent of the bark stone and if so the mace vineller and other sweetsmelling spices might be employed with equal advantage. The male beaver has six stones, two which contain a substance much like finely pulvarized bark of a pale yellow colour and not unlike tanner's ooz in smell, these are called the bark stones or castors; two others, which like the bark stone resemble small bladders, contain a pure oil of a strong rank disagreeable smell, and not unlike train oil these are called the oil stones; and 2 others of generation. the Barkstones are about two inc[h]es in length, the others somewhat smaller all are of a long oval form; and lye in a bunch together between the skin and the root of the tail, beneath or behind the fundament with which they are closely connected and seem to communicate. the pride of the female lyes on the inner side much like those of the hog. they have no further parts of generation that I can perceive and therefore beleive that like the birds they copulate with the extremity of the gut. The female have from two to four young ones at a birth and bring fourth once a year only, which usually happens about the latter end of may and begining of June. at this stage she is said to drive the male from the lodge, who would otherwise destroy the young.—

dryed our lodge and had it put away under shelter; this is the first day during which we have had no rain since we arrived at this place. nothing extraordinary happened today.—

Clark: Set out at Day light, porceded up the Creek about 2 mile and crossed on a tree trunk the Salt makers have fallen across, then proceeded on to the Ocean ¾ mile & proceded up 3 miles to the mouth of Colimex River about 80 or 100 yds wide verry rapid & Cuts its banks, here we found an old Village of 3 houses, one only inhabited by one familey,

I gave the man a fish hook to put the party across, on the bank found a Skeet fish which had been lef by the tide proceded on 2 miles on the bank opposit a kind of bay the river Cross to the Sea Cost to 2 Inds Indians Lodges at which place I found our Salt makers near the foot of a mountain which form the Shore.

Brackfast and hirired an Indian to pilot me to the Ca le mix nation where the whale is for which I gave a file,

we proceded on the Stone under a high hill on our right bluff. Soft Stone Sees verry high, Several parts of this hill recently Sliped in, about ¾ of a mile abov the Houses Saw a Canoe in which the Dead was buried at 2½ miles assended a Steep mountain, as Steep at it is possible places for 1500 feet we hauled our Selves up by the assistence of the bushes if one had Given way we must have fallen a great distanc the Steepest worst & highest mountain I ever assended I think it at least 1500 feet highr than the Sea imidiately under on the riht.

we met 14 Indians loaded with blubber proceded on thro an unusual bad way falling timber bendig under logs &c. and encamped on a Creek which runs to my left find Day and night, the timber Spruc White Cedar & &.

Gass: Another fine day.

About noon Captain Clarke with 14 men came to the salt-makers camp, in their way to the place where the large fish had been driven on shore, some distance beyond this camp.

The Indians about our fort had procured a considerable quantity of the meat, which we found very good.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Clatsop Indians The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

January 8
Lewis: Our meat is begining to become scarse; sent Drewyer and Collins to hunt this morning.

the guard duty being hard on the men who now remain in the fort I have for their relief since the departure of Capt. Clark made the Cooks mount guard. Sergt. Gass and Shannon have not yet returned, nor can I immajen what is the cause of their detention. In consequence of the clouds this evening I lost my P. M. observation for Equal Altitudes,and from the same cause have not been able to take a single observation since we have been at this place.

nothing extraordinary happened today.

The Clatsops Chinnooks and others inhabiting the coast and country in this neighbourhood, are excessively fond of smoking tobacco. in the act of smoking they appear to swallow it as they dran it from the pipe, and for many draughts together you will not perceive the smoke which they take from the pipe; in the same manner also they inhale it in their lungs untill they become surcharged with this vapour when they puff it out to a great distance through their nostils and mouth; I have no doubt the smoke of the tobacco in this manner becomes much more intoxicating and that they do possess themselves of all it's virtues in their fullest extent; they freequently give us sounding proofs of it's creating a dismorallity of order in the abdomen, nor are those light matters thought indelicate in either sex, but all take the liberty of obeying the dictates of nature without reserve.

these people do not appear to know the uce of sperituous liquors, they never having once asked us for it; I presume therefore that the traders who visit them have never indulged them with the uce of it; from what ever cause this may proceede, it is a very fortunate occurrence, as well for the natives themselves, as for the quiet and safety of thos whites who visit them.

Clark: The last night proved fair and Cold wind hard from the S. E.

we Set out early and proceeded to the top of the mountain next to the which is much the highest part and that part faceing the Sea is open, from this point I beheld the grandest and most pleasing prospects which my eyes ever surveyed, in my frount a boundless Ocean; to the N. and N. E. the coast as as far as my sight Could be extended, the Seas rageing with emence wave and brakeing with great force from the rocks of Cape Disapointment as far as I could See to the N. W. The Clatsops Chinnooks and other villagers on each Side of the Columbia river and in the Praries below me, the meanderings of 3 handsom Streams heading in Small lakes at the foot the high Country; The Columbia River for a Some distance up, with its Bays and Small rivers and on the other Side I have a view of the Coast for an emence distance to the S. E. by S.

the nitches and points of high land which forms this Corse for a long ways aded to the inoumerable rocks of emence Sise out at a great distance from the Shore and against which the Seas brak with great force gives this Coast a most romantic appearance.

from this point of View my guide pointed to a village at the mouth fo a Small river near which place he Said the whale was, he also pointed to 4 other places where the princpal Villages of the Kil la mox were Situated, I could plainly See the houses of 2 of those Villeges & the Smoke of a 3rd which was two far of for me to disern with my naked eye—

after taking the Courses and computed the Distances in my own mind, I proceeded on down a Steep decent to a Single house the remains of an old Kil a mox Town in a nitch imediately on the Sea Coast, at which place great no. of eregular rocks are out and the waves comes in with great force.

Near this old Town I observed large Canoes of the neetest kind on the ground Some of which appeared nearly decayed others quit Sound, I examoned those Canoes and found they were the repository of the dead— This Custom of Secureing the Dead differs a little from the Chinnooks.

the Kil a mox Secure the dead bdies in an oblong box of Plank, which is placed in an open Canoe resting on the ground, in which is put a paddle and Sundery other articles the property of the disceased. The Coast in the neighbourhood of this old village is slipping from the Sides of the high hills, in emence masses; fifty or a hundred acres at a time give way and a great proportion of an instant precipitated into the Ocean. those hills and mountains are principally composed of a yellow Clay; their Slipping off or Spliting assunder at this time is no doubt Caused by the incessant rains which has fallen within the last two months.

the mountains Covered with a verry heavy Croth of pine & furr, also the white Cedar or arbor vita and a Small proportion of the black alder, this alder grows to the hight of Sixty or Seventy feet and from 2 to 3 feet in diamiter. Some Speies of pine on the top of the Point of View rise to the emmence hight of 210 feet and from 8 to 12 feet in diameter, and are perfectly Sound and Solid.

Wind hard from the S. E and See looked in the after part of the Day breaking with great force against the Scattering rocks at Some distance from Shore, and the ruged rockey points under which we were obleged to pass and if we had unfortunately made one false Stet we Should eneviateably have fallen into the Sea and dashed against the rocks in an instant,

fortunately we passed over 3 of those dismal points and arived on a butifull Sand Shore on which we Continued for 2 miles, Crossed a Creek 80 yards near 5 Cabins, andproceeded to the place the whale had perished, found only the Skelleton of this monster on the Sand between 2 of the villages of the Kil a mox nation;

the Whale was already pillaged of every valuable part by the Kil a mox Inds. in the vecinity of whose village's it lay on the Strand where the waves and tide had driven up & left it. this Skeleton measured 105 feet.

I returned to the village of 5 Cabins on the Creek which I shall call E co-la or whale Creek, found the nativs busily engaged boiling the blubber, which they performed in a large Squar wooden trought by means of hot Stones; the oil when extracted was Secured in bladders and the Guts of the whale; the blubber from which the oil was only partially extracted by this process, was laid by in their Cabins in large flickes for use;

those flickes they usially expose to the fire on a wooden Spit untill it is prutty well wormed through and then eate it either alone or with roots of the rush, Shaw na tâk we or diped in the oil. The Kil a mox although they possessed a large quantities of this blubber and oil were so prenurious that they disposed of it with great reluctiance and in Small quantities only; insomuch that my utmost exertion aided by the party with the Small Stock of merchindize I had taken with me were not able to precure more blubber than about 300 wt. and a fiew gallons of oil;

Small as this Stock is I prise it highly; and thank providence for directing the whale to us; and think him much more kind to us than he was to jonah, having Sent this monster to be Swallowed by us in Sted of Swallowing of us as jonah's did.

I recrossed E co la Creek and Encamped on the bank at which place we observed an ebundance of fine wood

the Indian men followed me for the purpose of Smokeing. I enquired of those people as well as I could by Signs the Situation, mode of liveing & Strength of their nation They informed me that the bulk of their nation lived in 3 large villages Still further along the Sea coast to the S, S, W. at the enterencen of 3 Creek which fell into a bay, and that other houses were Scattered about on the Coast, Bay and on a Small river which fell into the Bay in which they Cought Salmon, and from this Creek (which I call Kil a mox River) they crossed over to the Wappato I. on the Shock-ah-lil com (which is the Indian name for the Columbia river) and purchased Wappato &c. that the nation was once verry large and that they had a great maney houses,

In Salmon Season they Cought great numbers of that fish in the Small Creeks, when the Salmon was Scerce they found Sturgion and a variety of other fish thrown up by the waves and left by the tide which was verry fine,

Elk was plenty in the mountains, but they Could not Kill maney of them with their arrows. The Kil â mox in their habits Customs manners dress & language differ but little from the Clatsops, Chinnooks and others in this neighbourhood are of the Same form of those of the Clatsops with a Dore at each end & two fire places i, e the house is double as long as wide and divided into 2 equal parts with a post in the middle Supporting the ridge pole, and in the middle of each of those divisions they make their fires, dores Small & houses Sunk 5 feet

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Clatsop Indians The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

January 9
Lewis: Our men are now very much engaged in dressing Elk and Deer skins for mockersons and cloathing. the deer are extreemly scarce in this neighbourhood, some are to be found near the praries and open grounds along the coast.

this evening we heard seven guns in quick succession after each other, they appeared to be on the Creek to the South of us and several miles distant; I expect that the hunters Drewyer and Collins have fallen in with a gang of Elk.

some marrow bones and a little fresh meat would be exceptable; I have been living for two days past on poor dryed Elk, or jurk as the hunters term it.

The Clatsops Chinnooks &c. bury their dead in their canoes. for this purpose four pieces of split timber are set erect on end, and sunk a few feet in the grown, each brace having their flat sides opposite to each other and sufficiently far assunder to admit the width of the canoes in which the dead are to be deposited; through each of these perpendicular posts, at the hight of six feet a mortice is cut, through which two bars of wood are incerted; on these cross bars a small canoe is placed in which the body is laid after being carefully roled in a robe of some dressed skins; a paddle is also deposited with them; a larger canoe is now reversed, overlaying and imbracing the small one, and resting with it's gunwals on the cross bars; one or more large mats of rushes or flags are then roled around the canoes and the whole securely lashed with a long cord, usually made of the bark of the Arbor vita or white cedar. on the cross bars which support the canoes is frequently hung or laid various articles of cloathing culinary eutensels &c. I cannot understand them sufficiently to make any enquiries relitive to their religious opinions, but presume from their depositing various articles with their dead, that they believe in a state of future existence.

The persons who usually visit the entrance of this river for the purpose or traffic or hunting I believe are either English or Americans; the Indians inform us that they speak the same language with ourselves, and give us proofs of their varacity by repeating many words of English, as musquit, powder, shot, nife, file, damned rascal, sun of a bitch &c. whether these traders are from Nootka sound, from some other late establishment on this coast, or immediately from the U' States or Great Britain, I am at a loss to determine, nor can the Indians inform us.

the Indians whom I have asked in what direction the traders go when they depart from hence, or arrive here, always point to the S. W. from which it is presumeable that Nootka cannot be their destination; and as from Indian information a majority of these traders annually visit them about the beginning of April and remain with them six or seven Months, they cannot come immediately from Great Britain or the U' States, the distance being too great for them to go and return in the ballance of the year. from this circumstance I am sometimes induced to believe that there is some other establishment on the coast of America south West of this place of which little is but yet known to the world, or it may be perhaps on some Island in the pacific ocean between the Continents of Asia and America to the South West of us

[In 1788 the British sea captain John Meares established a trading base on Nootka Sound, Vancouver Island. A few years later American traders were using Clayoquot Sound on the same island as a base. Neither of these was a permanent settlement. The conjecture about a Pacific island was also correct, for most of these traders were operating out of the Hawaiian Islands.]

This traffic on the part of the whites consists in vending, guns, (principally old british or American musquits) powder, balls and Shot, Copper and brass kettles, brass teakettles and coffee pots, blankets from two to three point, scarlet and blue Cloth (coarse), plates and strips of sheet copper and brass, large brass wire, knives, beads and tobacco with fishinghooks buttons and some other small articles; also a considerable quantity of Sailor's cloaths, as hats coasts, trowsers and shirts. for these they receive in return from the natives, dressed and undressed Elkskins, skins of the sea Otter, common Otter, beaver, common fox, spuck, and tiger cat; also dryed and pounded sammon in baskets, and a kind of buisquit, which the natives make of roots called by them shappelell.

The natives are extravegantly fond of the most common cheap blue and white beads, of moderate size, or such that from 50 to 70 will weigh one penneyweight. the blue is usually pefered to the white; these beads constitute the principal circulating medium with all the indian tribes on the river; for these beads they will dispose any article they possess.— the beads are strung on strans of a fathom in length and in that manner sold by the bredth or yard.—

Clark: a fine morning wind from the N. E. last night about 10 oClock while Smokeing with the nativ's I was alarmed by a loud Srile voice from the Cabins on the opposite Side, the Indians all run immediately across to the village, my guide who Continued with me made Signs that Some one's throat was Cut,

by enquiry I found that one man mcNeal was absent, I imediately Sent off Sergt. N. Pryor & 4 men in quest of McNeal who' they met comeing across the Creak in great hast, and informed me that the people were alarmed on the opposit Side at Something but what he could not tell,

a man had verry friendly envited him to go and eate in his lodge, that the Indian had locked armes with him and went to a lodge in which a woman gave him Some blubber, that the man envited him to another lodge to get Something better, and the woman held him [mcNeal] by the blanket which he had around him. He not knowing her object freed himself & was going off, when this woman a Chinook and another ran out and hollow'd and his pretended friend disapeared—

I emediately ordered every man to hold themselves in a State of rediness and Sent Sergt. Pryor & 4 men to know the cause of the alarm which was found to be a premeditated plan of the pretended friend of McNeal to assanate for his Blanket and what fiew articles he had about him, which was found out by a Chin nook woman who allarmed the men of the village who were with me in time to prevent the horred act.

this man was of another band at Some distance and ran off as Soon as he was discovered. we have now to look back and Shudder at the dreadfull road on which we have to return of 45 miles S E of Point adams & 35 miles from Fort Clatsop.

I had the blubber & oil divided among' the party and Set out about Sunrise and returned by the Same rout we had went out, met Several parties of men & womin of the Chinnook and Clatsops nations, on their way to trade with the Kil a mox for blubber and oil;

on the Steep decent of the Mountain I overtook five men and Six womin with emence loads of the Oil and blubber of the Whale, those Indians had passed by Some rout by which we missed them as we went out yesterday; one of the women in the act of getting down a Steep part of the mountain her load by Some means had Sliped off her back, and She was holding the load by a Strap which was fastened to the mat bag in which it was in, in one hand and holding a bush by the other,

as I was in front of my party, I endeavored to relieve this woman by takeing her load untill She Could get to a better place a little below, & to my estonishment found the load as much as I Could lift and must exceed 100 wt. the husband of this woman who was below Soon came to her releif, those people proceeded on with us to the Salt works, at which place we arrived late in the evening, found them without meat, and 3 of the Party J. Field Gibson & Shannon out hunting.

as I was excessively fatigued and my party appeared verry much so, I deturmined to Stay untill the morning and rest our Selves a little. The Clatsops proceeded on with their lodes—

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Clatsop Indians The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

January 10
Lewis: About 10 A. M. I was visited by Tia Shâh-hâr-wâr-cap and eleven of his nation in one large canoe; these are the Cuth'-lah-mah' nation who reside first above us on the South Side of the Columbia river; this is the first time that I have seen the Chief, he was hunting when we past his vilage on our way to this place. I gave him a medal of the smallest size; he presented me with some indian tobacco and a bacquit of wappetoe, in return for which I gave him some thread for making a skiming net and a small piece of tobacco.

these people speak the same language with the Chinnooks and Catsops whom they also resemble in their dress customs manners &c. they brought some dryed salmon, wappetoe, dogs, and mats made of rushes and flags, to barter; their dogs and a part of their wappetoe they disposed off, an remained all night near the fort.

This morning Drewyer and Collins returned having killed two Elk only, and one of those had died in their view over a small lake which they had not the means of passing it being late in the evening and has of course spoiled, as it laid with the entrals in it all night; as the tide was going out we could not send for the elk today, therefore ordered a party to go for it early in the morning and George and Collins to continue their hunt; meat has now become scarce with us.—

Capt Clark returned at 10 P. M. this evening with the majority of the party who accompanyed him; having left some men to assist the saltmakers to bring in the meat of two Elk which they had killed, and sent 2 others through by land to hunt.

Capt. Clark found the whale on the Coast about 45 Miles S. E. of Point Adams, and about 35 Miles from Fort Clatsop by the rout he took; The whale was already pillaged of every valuable part by the Killamucks, in the vicinity of one of whose villages it lay on the strand where the waves and tide had driven up and left it. this skelleton measured one hundred and five feet.

Capt C. found the naives busily engaged in boiling the blubber, which they performed in a large wooden trought by means of hot stones; the oil when extracted was secured in bladders and the guts of the whale; the blubber, from which the oil was only partially extracted by this process, was laid by in their lodges in large fliches for uce; this they usually expose to the fire on a wooden spit untill it is pretty well warmed through and then eat it either alone or with the roots of the rush, squawmash, fern wappetoe &c.

The natives although they possessed large quantities of this blubber and oil were so penurious that they disposed of it with great reluctance and in small quantities only; insomuch that the utmost exertions of Capt C. and the whole party aided by the little stock of merchandize he had taken with him and some small articles which the men had, were not able to procure more blubber than about 300 lb. and a few gallons of the oil; this they have brought with them, and small as the store is, we prize it highly, and thank providence for directing the whale to us, and think him much more kind to us than he was jonah, having sent this monster to be swallowed by us in stead of swallowing of us as jona's did.

Capt C. found the road along the coast extreemly difficult of axcess, lying over some high rough and stoney hills, one of which he discribes as being much higher than the others, having it's base washed by the Ocean over which it rares it's towering summit perpendicularly to the hight of 1500 feet; from this summit Capt C. informed me that there was a delightfull and most extensive view of the Ocean, the coast and adjacent country; this Mout. I have taken the liberty of naming Clark's Mountain

in the face of this tremendious precepice there is a stra of white earth which the neighbouring Indians use to paint themselves, and which appears to me to resemble the earth of which the French Porcelain is made; I am confident this earth contains Argill, but wether it also contains Silex or magnesia, or either of those earths in a proper proportion I am unable to determine.—

Shannon and Gass were found with the Salt makers and ordered to return

McNeal was near being assassinated by a Killamuck Indian, but fortunately escaped in consequence of a Chinnook woman giving information to Capt C., the party and Indians with them before the villain had prepaired himself to execute his purposes.

The party returned excessively fortiegued and tired of their jaunt. Killamucks river is 85 yards wide, rappid and 3 feet deep in the shallowest part.

The Killamucks in their habits customs manners dress and language differ but little from the Clatsops & Chinnooks. they place their dead in canoes resting on the ground uncovered, having previously secured the dead bodies in an oblong box of plank.

The coast in the neighbourhood of Clarks Mountain is sliping off & falling into the Ocean in immence masses; fifty or a hundred Acres at a time give way and a great proportion in an instant precipitated into the Ocean. these hills and mountains are principally composed of a yellow clay; there sliping off or spliting assunder at this time is no doubt caused by the incessant rains which have fallen within the last two months.

the country in general as about Fort Clatsop is covered with a very heavy growth of severalspecies of pine & furr, also the arbor vita or white cedar and a small proportion of the black Alder which last sometimes grows to the hight of sixty or seventy feet, and from two to four feet in diameter. some species of the pine rise to the immence hight of 210 feet and are from 7 to 12 feet in diameter, and are perfectly sound and solid.—

Clark: I derected Serjt. Gass to Continue with the Salt makers untill Shannon return from hunting, and then himself and Shannon to return to the Fort,

I Set out at Sunrise with the party waded the Clat Sop river which I found to be 85 Steps across and 3 feet deep, on the opposite Side a Kil a mox Indian Came to and offered to Sell Some roots of which I did not want, he had a robe made of 2 large Sea otter Skins which I offered to purchase, but he would not part with them,

we returned by nearly the Same rout which I had Come out, at four miles, I met Gibson & Shannon each with a load of meat, they informed me that they had killed Elk about 2 miles off, I directed 3 men to go with the hunters and help them pack the meat to the place they were makeing Salt, and return to the fort with Serjt. Gass, the balance of the party took the load of the 3 men,

after crossing the 2d Creek frasure informed me that he had lost his big knife, here we Dined, I put frasurs load on my guide who is yet with me, and Sent him back in Serch of his knife with directions to join the other men who were out packing meat & return to the fort all together.

I arrived at the Canoes about Sunset, the tides was Comeing in I thought it a favourable time to go on to the fort at which place we arrived at 10 oClock P M,

found Several inidians of the Cath'-lâh-mâh nation the great Chief Shâh-hâr-wâh cop who reside not far above us on the South Side of the Columbia river, this is the first time I have Seen the Chief, he was hunting when we passed his village on our way to this place, we gave him a medal of the Smallest Size, he presented me with a basquet of Wappato, in return for which I gave him a fish hook of a large Size and Some wire, those people Speak the Same language with the ChinnookS and Clatsops, whome they all resemble in Dress, Custom, manners &c. they brought Some Dried Salmon, Wappato, Dogs, and mats made of rushes & flags to barter; their Dogs and part of their wappato they disposed of, and remained in their Camp near the fort all night.

In my absence the hunters from the fort killed only two Elk which is yet out in the woods.

Capt. Lewis examined our Small Stock of merchendize found Some of it wet and Dried it by the fire. Our merchindize is reduced to a mear handfull, and our Comfort, dureing our return next year, much depends on it, it is therefore almost unnecessary to add that it is much reduced

The nativs in this neighbourhood are excessively fond of Smokeing tobacco. in the act of Smokeing they appear to Swallow it as they draw it from the pipe, and for maney draughts together you will not perceive the Smoke they take from the pipe, in the Same manner they inhale it in their longs untill they become Surcharged with the vapour when they puff it out to a great distance through their norstils and mouth; I have no doubt that tobacco Smoked in this manner becomes much more intoxicating, and that they do possess themselves of all its virtues to the fullest extent;

they frequently give us Sounding proofs of its createing a dismorallity of order in the abdomen, nor are those light matters thought indelicate in either Sex, but all take the liberty of obeying the dicktates of nature without reserve. Those people do not appear to know the use of Speritious licquors, they never haveing once asked us for it; I prosume therefore that the traders who visit them have never indulged them with the use of it; of whatever Cause this may proceed, it is a verry fortunate occurrence, as well for the nativs themselves, as for the quiet and Safty of those whites who visit them.

George Drewyer visited this traps in my absence and caught a Beaver & a otter; the beaver was large and fat, and Capt. L. has feested Sumptiously on it yesterday; this we Consider as a great prize, it being a full grown beaver was well Supplyed with the materials for makeing bate with which to Catch others. this bate when properly prepared will entice the beaver to visit it as far as he can Smell it, and this I think may be Safely Stated at ½ a mile, their Sence of Smelling being verry acute.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Clatsop Indians The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

January 11
Lewis: Sent a party early this morning for the Elk which was killed on the 9th. they returned with it in the evening; Drewyer and Collins also returned without having killed anything.

this morning the Sergt. of the guard reported the absence of our Indian Canoe, on enquiry we found that those who came in it last evening had been negligent in securing her and the tide in the course of the night had taken her off; we sent a party down to the bay in surch of her, they returned unsuccessfull, the party also who went up the river and Creek in quest of the meat were ordered to lookout for her but were equally unsuccessfull; we ordered a party to resume their resurches for her early tomorrow;

this will be a very considerable loss to us if we do not recover her; she is so light that four men can carry her on their sholders a mile or more without resting; and will carry three men and from 12 to 15 hundred lbs.

the Cuthlâhmâhs left us this evening on their way to the Catsops, to whom they purpose bartering their wappetoe for the blubber and oil of the whale, which the latter purchased for beads &c. from the Killamucks; in this manner there is a trade continually carryed on by the natives of the river each trading some article or other with their neighbours above and below them; and thus articles which are vended by the whites at the entrance of this river, find their way to the most distant nations enhabiting it's waters.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Clatsop Indians The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

January 12
Lewis: The men who were sent in surch of the canoe returned without being able to find her, we therefore give her over as lost.

This morning sent out Drewyer and one man to hunt, they returned in the evening, Drewyer having killed seven Elk; I scarcely know how we should subsist were it not for the exertions of this excellet hunter.

At 2 P. M. the ballance of the party who had been left by Capt. C. arrived; about the same time the two hunters also arrived who had been dispatched by Capt. C. for the purpose of hunting on the 9th; they had killed nothing.

We have heretofore usually divided the meat when first killed among the four messes into which we have divided our party leaving to each the care of preserving and the discretion of using it, but we find that they make such prodigal use of it when they hapen to have a tolerable stock on hand that we have determined to adapt a different system with our present stock of seven Elk; this is to jerk it & issue it to them in small quantities.—

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

January 13
Lewis: This morning I took all the men who could be spared from the Fort and set out in quest of the flesh of the seven Elk that were killed yesterday, we found it in good order being untouched by the wolves, of which indeed there are but few in this country; at 1 P. M. we returned having gotten all the meat to the fort.

this evening we exhausted the last four candles, but fortunately had taken the precaution to bring with us moulds and wick, by means of which and some Elk's tallow in our possession we do not yet consider ourselves destitute of this necessary article; the Elk we have killed have a very small portion of tallow.

The traders usually arrive in this quarter, as has been before observed, in the month of April, and remain untill October; when here they lay at anchor in a bay within Cape Disappointment on the N. side of the river; here they are visited by the natives in their canoes who run along side and barter their comodities with them, their being no houses or fortification on shore for that purpose.

The bay in which this trade is carryed on is spacious and commodious, and perfectly secure from all except the S. and S. E. winds, these however are the most prevalent and strong winds in the Winter season fresh water and wood are very convenient and excellent timber for refiting and reparing vessels.—

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

January 14
Lewis: This morning the Sergt. of the Guard reported the absence of one of the large perogues, it had broken the chord by which it was attatched and the tide had taken it off; we sent a party immediately in surch of her, they returned in about 3 hours having fortunately found her. we now directed three of the perogues to be drawn up out of reach of the tide and the fourth to be mored in the small branch just above the landing and confined with a strong rope of Elk-skin. had we lost this perogue also we should have been obliged to make three small ones, which with the few tools we have now left would be a serious undertaking. a fatieuge of 6 men employed injerking the Elk beaf.

From the best estimate we were enabled to make as we dscended the Columbia was conceived that the natives inhabiting that noble stream, for some miles above the great falls to the grand rappids inclusive annually prepare about 30,000 lbs. of pounded sammon for market. but whether this fish is an article of comerce with the whites or is exclusively sold to and consumed by the natives of the sea Coast, we are at a loss to determine. the first of those positions I am disposed to credit most, but, still I must confess that I cannot imagine what the white merchant's object can be in purchasing this fish, or wher they dispose of it. and on the other hand the Indians in this neighbourhood as well as the Skillutes have an abundance of dryed sammon which they take in the creeks and inlets, and I have never seen any of this pounded fish in their lodges, which I pesume would have been the case if they purchase this pounded fish for their own consumption. the Indians who prepared this dryed and pounded fish, informed us that it was to trade with the whites, and shewed us many articles of European manufacture which they obtained for it. it is true they obtain those articles principally for their fish but they trade with the Skillutes for them and not immediately with the whites; the intermediates merchants and carryers, the Skillutes, may possibly consume a part of this fish themselves and dispose of the ballance of it the natives of the sea coast, and from them obtain such articles as they again trade with the whites.

Clark: The persons who usially visit the enterence of this river for the purpose of traffic or hunting, I believe is either English or Americans; the Indians inform us that they Speak the Same language with our Selves, and gave us proofs of their varacity by repeating maney words of English, Sun of a pitch &c. whether those traders are from Nootka Sound, from Some other late establishment on this Coast, or imediately from the U States or Great Brittain, I am at a loss to determine, nor Can the Indians inform us. the Indians whome I have asked in what direction the traders go when they depart from hence, allways point to the S. W. from which it is prosumeable that Nootka cannot be their distination, and from Indian information a majority of those traders annually visit them about the beginning of April and remain Some time and either remain or revisit them in the fall of which I cannot properly understand, from this Circumstance they Cannot Come directly from the U States or Great Brittain, the distance being to great for them to go and return in the ballance of a year. I am Sometimes induced to believe that there is Some other Establishment on the Coast of America South of this place of which little is but yet known to the world, or it may be perhaps on Some Island in the Pacific Ocian between the Continant of America & Asia to the S. W. of us. This traffic on the part of the whites Consist in vending, guns, principally old British or American Musquets, powder, balls and Shote, brass tea kettles, Blankets from two to three points, Scarlet and blue Cloth (Coarse), plates and Strips of Sheet Copper and brass, large brass wire Knives Beeds & Tobacco with fishing hooks, buttons and Some other Small articles; also a considerable quantity of Salors Clothes, as hats, Coats, Trouses and Shirts. for those they receive in return from the nativs Dressed and undresed Elk Skins, Skins of the Sea otter, Common Otter, beaver, common fox, tiger Cat, also Some Salmon dried or pounded and a kind of buisket, which the nativs make of roots called by them Shappelell. The nativs are extra-vigantly fond of the most Common Cheap Blue and white beeds, of moderate Size, or Such that from 50 to 70 will way one pennyweight, the blue is usially prefured to the white; those beeds Constitute the principal Circulating medium with all the Indian tribes on this river; for those beeds they will dispose of any article they possess—. the beeds are Strung on Strans of a fathom in length & in that manner Sold by the breth or yard—.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

January 15
Lewis: Had a large coat completed out of the skins of the Tiger Cat and those also of a small anima about the size of a squirrel not known to me; these skins I procured from the Indians who had previously dressed them and formed them into robes; it took seven of these robes to complete the coat. we had determined to send out two hunting parties today but it rained so incessantly that we posponed it. no occurrence worthy of relation took place today.—

The implyments used by the Chinnooks Clatsops Cuth-lah-mahs &c in hunting are the gun the bow & arrow, deadfalls, pitts, snares, and spears or gigs; their guns are usually of an inferior quality being oald refuse American & brittish Musquits which have been repared for this trade. there are some very good peices among them, but they are invariably in bad order; they apear not to have been long enouh accustomed to fire arms to understand the management of them. they have no rifles. Their guns and amunition they reserve for the Elk, deer and bear, of the two last however there are but few in their neighbourhood. they keep their powder in small japaned tin flasks which they obtain with their amunition from the traders; when they happen to have no ball or shot, they substitute gravel or peices of potmettal, and are insensible of the damage done thereby to their guns. The bow and arrow is the most common instrument among them, every man being furnished with them whether he has a gun or not; this instrument is imployed indiscriminately in hunting every species of anamal on which they subsist. Their bows are extreamly neat and very elastic, they are about two and a half feet in length, and two inches in width in the center, thence tapering graduly to the extremities where they are half an inch wide they are very flat and thin, formed of the heart of the arbor vita or white cedar, the back of the bow being thickly covered with sinews of the Elk laid on with a gleue which they make from the sturgeon; the string is made of sinues of the Elk also. the arrow is formed of two parts usually tho' sometime entire; those formed of two parts are unequally divided that part on which the feathers are placed occupyes four fifths of it's length and is formed of light white pine reather larger than a swan's quill, in the lower extremity of this is a circular mortice secured by sinues roled arround it; this mortice receives the one end of the 2nd part which is of a smaller size than the first and about five inches long, in the end of this the barb is fixed and confined with sinue, this barb is either stone, iron or copper, if metal in this form forming at it's point a greater angle than those of any other Indians I have observed. the shorter part of the arrow is of hearder woods as are also the whole of the arrow when it is of one piece only. as these people live in a country abounding in ponds lakes &c and frequently hunt in their canoes and shoot at fowl and other anamals where the arrow missing its object would be lost in the water they are constructed in the manner just discribed in order to make them float should they fall in the water, and consequently can again be recovered by the hunter; the quiver is usually the skin of a young bear or that of a wolf invariably open at the side in stead of the end as the quivers of other Indians generally are; this construction appears to answer better for the canoe than if they were open at the end only. maney of the Elk we have killed since we have been here, hae been wounded with these arrows, the short piece with the barb remaining in the animal and grown up in the flesh.— the deadfalls and snares are employed in taking the wolf the raccoon and fox of which there are a few only. the spear or gig is used to take the sea otter, the common otter, spuck, and beaver. their gig consists of two points or barbs and are the same in their construction as those discribed before as being common among the Indians on the upper part of this river. their pits are employed in taking the Elk, and of course are large and deep, some of them a cube of 12 or 14 feet. these are usually placed by the side of a large fallen tree which as well as the pit lye across the roads frequented by the Elk. these pitts are disguised with the slender boughs of trees and moss; the unwary Elk in passing the tree precipitates himself into the pitt which is sufficiently deep to prevent his escape, and is thus taken.—

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native American Heritage The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

January 16
Lewis: This evening we finished curing the meat. no occurrence worthy of relation took place today. we have plenty of Elk beef for the present and a little salt, our houses dry and comfortable, and having made up our minds to remain until the 1st of April, every one appears content with his situation and his fare.

it is true that we could even travel now on our return as far as the timbered country reaches, or to the falls of the river; but further it would be madness for us to attempt to proceede untill April, as the indians inform us that the snows lye knee deep in the plains of Columbia during the winter, and in these plains we could scarcely get as much fuel of any kind as would cook our provision as we descended the river; and even were we happyly over these plains and again in the woody country at the foot of the Rocky Mountains we could not possibly pass that immence barrier of mountains on which the snows ly in winter to the debth in many places of 20 feet; in short the Indians inform us that they are impracticable untill about the 1st of June, at which time even there is an abundance of snow but a scanty subsistence may be obtained for the horses.—

We should not therefore forward ourselves on our homeward journey by reaching the rocky mountains early than the 1st of June, which we can easily effect by seting out from hence on the 1st of April.—

The Clatsops Chinnooks &c. in fishing employ the common streight net, the scooping or diping net with a long handle, the gig, and the hook and line. the common net is of different lengths and debths usually employed in taking the sammon, Carr and trout in the inlets among the marshey grounds and the mouths of deep creeks. the skiming or scooping net to take small fish in the spring and summer season; the gig and hook are employed indiscriminately at all seasons in taking such fish as they can procure by their means.

their nets and fishing lines are made of the silk-grass or white cedar bark; and their hooks are generally of European manufactary, tho' before the whites visited them they made hooks of bone and other substances formed with two small pieces of bone about the size of a strong twine, these are flattened and leveled off of their extremities. where they are firmly attatched together with sinues and covered with rosin, reduced to a sharp point where it is also bent in a little and attatched to the line, for about half it's length at the upper extremity. the whole forming two sides of an accute angled triangle

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native American Heritage The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

January 17
Lewis: This morning we were visited by Comowool and 7 of the Clatsops our nearest neighbours, who left us again in the evening. They brought with them some roots and buries for sale, of which however they disposed of but very few as they asked for them such prices as our stock in trade would not license us in giving.

the Chief Comowool gave us some roots and buries for which we gave him in return a mockerson awl and some thread; the latter he wished for the purpose of making a skiming net.

one of the party was dressed in three very eligant Sea Otter skins which we much wanted; for these we offered him many articles but he would not dispose of them for any other consideration but blue beads, of these we had only six fathoms left, which being 4 less than his price for each skin he would not exchange nor would a knife or an equivalent in beads of any other colour answer his purposes,

these coarse blue beads are their f[av]orite merchandiz, and are called by them tia Commáshuck' or Chiefs beads. the best wampum is not so much esteemed by them as the most inferior beads.

Sent Coalter out to hunt this morning, he shortly after returned with a deer, venison is a rarity with us we have had none for some weeks. Drewyer also set out on a hunting excertion and took one man with him. he intends both to hunt the Elk and trap the beaver.

The Culinary articles of the Indians in our neighbourhood consist of wooden bowls or throughs, baskets, wooden spoons and woden scures or spits. Their wooden bowls and troughs are of different forms and sizes, and most generally dug out of a solid piece; they are ither round or simi globular, in the form of a canoe, cubic, and cubic at top terminating in a globe at bottom; these are extreemly well executed and many of them neatly carved the larger vessels with hand-holes to them;

in these vessels they boil their fish or flesh by means of hot stones which they immerce in the water with the article to be boiled. they also render the oil of fish or other anamals in the same manner. their baskets are formed of cedar bark and beargrass so closely interwoven with the fingers that they are watertight without the aid of gum or rosin; some of these are highly ornamented with strans of beargrass which they dye of several colours and interweave in a great variety of figures;

this serves them the double perpose of holding their water or wearing on their heads; and are of different capacites from that of the smallest cup to five or six gallons; they are generally of a conic form or reather the segment of a cone of which the smaller end forms the base or bottom of the basket. these they make very expediciously and dispose off for a mear trifle.

it is for the construction of these baskets that the beargrass becomes an article of traffic among the natives this grass grows only on their high mountains near the snowey region; the blade is about ? of an inch wide and 2 feet long smoth pliant and strong; the young blades which are white from not being exposed to the sun or air, are those most commonly employed, particularly in their neatest work.

Their spoons are not remarkable nor abundant, they are generally large and the bole brawd.

their meat is roasted with a sharp scure, one end of which is incerted in the meat with the other is set erect in the ground. the spit for roasting fish has it's upper extremity split, and between it's limbs the center of the fish is inscerted with it's head downwards and the tale and extremities of the scure secured with a string, the sides of the fish, which was in the first instance split on the back, are expanded by means of small splinters of wood which extend crosswise the fish.

a small mat of rushes or flags is the usual plate or dish on which their fish, flesh, roots or burries are served. they make a number of bags and baskets not watertight of cedar bark, silk-grass, rushes, flags and common coarse sedge. in these they secure their dryed fish, rooots, buries, &c.—

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Clatsops The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

January 18
Lewis: Two of the Clatsops who were here yesterday returned today for a dog they had left; they remained with us a few hours and departed. no further occurrence worthy of relation took place.

the men are still much engaged in dressing skins in order to cloath themselves and prepare for our homeward journey.

The Clatsops Chinnooks &c construct their houses of timber altogether.

[Rectangular plank houses broadly similar to those of the Chinookan peoples were the characteristic form along the Pacific Coast from southern Alaska to northern California. While commonly semi-subterranean, they were sometimes constructed entirely above ground. Although varying considerably in terms of construction detail and gross size, the gabled-style Chinookan house was found at least as far north as the Quinaults and as far south as the southern Oregon coast.]

they are from 14 to 20 feet wide and from 20 to 60 feet in length, and acommodate one or more families sometimes three or four families reside in the same room. thes houses are also divided by a partition of boards, but this happens only in the largest houses as the rooms are always large compared with the number of inhabitants.

these houses are constructed in the following manner; two or more posts of split timber agreeably to the number of divisions or partitions are furst provided, these are sunk in the ground at one end and rise perpendicularly to the hight of 14 or 18 feet, the tops of them are hollowed in such manner as to receive the ends of a round beam of timber which reaches from one to the other, most commonly the whole length of the building, and forming the upper part of the roof;

two other sets of posts and poles are now placed at proper distances on either side of the first, formed in a similar manner and parrallel to it; these last rise to the intended hight of the eves, which is usually about 5 feet. smaller sticks of timber are now provided and are placed by pares in the form of rafters, resting on, and reaching from the lower to the upper horizontal beam, to both of which they are attatched at either end with the cedar bark; two or three ranges or small poles are now placed horizontally on these rafters on each side of the roof and are secured likewise with strings of the Cedar bark. the ends sides and partitions are then formed with one range of wide boards of abut two inches thick, which are sunk in the ground a small distance at their lower ends and stand erect with their upper ends laping on the outside of the eve poles and end rafters to which they are secured by an outer pole lying parallel with the eve poles and rafters being secured to them by chords of cedar bark which pass through wholes made in the boards at certain distances for that purpose; the rough [roof] is then covered with a double range of thin boards, and an aperture of 2 by 3 feet left in the center of the roof to permit the smoke to pass.

these houses are sometimes sunk to the debth of 4 or 5 feet in which cace the eve of the house comes nearly to the surface of the earth. in the center of each room a space of six by eight feet square is sunk about twelve inches lower than the floor having it's sides secured with four sticks of squar timber, in this space they make their fire, their fuel being generally pine bark. mats are spread arround the fire on all sides, on these they set in the day and frequently sleep at night. on the inner side of the hose on two sides and sometimes on three, there is a range of upright peices about 4 feet removed from the wall; these are also sunk in the ground at their lower ends, and secured at top to the rafters, from these other peices ar extended horizontally to the wall and are secured in the usual method by bark to the upright peices which support the eve poles. on these short horizontal pieces of which there are sometimes two ranges one above the other, boards are laid, which either form ther beads, or shelves on which to put their goods and chattles of almost every discription.

their uncured fish is hung on sticks in the smoke of their fires as is also the flesh of the Elk when they happen to be fortunate enough to procure it which is but seldom.—

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Clatsops The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

January 19
Lewis: This morning sent out two parties of hunters, consisting of Colter and Willard whom we sent down the bay towards point Adams, and Labuish and Shannon whom we sent up Fort River; the fist by land and the latter by water.

we were visited today by two Clatsop men and a woman who brought for sale some Sea Otter skins of which we purchased one, giving in exchange the remainder of our blue beads consisting of 6 fathoms and about the same quantity of small white beads and a knife. we also purchased a small quantity of train oil for a pair of Brass armbands and a hat for some fishinghooks.

these hats are of their own manufactory and are composed of Cedar bark and bear grass interwoven with the fingers and ornimented with varioius colours and figures, they are nearly waterproof, light, and I am convinced are much more durable than either chip or straw. These hats form a small article of traffic with the Clatsops and Chinnooks who dispose of them to the whites. the form of the hat is that which was in vogue in the Ued States and great Britain in the years 1800 & 1801 with a high crown reather larger at the top than where it joins the brim; the brim narrow or about 2 or 2½ inches.

Several families of these people usually reside together in the same room; they appear to be the father & mother and their sons with their son's wives and children; their provision seems to be in common and the greatest harmoney appears to exist among them.

The old man is not always rispected as the head of the family, that duty most commonly devolves on one of the young men. They have seldom more than one wife, yet the plurality of wives is not denyed them by their customs.

These families when ascociated form nations or bands of nations each acknowledging the authority of it's own chieftain who does not appear to be heridatiry, nor his power to extend further than a mear repremand for any improper act of an individual; the creation of a chief depends upon the upright deportment of the individual & his ability and disposition to render service to thecommunity; and his authority or the deference paid him is in exact equilibrio with the popularity or voluntary esteem he has acquired among the individuals of his band or nation.

Their laws like those of all uncivilized Indians consist of a set of customs which have grown out of their local situations. not being able to speak their language we have not been able to inform ourselves of the existence of any peculiar customs among them.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Clatsops The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

January 20
Lewis: Visited this morning by three Clatsops who remained with us all day; the object of their visit is mearly to smoke the pipe.

on the morning of the eighteenth we issued 6 lbs. of jirked Elk pr. man, this evening the Sergt. repoted that it was all exhausted; the six lbs. have therefore lasted two days and a half only. at this rate our seven Elk will last us only 3 days longer, yet no one seems much concerned about the state of the stores; so much for habit.

we have latterly so frequently had our stock of provisions reduced to a minimum and sometimes taken a small touch of fasting that three days full allowance excites no concern. In those cases our skill as hunters afford us some consolation, for if there is any game of any discription in our neighbourhood we can track it up and kill it. most of the party have become very expert with the rifle.

The Indians who visited us today understood us sufficiently to inform us that the whites did not barter for the pounded fish; that it was purchased and consumed by the Clatsops, Chinnooks, Cathlahmah's and Skillutes.

The native roots which furnish a considerable proportion of the subsistence of the indians in our neighbourhood are those of a species of Thistle, fern and rush; the Liquorice, and a small celindric root the top of which I have not yet seen, this last resembles the sweet pittatoe very much in it's flavor and consistency.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Clatsops The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

January 21
Lewis: Two of the hunters Shannon & Labuish returned having killed three Elk. Ordered a party to go in quest of the meat early tomorrow morning and the hunters to return and continue the chase.

the Indians left us about 12 O'Clk.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Clatsops The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

January 22
Lewis: The party sent for the meat this morning returned with it in the Evening; it was in very inferior order, in short the animals were poor. Reubin Fields also remained with the other hunters Shannon & Labuish

our late supply of salt is out. we have not yet heared a sentence from the other two parties of hunter's who are below us towards Point Adams and the Praries.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

January 23
Lewis: This morning dispatched Howard and Warner to the Camp of the Saltmakes for a supply of salt.

The men of the garison are still busily employed in dressing Elk's skins for cloathing, they find great difficulty for the want of branes;

Animal brains were employed in tanning leather; it is to this that Lewis refers, rather than to any lack of intelligence on the part of the men.

we have not soap to supply the deficiency, nor can we procure ashes to make the lye; none of the pines which we use for fuel affords any ashes; extrawdinary as it may seem, the greene wood is consoomed without leaving the residium of a particle of ashes.—

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

January 24
Lewis: Drewyer and Baptiest La Paage returned this morning in a large Canoe with Comowooll and six Clatsops. they brought two deer and the flesh of three Elk & one Elk's skin, having given the flesh of one other Elk which they killed and three Elk's skins to the Indians as the price of their assistance in transporting the ballance of the meat to the Fort;

these Elk and deer were killed near point Adams and the Indians carryed them on their backs about six miles, before the waves were sufficiently low to permit their being taken on board their canoes. the Indians remained with us all day. The Indians witnissed Drewyer's shooting some of those Elk which has given them a very exalted opinion of us as marksmen and the superior excellence of our rifles compared with their guns; this may probably be of service to us, as it will deter them from any acts of hostility if they have ever meditated any such.

My Air-gun also astonishes them very much, they cannot comprehend it's shooting so often and without powder; and think that it is great medicine which comprehends every thing that is to them incomprehensible.—

I observe no difference between the liquorice of this country and that common to many parts of the United States where it is also sometimes cultivated in our gardens. this plant delights in a deep loose sandy soil; here it grows very abundant and large;

the natives roast it in the embers and pound it slightly with a small stick in order to make it seperate more readily from the strong liggament which forms the center of the root; this the natives discard and chew and swallow the ballance of the root; this last is filled with a number of thin membrenacious lamela like net work, too tough to be masticated and which I find it necessary also to discard. this root when roasted possesses an agreeable flavour not unlike the sweet pittaitoe.

they have also another about the same form size and appearance which they use much with the train oil, this root is usually boiled; to me it possesses a disagreeable bitterness. the top of this plant I have never yet seen. The root of the thistle after undergoing the prossess of sweating or baking in a kiln is sometimes eaten with the train oil also, and at other times pounded find and mixed with could water untill reduced to the consistency of sagamity or indian mush; in this way I think it very agreeable.

but the most valuable of their roots is foreign to this neighbourhood I mean the Wappetoe, or the bulb of the Sagitifolia or common arrow head, which grows in great abundance in the marshey grounds of that beatifull and firtile valley on the Columbia commencing just above the entrance of Quicksand River, and extending downwards for about 70 Miles. this bulb forms a principal article of traffic between the inhabitants of the valley and those of this neighbourhood or sea coast.

The instrument used by the natives in diging their roots is a strong stick of 3½ feet long sharpened at the lower end and it's upper inscerted into a part of an Elks or buck's horn which serves as a handle, standing transversely with the stick or it is in this form A the lower point, B the upper part or handle.—

Clark: The nativs of this neighbourhood ware no further Covering than a light roabe, their feet legs & every other part exposed to the frost Snow & ice &c.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Clatsops The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

January 25
Lewis: Commowooll and the Clatsops departed early this morning.

At meridian Colter returned and repoted that his comrade hunter Willard had continued his hunt from point Adams towards the salt makers; and that they had killed only those two deer which the Indians brought yesterday.

In the evening Collins one of the saltmakers returned and reported that they had mad about one bushel of salt & that himself and two others had hunted from the salt camp for five days without killing any thing and they had been obliged to subsist on some whale which they procured from the natives.

The native fruits and buries in uce among the Indians of this neighbourhood are a deep purple burry about the size of a small cherry called by them Shal-lun, a small pale red bury called Sol'-me the vineing or low Crambury, a light brown bury reather larger and much the shape of the black haw; and a scarlet bury about the size of a small cherry

I have lately learned that the natives whome I have heretofore named as distinct nations, living on the sea coast S. E. of the Killamucks, are only bands of that numerous nation, which continues to extend itself much further on that coast than I have enumerated them, but of the particular appellations of those distant bands I have not yet been enabled to inform myself; their language also is somewhat different from the Clatsops Chinnooks and Cathlâhmâhs; but I have not yet obtaind a vocabulary which I shall do the first oportunity which offers.

[The Tillamooks belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan-language family. South of them along the coast were some small groups belonging to the Alsean, Siuslawan, and Coosan-language families; the Alseas and the Yaquinas, the Siuslaws, the Coos, and the Umpquas]

Gass: The morning was cloudy and some showers of snow fell in the course of the day; and in the night it fell to the depth of 8 inches.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Clatsops Snow The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

January 26
Lewis: Werner and Howard who were sent for salt on the 23rd have not yet returned, we are apprehensive that they have missed their way; neither of them are very good woodsmen, and this thick heavy timbered pine country added to the constant cloudy weather makes it difficult for even a good woodsman to steer for any considerable distance the course he wishes.

we ordered Collins to return early in the morning and rejoin the salt makers, and gave him some small articles of merchandize to purchase provisions from the Indians, in the event of their still being unfortunate in the chase.

The Shallun or deep purple berry is in form much like the huckkleberry and terminates bluntly with a kind of cap or cover at the end like that fruit; this shrub retains it's virdure very perfectly during the winter and is a beautifull shrub.— the natives either eat these berrys when ripe immediately from the bushes or dryed in the sun or by means of their sw[e]ating kilns; very frequently they pound them and bake then in large loaves of 10 of fifteen pounds; this bread keeps very well during one season and retains the most jeucies of the fruit much better than by any other method of preservation. this bread is broken and stired in could water until it be sufficiently thick and then eaten; in this way the natives most generally use it.—

Ordway: considerable of Snow fell in the course of last night and continues this morning, and cold freezing weather the Snow is this evening about 5 Inches deep on a level.—

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Clatsops Snow The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

January 27
Lewis: This morning Collins set out for the Salt works.

in the evening Shannon returned and reported that himself and party had killed ten Elk. he left Labuche and R. fields with the Elk. two of those Elk he informed us were at the distance of nine miles from this place near the top of a mountain, that the rout by which they mus be brought was at least four miles by land through a country almost inaccessible from the fallen timber, brush and sink-holes, which were now disgused by the snow; we therefore concluded to relinquish those two Elk for the present, and ordered every man who could be speared from the fort to go early in the morning in surch of the other eight.

Gass: This was a clear cold frosty morning, and the snow about 9 inches deep. Where the sun shone on it during the day, a considerable quantity of it melted; but these places were few, as the whole face of the country near this is closely covered with fir timber.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Clatsops Snow The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

January 28
Lewis: Drewyer and Baptiest La Page set out this morning on a hunting excurtion. about noon Howard and Werner returned with a supply of salt; the badness of the weather and the difficulty of the road had caused their delay. they inform us that the salt makers are still much straitened for provision, having killed two deer only in the last six days; and that there are no Elk in their neighourhood. The party that were sent this morning up Netul river for the Elk returned in the even ing with three of them only; the Elk had been killed just before the snow fell which had covered them and so altered the apparent face of the country that the hunters could not find the Elk which they had killed. the river on which Fort Clatsop stands we now call Ne-tul, this being the name by which the Clatsops call it.

The Cranbury of this neighbourhood is precisely the same common to the U' States, and is the production of marshey or boggy grounds. The light brown berry, is the fruit of a tree about the size shape and appearance in every rispect with that in the U. States called the wild crab apple; the leaf is also precisely the same as is also the bark in texture and colour. the berrys grow in clumps at the end of the small branches; each berry supported by a seperate stem, and as many as from 3 to 18 or 20 in a clump. the berry is ovate with one of it's extremities attatched to the peduncle, where it is in a small degre concave like the insertion of the stem of the crab apple. I know not whether this fruit can properly be denominated a berry, it is a pulpy pericarp, the outer coat of which is in a thin smoth, tho' firm tough pillecle; the pericarp containing a membranous capsule with from three to four cells, each containing a seperate single seed in form and colour like that of the wild crab. The wood of this tree is excessively hard when seasoned. the natives make great uce of it to form their wedges with which they split their boards of pine for the purpose of building houses. these wedges they also employ in spliting their fire-wood and in hollowing out their canoes. I have seen the natives drive the wedges of this wood into solid dry pine which it cleft without fracturing or injuring the wedge in the smallest degree. we have also found this wood usefull to us for ax handles as well as glutts or wedges. the native also have wedges made of the beams of the Elk's horns which appear to answer extremely well. this fruit is exceedingly assid, and resembles the flavor of the wild crab.

Gass: A clear cold morning, and the weather continued cold all day. About half of our men were employed in bringing home meat; and it was found a very cold uncomfortable business. The two men who lately went to the salt works returned with a small supply.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Clatsops Snow The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

January 29
Lewis: Nothing worthy of notice occurred today. our fare is the flesh of lean elk boiled with pure water, and a little salt. the whale blubber which we have used very sparingly is now exhausted. on this food I do not feel strong, but enjoy the most perfect health;— a keen appetite supplys in a great degree the want of more luxurious sauses or dishes, and still render my ordinary meals not uninteresting to me, for I find myself sometimes enquiring of the cook whether dinner or breakfast is ready.—

Gass: We had a cold clear morning; and the day continued clear throughout

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Clatsops Snow The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

January 30
Lewis: Nothing transpired today worthy of notice.

we are agreeable disappointed in our fuel which is altogether green pine. we had supposed that it burn but illy, but we have found that by spliting it that it burns very well.

The dress of the Clatsops and others in this neighbourhood differs but little from the discribed of the skillutes; they never wear leggins or mockersons which the mildness of this climate I presume has rendered in a great measure unnecessary; and their being obliged to be frequently in the water also renders those articles of dress inconvenient.

they wear a hat of a conic figure without a brim confined on the head by means of a string which passes under the chin and is attatched to the two opsite sides of a secondary rim within the hat. the hat at top terminates in a pointed knob of a connic form also.

these hats are made of the bark of cedar and beargrass wrought with the fingers so closely that it casts the rain most effectually in the shape which they give them for their own uce or that just discribed. on these hats they work various figures of different colours, but most commonly only black and white are employed. these figures are faint representations of whales the canoes and the harpoonneers striking them. sometimes squares dimonds triangles &c.

The form of knife which seems to be prefered by these people is a double edged and double pointed daggar; the handle being in the middle, and the blades of unequal lengths, the longest usually from 9 to ten inches and the shorter one from four to five. these knives they carry with them habitually and most usually in the hand, somtimes exposed but most usually particularly when in company with strangers, under their robes with this knife they cut and lense their fish make their arrows &c. A is a small loop of a strong twine through which they sometimes insert the thumb in order to prevent it's being wrested from their hand.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Clatsops Snow The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

January 31
Lewis: Sent a party of eight men up the river this morning to renew their surch for the Elk and also to hunt; they proceded but a few miles before they found the river so obstructed with ice that they were obliged to return.

Joseph Fields arrived this evening, informed us that he had been hunting in company with Gibson and Willard for the last five days in order to obtain some meat for himself and the other Salt makers, and that he had been unsuccessfull untill yesday evening when he had fortunately killed two Elk, about six miles distant from this place and about 8 from the sale works; he left Gibson and Willard to dry the meat of these Elk and had come for the assistance of some men to carry the meat to the salt camp; for this purpose we ordered four men to accompany him early in the morning.

discovered that McNeal had the pox, gave him medecine.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Link to Front Page

If you find links that are either unsuitable or no longer current, please contact the TLC.

Link to the Daily Almanac

This guide last edited 09/11/2006
This guide last revised 11/26/2007
This guide created 12/17/2005