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Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery

Journals: February, 1806

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Meriwether Lewis, William Clark
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February 1
Lewis: This morning a party of four men set out with Joseph Fields; Sergt. Gass with a party of five men again set out up the Netul river in surch of the Elk which had been killed some days since, and which could not be found in consequence of the snow.

The Canoes of the naives inhabiting the lower portion of the Columbia River make their canoes remarkably neat light and well addapted for riding high waves. I have seen the natives near the coast riding waves in these canoes with safety and apparently without concern where I should have thought it impossible for any vessel of the same size to lived a minute.

they are built of whitecedar or Arborvita generally, but sometimes of the firr. they are cut out of a solid stick of timber, the gunwals at the upper edge foald over outwards, and stand horrizontally forming a kind of rim to the canoe to prevent the water beating into it.

they are all furnished with more or less crossbars in proportion to the size of the canoe. these bars are round sticks about half the size of a man's arm, which are incerted through holes made in either side of the canoe just below the rim of the gunwall and are further secured with strings of waytape; these crossbars serve to lift and manage the canoe on land. when the natives land they invariably take their canoes on shore, unless they are heavily laden, and then even, if they remain all night, they discharge their loads and take the canoes on shore.

some of the large canoes are upwards of 50 feet long and will carry from 8 to 10 thousand lbs. or from 20 to thirty persons and some of them particularly on the sea coast are waxed painted and ornimented with curious images at bough and Stern; those images sometimes rise to the hight of five feet; the pedestals on which these immages are fixed are sometimes cut out of the solid stick with the canoe, and the imagary is formed of seperate small peices of timber firmly united with tenants and motices without assistance of a single spike of any kind.

when the natives are engaged in navigating their canoes one sets in the stern and steers with a paddle the others set by pears and paddle over the gunwall next them, they all kneel in the bottom of the canoe and set on their feet. their paddles are of a uniform shape of which this is an imitation these paddles are made very thin and the middle of the blade is thick and hollowed out siddonly and made thin at the sides while the center forms a kind of rib. the blade occupys about one third of the length of the paddle which is usually from 4½ to 5 feet.

I have observed four forms of canoe only in uce among the nations below the grand chatarac of this river they are as follows.

this is the smallest size about 15 feet long and calculated for one or two persons, and are most common among the Cathlahmahs and Wâck ki a cums among the marshey Islands.

the bow and the stern of the seocnd kind are from twenty to thirty five feet and from two ½ to 3 feet in the beam and about 2 feet in the hole; this canoe is common to all the nations below the grand rappids. it is here made deeper and shorter in proportion than they really are.— the bowsprit is brought to a sharp edge tapering gradually from the sides.

The most common form of the canoe in uce among the Indians from; the Chil-luck-kit-te-quaw inclusive to the Ocean and is usually about 30 or 35 feet long, and will carry from ten to twelve persons. 4 men are competent to carry them a considerable distance say a mile without resting.

The fourth form of canoe we did not meet with untill we reached tidewater or below the grand rappids. from thence down it is common to all the nations but more particularly the Killamucks and others of the coast. these are the largest canoes. their immages are representations of a great variety of grotesque figures, any of which might be safely worshiped without committing a breach of the commandments.

They have but few axes among them, and the only too usually imployed in felling the trees or forming the canoe, carving &c is a chiseel formed of an old file about an Inch or an Inch and a half broad. this chissel has sometimes a large block of wood for a handle; they grasp the chissel just below the block with the right hand holding the edge down while with the left they take hold of the top of the block and strick backhanded against the wood with the edge of the chissel.

a person would suppose that the forming of a large canoe with an instrument like this was the work of several years; but these people make them in a few weeks. they prize their canoes very highly; we have been anxious to obtain some of them, for our journey up the river but have not been able to obtain one as yet from the natives in this neighbourhood.—

today we opened and examined all our ammunition, which had been secured in leaden canesters. we found twenty seven of the best rifle powder, 4 of common rifle, three of glaized and one of the musqut powder in good order, perfectly as dry as when first put in the canesters, altho' the whole of it from various accedents has been for hours under the water. these cannesters contain four lbds. of powder each and 8 of lead.

had it not have been for that happy expedient which I devised of securing the powder by means of the lead, we should not have had a single charge of powder at this time. three of the canesters which had been accedentally bruized and cracked, one which was carelessly stoped, and a fifth that had been penetrated with a nail, were a little dammaged; these we gave to the men stock to last us back; and we always take care to put a proportion of it in each canoe, to the end that should one canoe or more be lost we should still not be entirely bereft of ammunition, which is now our only hope for subsistence and defence in a rout of 4000 miles through a country exclusively inhabited by savages.—

Gass: We had a fine clear cold morning. A number of the men went out to bring meat to the fort, and to take some to the saltworks.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

February 2
Lewis: Not any occurrence today worthy of notice; but all are pleased, that one month of the time which binds us to Fort Clatsop and which seperates us from our friends has now elapsed.

one of the games of amusement and wrisk of the Indians of this neighbourhood like that of the Sosones consits in hiding in the hand some small article about the size of a bean; this they throw from one hand to the other with great dexterity accompanying their opperations with a particular song which seems to have been addapted to the game; when the individual who holds the peice has amused himself sufficiently by exchanging it from one hand to the other, he hold out his hands for his compettitors to guess which hand contains the peice; if they hit on the hand which contains the peice they win the wager otherwise loose. the individual who holds the peice is a kind of banker and plays for the time being against all the others in the room; when he has lost all the property which he has to venture, or thinks proper at any time, he transfers the peice to some other who then also becoms banker.

The Sosone and Minnetares &c have a game of a singular kind but those divide themselves in two parties and play for a common wager to which each individual contributes to form the stock of his party. one of them holdes the peice and some one of the opposite party gesses which hand contains if he hits on the hand which contains it the peice is tranferred to the opposite party and the victor counts one, if he misses the party still retain the peice and score one but the individual transfers the peice to some other of his own party; the game is set to any number they think proper, and like the naives of this quarter they always accompany their opperations with a particular song.

the natives here have also another game which consists in bowling some small round peices about the size of Bacgammon men, between two small upright sticks placed a few inches asunder, but the principals of the game I have not learn not understanding their language sufficiently to obtain an explanation.

their boys amuse themselves with their bows and arrows as those do of every Indian nation with which I am acquainted.

these people are excessively fond of their games of risk and bet freely every species of property of which they are possessed.

They have a smal dog which they make usefull only in hunting the Elk.

Gass: The morning was pleasant and the weather more moderate. About the middle of the day it began to thaw and in the evening to rain. Some of our men were engaged to day bringing in more meat.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

February 3
Lewis: About three o'clock Drewyer and La Page, returned; Drewyer had killed seven Elk in the point below us, several miles distant but can be approached with in ¾ of a mile with canoes by means of a small creek which discharges itself into the bay on this side of the Clatsop village

direct Sergt. pryor to go in quest of the meat, the wind was so high that they were unable to set out untill a little before sunset, when they departed; at 10 P. M. they return excessively could and informed us that they could not make land on this side of the bay nor get into the creek in consequence of the tide being out and much lower than usual.

we are apprehensive that the Clatsops who know where the meat is will rob us of a part if not the whole of it.

at half after 4 P. M. Sergt Gass returned with his party, they brought with them the flesh of four other Elk which the hunters had found, being a part of the ten which were killed up the Netul river the other day. he left R. Fields, Shannon and Labuish to continue the hunt and made an appointment to return to them on Friday.

late in the evening the four men who had been sent to assist the saltmakers in transporting meat which they had killed to their camp, also returned, and brought with them all the salt which had been made, consisting of about one busshel only. with the means we have of boiling the salt water we find it a very tedious opperation, that of making salt, notwithstanding we keep the kettles boiling day and night. we calculate on three bushels lasting us from hence to our deposits of that article on the Missouri.

Gass: Some light showers of rain fell in the course of last night; and this day is still somewhat wet and cloudy. One of our hunters came in, who had killed seven elk, and returned with a party and a canoe to bring in the meat. We are fortunate in getting as much meat as we can eat; but we have no other kind of provisions.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

February 4
Lewis: Sergt. Pryor with a party of five men set out again in quest of the Elk which Drewyer had killed. Drewyer and La Page also returned to continue the chase in the same quarter.

the Elk are in much better order in the point near the praries than they are in the woody country arround us or up the Netul. in the praries they feed on grass and rushes, considerable quantities of which are yet green and succulet. in the woody country their food is huckle berry bushes, fern, and an evergreen shrub which resembles the lorel in the some measure; the last constitutes the greater part of their food and grows abundantly through all the timbered country, particularly the hillsides and more broken parts of it.

There are sveral species of fir in this neighbourhood which I shall discribe as well as my slender botanicall skil will enable me and for the convenience of comparison with each other shal number them. a species which grows to immence size; very commonly 27 feet in the girth six feet above the surface of the earth, and in several instances we have found them as much as 36 feet in the girth or 12 feet diameter perfectly solid and entire. they frequently rise to the hight of 230 feet, and one hundred and twenty or 30 of that hight without a limb.

this timber is white and soft throughout the rives better than any other species which we have tryed. the bark skales off in irregula rounded flakes and is of a redish brown colour particularly of the younger growth. the stem of this tree is simple branching, ascending, not very defuse, and proliferous. the leaf of this tree is acerose, 1/10th of an Inh in width, and ¾ of an Inch in length; is firm, stif and accuminate; they are triangular, a little declining, thickly scattered on all sides of the bough, but rispect the three uppersides only and are also sessile growing from little triangular pedestals of soft spungy elastic bark. at the junction of the boughs, the bud-scales continue to incircle their rispective twigs for several yeas; at least three years is common and I have counted as many as the growth of four years beyond these scales. this tree affords but little rosin. it's cone I have not yet had an opportunity to discover altho' I have sought it frequently; the trees of this kind which we have felled have had no cones on them.—

Gass: This was a fine clear morning. Last night the men, who had gone to carry the meat to the salt works returned, and brought us a bushel of salt. This day continued throughout clear and pleasant; and the 5th was a clear cool day. One of our hunters came in, who had killed 6 elk.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

February 5
Lewis: Late this evening one of the hunters fired his gun over the swamp of the Netul opposite to the fort and hooped. I sent sergt. Gass and a party of men over; the tide being in, they took advantage of a little creek which makes up in that direction nearly to the highlands, and in their way fortunately recovered our Indian Canoe, so long lost and much lamented.

The Hunter proved to be Reubin Fields, who reported that he had killed six Elk on the East side of the Netul a little above us; and that yesterday he had heard Shannon and Labuishe fire six or seven shots after he had seperated from them and supposed that they had also killed several other Elk.

Filds brought with him a phesant which differed but little from those common to the Atlantic states; it's brown is reather brighter and more of a redish tint. it has eighteen feathers in the tale of about six inches in length. this bird is also booted as low as the toes. the two tufts of long black feathers on each side of the neck most conspicuous in the male of those of the Atlantic states is also observable in every particular with this.—

Ordway: a beautifl. pleasant morning. about noon one of our hunters came in. had killed Six Elk. a party who went across the river found our Sciff or Small canoe which was drove up on a marsh up a creek &C

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

February 6
Lewis: Sent Sergts. Gass and Ordway this morning with R. Fields and a party of men to bring in the Elk which Field had killed.

Late in the evening Sergt. Pryor returned with the flesh of about 2 Elk and 4 skins the Indians having purloined the ballance of seven Elk which Drewyer killed the other day.

I find that there are 2 vilages of Indians living on the N. side of the Columbia near the Marshy Islands who call themselves Wâck-ki-á-cum. these I have hertofore Considered as Cath-lâh-mâhs. they speak the same language and are the same in every other rispect.

Gass: We had a cool fair morning. Ten of us started with a canoe to bring in the meat of the elk, killed yesterday; and had to encamp out all night, but, with the assistance of the elk skins and our blankets, we lodged pretty comfortable, though the snow as 4 or 5 inches deep.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

February 7
Lewis: This evening Sergt. Ordway and Wiser returned with a part of the meat which R. Fields had killed; the ballance of the party with Sergt. Gass remained in order to bring the ballance of the meat to the river at a point agreed on where the canoe is to meet them again tomorrow morning.

This evening we had what I call an excellent supper it consisted of a marrowbone a piece and a brisket of boiled Elk that had the appearance of a little fat on it. this for Fort Clatsop is living in high stile.

In this neighbourhood I observe the honeysuckle common in our country I first met with it on the waters of the Kooskooske near the Chopunnish nation, and again below the grand rappids In the Columbian Valley on tidewater. The Elder also common to our country grows in great abundance in the rich woodlands on this side of the rocky Mountains; tho' it differs Here in the colour of it's berry, this being of a pale sky blue while that of the U' States is a deep perple.

The small pox has distroyed a great number of the natives in this quarter. it prevailed about 4 years since among the Clatsops and distroy several hundred of them, four of their chiefs fell victyms to it's ravages. those Clatsops are deposited in their canoes on the bay a few miles below us. I think the late ravages of the small pox may well account for the number of remains of vilages which we find deserted on the river and Sea coast in this quarter.—

Gass: The morning was fair, and all hands engaged in bringing in the meat; we got some to the fort; but myself and part of the men had again to encamp out. It rained hard and we had a disagreeable night

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

February 8
Lewis: Sent Sergt. Ordway and two men this morning to join the party with Sergt. Gass and bring the ballance of R. Fields's Elk. in the evening they returned with the balance of the flesh of five Elk, that of one of them having become tainted and unfit for uce.

late in the evening Sergt. Pryor returned with Shannon Labuish and his party down the Netul. they brought with them the flesh of 4 Elk which those two hunters had killed. we have both dined and suped on Elk's tongues and marrow bones.

Gass: About noon there were showers of rain and hail. Some of the hunters killed 4 more elk and we got all the meat safe to camp in the evening.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

February 9
Lewis: This morning Collins and Wiser set out on a hunting excurtion; the[y] took our Indian canoe and passed the Netul a little above us. in the evening Drewyer returned; had killed nothing but one beaver. he saw one black bear, which is the only one which has been seen in this neighbourhood since our arrival; the Indians inform us that they are abundant but are now in their holes.

Gass: We had a fine morning; but in the course of the day we had sometimes sunshine, and sometimes showers of rain. One of our hunters caught a beaver

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

February 10
Lewis: Drewyer visited his traps today but caught no beaver. Collins and Wiser returned had killed no Elk.

Willard arrived late in the evening from the Saltworks, had cut his knee very badly with his tommahawk. he had killed four Elk not far from the Salt works the day before yesterday, which he had butched and took a part of the meat to camp, but having cut his knee was unable to be longer ucefull at the works and had returned.

he informed us that Bratton was very unwell, and that Gibson was so sick that he could not set up or walk alone and had desired him to ask us to have him brought to the Fort.

Coalter also returned this evening. continue the operation of drying our meat.

Gass: A light snow fell last night, and the morning was pleasant. In the afternoon two men came from the salt works, with information that two others were sick and a third had cut his knee so badly he could scarcely walk.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

February 11
Lewis: This morning Sergt. Gass Reubin Fields and Thompson passed the Netul opposite to us on a hunting expedition. sent Sergt Pryor with a party of four men to bring Gibson to the fort. also sent Colter and Wiser to the Salt works to carry on the business with Joseph Fields; as Bratton has been sick we desired him to return to the Fort also if he thought proper; however in the event of his not coming Wiser was directed to return.

Gass: This was a fine morning. A sergeant and six men were sent to bring the sick men to the fort. At the same time myself and two men went out to hunt, and remained out to the 17th during which time there was a great deal of heavy rain, and the weather changeable and disagreeable.— While we were out we killed 8 elk. During one of the most disagreeable nights, myself and another lay out in our shirts and overalls, with only one elk-skin to defend us from a violent night's rain. We had started a gang of elk, and in order to be light in the pursuit left our clothes where the first was killed, and could not get back before dark. Our shirts and overalls being all of leather made it the more disagreeable.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

February 12
Lewis: This morning we were visited by a Clatsop man who brought with him three dogs as a remuneration for the Elk which him self and nation had stolen from us some little time since, how ever the dogs took the alarm and ran off; we suffered him to remain in the fort all night.

Whitehouse: This day was rainey & wet, An Indian came to our fort & staid during last night; this Indian sold one of our Men a Sea otter skin. He left us this morning well pleased with the Sale he had made.—

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska
February 13
Lewis: The Clatsop left us this morning at 11 A. M. not any thing transpired during the day worthy of notice.

yesterday we completed the operation of drying the meat, and think we have a sufficient stock to last us this month. the Indians inform us that we shall have great abundance of a small fish in March which from their discription must be the herring.

these people have also informed us that a trader by the name of More who sometimes touches at this place and trades with the natives of this coast, had on board of his vessel three Cows, and that when he left them he continued his course along the N. W. coast. I think this strong circumstancial proof that there is a stettlement of white persons at Nootka sound or some point to the N. W. of us on the coast.

Whitehouse: It rained the greater part of last night, and this morning was Cloudy. the Men at the fort were employed making of Moccasins & mending their Cloathing

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska
February 14
Clark: We are very uneasy with respect to our Sick men at the Salt works. Serjt. Pryor and party haveing not yet returneded, nor can we conceive what can be the Cause of their delay.

Drewyer visited his traps & to day and Cought a fine fat beaver on which we feasted this evening and thought it a great delecessey.—.

I compleated a map of the Countrey through which we have been passing from the Mississippi at the Mouth of Missouri to this place.

In the Map the Missouri Jefferson's river the S. E. branch of the Columbia or Lewis's river, Koos-koos-ke and Columbia from the enterance of the S. E fork to the pacific Ocian, as well as a part of Clark's river and our track across the Rocky Mountains are laid down by celestial observations and Survey. the rivers are also conected at their Sources with other rivers agreeably to the information of the nativs and the most probable conjecture arrising from their capacities and the relative positions of their respective enterances which last have with but fiew exceptions been established by celestial observations.

We now discover that we have found the most practicable and navigable passage across the Continent of North America; it is that which we have traveled with the exception of that part of our rout from the foot of the Falls of the Missouri, or in neighbourhood of the enterance of the Rocky Mountains untill we arive on Clarks river at the enterence of Travelers-rest Creek; the distance between those two points would be traveled more advantagiously by land as the navigation of the Missouri above the Falls is crooked laborious and 521 miles distant by which no advantage is gained as the rout which we are compelled to travel by land from the Source of Jeffersons River to the enterance of Travellers rest Creek is 220 miles being further by abt. 600 miles than that from the Falls of the Missourie to the last mentioned point (Travellers rest Creek) and a much worse rout if indian information is to be relied on which is from the So so nee or Snake Indians, and the Flatheads of the Columbia west of the rocky mountains.

from the Same information the Columbia from the enterance of the S. E. branch to the enterance of Clark's river is obstructed with a great number of dificuelt and dangerous rapids (and the place Clark's river comes out of the Rocky mountains is a tremendious falls &c which there is no possibillity of passing the mountains either by land or water.) Considering therefore the dangers and deficuelties attending the navigation of the Columbia in this part, as well as the circuitous and distant rout formed by itself and that of Clark's River we Conceive that even admitting that Clarks river contrary to information to be as navagable as the Columbia below it's enterance, that the tract by land over the Rocky Mountains usially traveled by the nativs from the enterance of Travellers rest Creek to the Forks of the Kooskooske is preferable; the Same being a distance of 184 miles.

The inferrence therefore deduced from these premises are, that the best and most practicable rout across the Continent is by way of the Missouri to the Great Falls; thence to Clarks river at the enterance of Travellers rest Creek, from thence up travillers rest Creek to the forks, from whence you prosue a range of mountains which divides the waters of the two forks of this Creek, and which still Continues it's westwardly Course on the mountains which divides the waters of the two forks of the Kooskooske river to their junction; from thence to decend this river to the S. E. branch of the Columbia, thence down that river to the Columbia, and down the Latter to the Pacific Ocian—.

There is a large river which falls into the Columbia on its South Side at what point we could not lern;

[Here Lewis and Clark apparently combined Indian information about the Willamette and the Snake with deductions of their own. When they discovered the Willamette on their return journey, they assumed that the "Multnomah," as they called it, was the great river coming from the southeast. They believed that this river began near the headwaters of the Missouri and the Yellowstone, which is in fact the case with the Snake. Their notion that the Rio Grande (North River, or Rio del Norte) and the "waters of California" (the Colorado River?) also rose in this same general area (which is true of the Green River, the principal tributary of the Colorado) meant that they still clung to the conception of a height of land which gave rise to all the great rivers of the West. They still did not fully appreciate the extent of territory involved, nor could they know of the existence of the Great Basin]

which passes thro those extencive Columbian Plains from the South East, and as the Indians inform us head in the mountains South of the head of Jeffersons River and at no great distance from the Spanish Settlements, and that that fork which heads with the River Rajhone and waters of the Missouri passes through those extensive plains in which there is no wood, and the river Crowded with rapids & falls many of which are impassable. the other or westerly fork passes near a range of mountains and is the fork which great numbers of Indian Bands of the So sone or Snake Indians, this fork most probably heads with North River or the waters of Callifornia.

This River may afford a practicable land Communication with New Mexico by means of its western fork. This river cannot be navagable as an unpracticable rapid is within one mile of its enterance into the Columbia, and we are fully purswaded that a rout by this river if practicable at all, would lengthen the distance greatly and incounter the Same dificuelties in passing the Rocky Mountains with the rout by way of Travellers rest Creek & Clarks river.

Whitehouse: This morning was warm, & we had showers of rain during the whole of this day.— The Men at the fort were employed in repairing the Carpenters Tools, making Moccasins & dressing Elk & Deer Skins.—

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska
February 15
Lewis: Drewyer and Whitehouse set out this morning on a hunting excurtion towards the praries of Point Adams. we have heard our hunters over the Netul fire several shot today, but have had no account from them as yet.

about 3 P. M. Bratton arrived from the salt works and informed us that Serjt. Pryor and party were on their way with Gibson who is so much reduced that he cannot stand alone and that they are obliged to carry him in a litter. Bratton himself appears much reduced with his late indisposition but is now recovering fast.

Bratton informed that the cause of Serjt. Pryor's delay was attributeable to the winds which had been so violent for several days as to render it impossible to get a canoe up the creek to the point where it was necessary to pass with Gibson. the S. W. winds are frequently very violent on the coast when we are but little sensible of them at Fort Clatsop. in consequence of the lofty and thickly timbered fir country which surrounds us on that quarter from the South to the North East.—

after dark Serjt. Pryor arrived with Gibson. we are much pleased in finding him by no means as ill as we had expected. we do no conceive him in danger by any means, tho' he has yet a fever and is much reduced. we beleive his disorder to have orriginated in a violent cold which he contracted in hunting and pursuing Elk and other game through the swams and marshes about the salt works. he is nearly free from pain tho' a gooddeel reduced and very languid.

we gave him broken dozes of diluted nitre and made him drink plentifully of sage tea, had his feet bathed in warm water and at 9 P. M. gave him 35 drops of laudanum

The quadrupeds of this country from the Rocky Mountains to the pacific Ocean are 1st the domestic animals, consisting of the horse and the dog only; 2cdly the native wild animals consisting of the Brown white or grizly bear, (which I beleive to be the same family with a mearly accedental difference in point of colour) the black bear, the common red deer, the black tailed fallow deer, the Mule deer, Elk, the large brown wolf, the small woolf of the plains, the large wolf of the plains, the tiger cat, the common red fox, black fox or fisher, silver fox, large red fox of the plains, small fox of the plains or kit fox, Antelope, sheep, beaver, common otter, sea Otter, mink, spuck, seal, racoon, large grey squirrel, small brown squirrel, small grey squirrel, ground squirrel, sewelel, Braro, rat, mouse, mole, Panther, hare, rabbit, and polecat or skunk. all of which shall be severally noticed in the order in which they occur as well as shuch others as I learn do exist and which not been here recapitulated.

The horse is confined principally to the nations inhabiting the great plains of Columbia. in this extesive tract of principally untimbered country so far as we have leant the following nations reside (viz) the Sosone or snake Indians, the Chopunnish, sokulks, Cutssahnims, Chymnapums, Ehelutes, Eneshuh & Chilluckkittequaws. all of whom enjoy the bennefit of that docile, generous and valuable anamal the horse, and all of them except the three last have immence numbers of them.

Their horses appear to be of an excellent race; they are lofty eligantly formed active and durable; in short many of them look like the fine English coarsers and would make a figure in any country. some of those horses are pided [pied] with large spots of white irregularly scattered and intermixed with the black brown bey or some other dark colour,

[The spotted Appaloosa, of which the Nez Perces and some other northwestern tribes were particularly fond]

but much the larger portion are of an uniform colour with stars snips and white feet, or in this rispect marked much like our best blooded horses in virginia, which they resemble as well in fleetness and bottom as in form and colours.

the natives suffer them to run at large in the plains, the grass of which furnishes them with their only subsistence their masters taking no trouble to lay in a winters store for them, but they even keep fat if not much used on the dry grass of the plains during the winter. no rain scarcely ever falls in these plains and the grass is short and but thin.

The natives appear to take no pains in scelecting their male horses from which they breed, in short those of that discription which I have noticed appeared much the most indifferent. whether the horse was orrigeonally a native of this country or not it is out of my power to determine as we can not understand the language of the natives sufficiently to ask the question.

at all events the country and climate appears well adapted to this anamal. horses are said to be found wild in many parts of this extensive plain country. the several tribes of Sosones who reside towards Mexico have also a great number of mules, which among the Indians I find are much more highly prized than horses. an eligant horse may be purchased of the natives in this country for a few beads or other paltry trinkets which in the U' States would not cost more than one or two dollars.

This abundance and cheapness of horses will be extremely advantageous to those who may hereafter attemt the fir trade to the East Indies by way of the Columbia river and the Pacific Ocean.— the mules in the possession of the Indians are principally stolen from the Spaniards of Mexeco; they appear to be large and fine such as we have seen. Among the Sosonesof the upper part of the S. E. fork of the Columbia we saw several horses with spanish brands on them which we supposed had been stolen from the inhabitants of Mexeco.—

Whitehouse: A clear morning. In the Evening the party returned from the Salt works. they brought with them the 2 Sick Men, One of which they were forced to bring in a blanket, to & from the boat; the other Man came with one of the party by land. the Man who was brought in a blankett was very sick. These Men were taken good care of, & supplied with every necessary that we had in the fort. Two of our Men were sent out from the fort a hunting this day.—

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska
February 16
Clark: Sent Shannon Labiesh and frazier on a hunting excurtion up the Kil-haw-a-nak-kle river which discharges itself into the head of Meriwethers Bay. no word yet of Sergt. Gass and party.

Bratton is verry weak and complains of a pain in the lower part of the back when he moves which I suppose proceeds from debility. I gave him barks and Salt peter.

Gibsons fever Still Continues obstinate tho' not verry high; we gave him a dose of Dr. Rushes pills which in maney instancis I have found extreamly efficacious in fevers which are in any measure Caused by the presence of boil.

[Rush's pills, a concoction of Benjamin Rush, Lewis's medical advisor]

the niter has produced a perfuse perspiration this evening and the pils opperated late at night his feaver after which abated almost intirely and he had a good nights rest.

The Indian Dogs are usually small or much more so than the common cur. they are party coloured; black white brown and brindle are the more usual colours. the head is long and nose pointed eyes Small, ears erect and pointed like those of the wolf, hair Short and Smooth except on the tail where it is as long as that of the Cur dog and streight. the nativs do not eate them, or make any further use of them than in hunting the Elk as has been before observed.

Shannon an Labiesh brought in to us to day a Buzzard or Vulture of the Columbia which they had wounded and taken alive. I believe this to be the largest Bird of North America.

[California Condor]

it was not in good order and yet it wayed 25 lbs had it have been so it might very well have weighed 10 lbs. more or 35 lbs. between the extremities of the wings it measured 9 feet 2 Inches; from the extremity of the beak to that of the toe 3 feet 9 inches and a half. from hip to toe 2 feet, girth of the head 9 inches ¾. Girth of the neck 7½ inches; Girth of the body exclusive of the wings 2 feet 3 inches; girth of the leg 3 inches. the diameter of the eye 4½/10ths of an inch, the iris of a pale scarlet red, the puple of a deep Sea green or black and occupies about one third of the diameter of the eye the head and part of the neck as low as the figures 1 2 is uncovered with feathers except that portion of it represented by dots foward and under the eye.

the tail is Composed of twelve feathers of equal length, each 14 inches. the legs are 4¾ inches in length and of a whiteish colour uncovered with feathers, they are not entirely Smooth but not imbricated; the toes are four in number three of which are foward and that in the center much the longest; the fourth is Short and is inserted near the inner of the three other toes and reather projecting foward.

the thye is covered with feathers as low as the Knee. the top or upper part of the toes are imbricated with broad scales lying transversly; the nails are black and in proportion to the Size of the bird comparitively with those of the Hawk or Eagle, Short and bluntly pointed—.

the under Side of the wing is Covered with white down and feathers. a white Stripe of about 2 inches in width, also marks the outer part of the wing, imbraceing the lower points of the feathers, which cover the joints of the wing through their whole length or width of that part of the wing. all the other feathers of whatever part are of a Glossy Shineing black except the down, which is not glossy, but equally black.

the Skin of the beak and head to the joining of the neck is of a pale orrange Yellow, the other part uncovered with feathers is of a light flesh Colour. the Skin is thin and wrinkled except on the beak where it is Smooth.

This bird fly's very clumsily. nor do I know whether it ever Seizes it's prey alive, but am induced to believe it does not. we have Seen it feeding on the remains of the whale and other fish which have been thrown up by the waves on the Sea Coast. these I believe constitute their principal food, but I have no doubt but that they also feed on flesh.

we did not meet with this bird untille we had decended the Columbia below the great falls; and have found them more abundant below tide water than above. this is the Same Species of Bird which R. Field killed on the 18th of Novr. last and which is noticed on that day tho' not fully discribed then I thought this of the Buzzard Specis.

I now believe that this bird is reather of the Vulture genus than any other, tho' it wants Some of their characteristics particularly the hair on the neck, and the feathers on the legs. this is a handsom bird at a little distance. it's neck is proportionably longer than those of the Hawks or Eagle.

Shannon also brought a Grey Eagle which appeared to be of the Same kind common to the U, States. it weighed 15 pds. and measured 7 feet 7 inches between the extremities of the wings—.

Shannon and Labiesh informed us that when he approached this Vulture after wounding it, that it made a loud noise very much like the barking of a Dog. the tongue is long firm and broad, filling the under Chap and partakeing of its transvirs curvature, or its Sides forming a longitudinal Groove; obtuse at the point, the margin armed with firm cartelagenous prickkles pointed and bending inwards.

Whitehouse: We had hard rain during last night. Three Men were sent out hunting in order to try & kill some fowl or Elk for the sick Men. We are employed at the fort, in making Cloathing &ca.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska
February 17
Clark: Collins and Windser were permited to hunt to day towards the praries in point Adams with a view to obtain Some fresh meat for the Sick.

a little before noon Shannon and Labiesh & frazier Came with the flesh and hide of an Elk which had been wounded by Serjt. Gasses party and took the water where they pursued it and cought it. they did not See Sergt. Gass or any of his party or learn what further Sucksess they have had.

Continu the barks with Bratten, and Commenced them with gibson his feaver being Sufficiently low this morning to permit the use of them. I think therefore that there is no further danger of his recovery.—.

at 2 P. M. Joseph Field arrived from the Salt works and informd us that they had about 2 Kegs of Salt on hand (say 3 bushels) which with what we have at this place we suppose will be Sufficient to last us to our deposit of that article on the Missouri. we directed a party of Six men to go in the morning in order to bring the salt and Kittles to the Fort.

at 4 P. M. Serjt. Gass and party arrive; they had killed 8 Elk. Drewyer and Whitehouse also return late in the evening, they had killed one Elk, part of the meat of which they brought in with them.

Gass: The day was stormy; we set out for the fort, and arrived there in the afternoon. We found the sick men at the fort, and still very bad. One of the men brought word from the salt works, that they had made about four bushels of salt; and the Commanding Officers thought that would be sufficient to serve the party, until we should arrive at the Missouri where there is some deposited.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska
February 18
Clark: This morning we dispatched a party to the Salt works with Sergt. Ordway. and a Second party with Sergt. Gass after the Eight Elk killed over the Netul.

in the evening Sergt. Ordway returned and reported that the waves ran So high in the Bay that he could not pass to the enterance of a Creek which we had directed him to assend with the Canoe. Collins & Windsir returned this evening with one Deer which they had Killed. the deer are pore and their flesh by no means a[s] good as that of the Elk which is also poore but appears to be getting better than Some weeks past.

in the forenoon we were visited by a Clatsop & Seven Chinnooks from whome I purchased a Sea otter's Skin and two hats made of way tape and Silk grass and white cedar bark. they remained untill late in the evening and departed for their village. those people are not readily obstructed by waves in their Canoes.

Since their departure we have discovered that they have Stole an ax.—

Whitehouse brought me a roab which he purchased of the Indians formed of three Skins of the Tiger Cat, this Cat differs from any which I have ever Seen. it is found on the borders of the plains and the woody Country lying along the Pacific Ocian. this animale is about the Size or reather larger than the wild Cat of our Countrey and is much the Same in form, agility and ferosity. the colour of the back, neck and Sides, is a redish brown irrigular varigated with Small Spots of dark brown the tail is about two inches long nearly white except the extremity which is black; it termonates abruptly as if it has been cut off. the belly is white with Small black spots. butifully varigated. the legs are of the Same Colour with the Sides and back marked with transvers stripes of black the ears are black on the outer Side Covered with fine black hair, Short except at the upper point which is furnished with a pencil of verry fine Streight black hair, ¾ of an inch in length, the fur of this animale is long and fine. much more So than the wild Cat of the U States but less so than the Louserva of the N West.

the nativs of this Country make great use of the skins of this Cat, to form the robes which they wear; three whole Skins is the complement usually employed, and Sometimes four in each roab. Those Cats are not marked alike maney of them have but fiew Spots of a darker Colour, particularly on the Back.

Whitehouse: This morning clear & pleasant weather, Six of our Men went from the fort with 2 Canoes to go round on the Sea coast to the Salt works. Ten Men of our party was sent at some time, in order to bring in the Elk meat, which was left by our hunters Yesterday. The party that were going to the Salt Camp on arriving at the bay, found the wind blowing so hard, that they had to return to the fort.—

We had several squalls of wind attended with rain in the course of this day.— About noon several Indians belonging to the Clatsop Nation came in Canoes to the Fort. They brought with them some Roots to trade with us,—, which we purchased of them. Towards evening these Indians left the Fort & embarked in their Canoes in order to return to their Village.— Two of our hunters also returned to the Fort, but had killed no Game of any kind. The Men remaining at the fort were employed as usual in dressing Skins &ca.—

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska
February 19
Clark: Sergt. Ordway Set out again with a party to the Salt works by land.

in the evening Sergt. Gass returned with the flesh of Eight Elk, and Seven Skins haveing left one Skin with Shannon and Labiche who remained over the Netul to Continue the chase.

we devided the Skins between the messes in order that they might be prepared for Covering the baggage when se Set out in the Spring. our

Sick appear to Strengthen but Slowly I gave Bratten 6 of Scotts pills which did not work him. he is very weak and Complains of his back.

Ordway: a hard Storm of wind and rain myself and Six more of the party Set out eairly to go by land to the Salt works to bring in the Salt & baggage we proced. on to the praries crossed the prarie where the land is in ridges like the waves the frozen rain beat in our faces verry hard. we got on the coast crossd. a river where we waided to our middles and was glad to git in an old Indian house where we made a fire and Stayed all night. Sand flew & waves rold.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska
February 20
Clark: Permited Collins to hunt this morning he returned in the evening unsucksessfull as to the chase, but brought with him Some Cramberries for the Sick.

Gibson is on the recovery fast; Bratten has an obstinate Cough and pain in his back and Still appears to be getting weaker. Willard has a high fever and complains of the pain in his head and want of appetite.

The forenoon we were visited by Tâh-cum a principal chief of the Chinnooks and 25 men of his nation. we had never Seen this Chief before

he is a good looking man of about 50 years of age reather larger in Statue than most of his nation; as he came on a friendly visit we gave himself and party something to eate and plyed them plenty fully with Smoke. we gave this chief a small Medal with which he Seamed much pleased.

in the evening at Sunset we desired them to depart as is our custom and Close our gates. we never Suffer parties of Such numbers to remain within the Fort all night; for not withstanding their apparent friendly disposition, their great averis and hope of plunder might induce them to be treacherous.

at all events we are determined always to be on our guard, as much as the nature of our Situation will permit us, and never place our selves at the mercy of any Savages. we well know, that the treachery of the Aborigenes of America and the too great confidence of our country men in their friendship and fadility has caused the distruction of maney hundreds of us. so long has our men been accustomed to a friendly intercourse with the nativs, that we find it dificult to impress on their minds the necessity of always being on their Guard with respect to them.

this confidence on our part we know to be the effect of a serious of a friendly and unintorupted intercourse. but the well Known treachery of the natives by no means entitle them to Such confidence, and we must check it's groth in our own minds as well as those of our men, by recollecting our selves, and repeating to our men, that our preservation depends on our never loseing Sight of this trate in their character, and being always prepared to meet it in whatever Shape it may present itself.—.

Ordway: the wind continued verry high from the S. W. we Set out eairly and proced. on along the coast faceing the wind the Sand cut our faces waided a creek rapid curret about noon we arived to the Salt works and bought a little Ecoley [whale meat] and oil &C from the natives. the waves roles verry high and white froth flying &C.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska
February 21
Clark: Visited this morning by three Clatsops, who remained with us all day; they are great begers; Capt Lewis gave one of them a fiew nedles with which he appeared much gratified, in the evening late they departed.

Drewyer and Collins went in pursute of Some Elk the tracks of which Collins had discovered yesterday; but it rained So hard they Could not pursue them by the tracks, and returned unsucksessfull. Drewyer Saw a fisher but it escaped from him among the fallen timber.

Sergt. Ordway returned with the party from the Salt Camp which we have now avacuated. they brought with them the Salt and utensels. our Stock of Salt is now about 20 Gallons; 12 Gallons we had Secured in 2 Small iron bound Kegs and laid by for our voyage.

Gave Willard a dose of Scots pills; they opperated very well. Gibson Still Continus the bark 3 times a day and is on the recovery fast.

Ordway: we Set out eairly with all the Salt and baggage. took an Indian canoe and crossed the River and travelled verry hard. when we got half way Set in to Storming & rained verry hard & the wind blew So high that we could not cross the creek in a canoe and waided across and got to the Fort about half past 12 oClock. much fatigued and I am at this time verry Sick, and wet to my Skins waiding the Slashes and marshes. the day verry disagreeable and Stormey &C. the party who went after Elk meat brought it in on evening of 19th inst.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska
February 22
Clark: We were visited to day by two Clatsops women and two boys who brought a parcel of excellent hats made of Cedar bark, and ornemented with bear grass. two of those hats had been made by measure which Capt Lewis and my Self had given a woman Some time Since, with a request to make each of us a hat; they fit us very well, and are in the form we desired them. we purchased the hats and distribeted them among the party.

the woodwork and sculpture of these people as well as those hats and the water proof baskits evince an ingenuity by no means common among the Aborigenes of America. in the evining they returned to their village and Drewyer accompanied them in order to get Some dogs &c.

These women informed us that the Small fish began to run which we suppose to be herring from their discription. they also informed us that their Chief Conia Comawool, had gorn up the Columbia to the Vally in order to purchase Wappatoe, a part of which he entended tradeing with us on his return.

our sick consisting of Gibson, Bratten, Willard McNeal and Baptiest LaPage is Something better Serjt. Ordway is complaining of a Coald & head ake. we have not had as many Sick at one time Since we left the Settlements of the Illinois. the general Complaint appears to be bad colds and fevers, with a violent pain in the head, and back, something I believe of the influenza.

Ordway: a fair morning. George Gibson Some better. I am full of pains but not verry Sick. the rest of the Sick are mending a little. Several of the natives came to the Fort with some of their Split and chip hats which are Engeaneously made. Drewyer went to the village &C.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska
February 23
Clark: Not any thing transpired desering particular notice. our Sick are all on the recovery. the men have provided themselves verry amply with mockersons & leather clothing, much more So indeed than they have ever been Since they have been on the voyage.

The Sea Otter is found only on the Sea Coast and in the Salt water. Those animals which I took to be the Sea Otter from the Great Falls of the Columbia to the mouth, proves to be the Phosia or Seal which at a little distance has every appearance of the Sea Otters. The Sea otter when fully grown is as large as the common mastif dog, the ears and Eyes are remarkably Small, particularly the former which is not an inch in length thick fleshey and pointed, Covered with short hair. the tail is about 10 inches in length thick where it joins the body and tapering to a very Sharp point; in common with the body it is covered with a deep fur particularly on the upper Side, on the under part the fur is not So long. the legs are remarkably Short and the feat which have five toes each are broad large and webbed. the legs are covered with fur and the feet with Short hair. the body of the Animal is long and nearly of the Same thickness throughout. from the extremity of the tail to that of the nose they will measure 5 feet or upwards. the colour is of a uniform dark brown, and when in good order and Season perfectly Black and Glossey. it is the richest and I think the most delightful fur in the world at least I cannot form an idea of any more so. it is deep thick silky in the extream and Strong. the inner part of the fur when open is lighter than the surface in its natural position. there are Some fine black Shineing hairs intermixed with the fur which are reather longer and add much to its beauty. the nose, about the eyes, ears and forehead in Some of those otter is of a light Colour, Sometimes a light brown. those parts in the young Suckling otters of this Species is Sometimes of a creem colour'd white, but always much lighter than the other parts. the fur of the infant otter is much inferior in point of colour, and texture, to that of the full grown otter, or even after it has been weened—. there is so great a difference that I have for Some time Supposed it a different animal; the Indians Call the infant otter Spuck, and the full grown or such as had obtained a Coat of good fur, E luck'ko. this Still further confirmed the opinion of their being distinct Species; but I have Since lerned that the Spuck is the young otter. the Colour of the neck, body, legs and tail is a dark lead brown. The Mink is found in the woody Country on this Coast and does not differ in any particular from those of the Atlantic Coasts.

The Seal or Phoca are found here in great numbers, and as far up the Columbia as the great Falls, above which there are none. I have reasons to believe from the information of the men that there are Several Species of the Phoca on this Coast and in the river, but what the difference is I am unable to State not haveing Seen them myself Sufficiently near for manute inspection nor obtain the different kinds to make a comparison. the Skins of Such as I have Seen are covered with a Short thick Coarse Glossy hair of a redish bey brown Colour. tho' the animal while in the water, or as we saw them frequently in the river appear to be black and Spoted with white sometimes. I am not much acquainted with the Seal, but Suppose that they are the Same common also to the atlantic Ocian in the Same parrelal of Latitude. the Skins, or those which I have Seen are presisely Such as trunks are frequently Covered with. the flesh of this animal is highly prised by the nativs who Swinge the hair off and then roste the flesh on Sticks before the fire.

Ordway: a fair morning. Six of the party are now Sick I think that I and three others have the Enfluenzey

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska
February 24
Clark: Our Sick are Still on the recovery. Shannon and Labiche returned in the forenoon, they had killed no Elk, and reported that they believe the Elk have returned from their former haunts and gorn further back in the mountains to a considerable distance from this place. this is very unwelcom information, for poore and inferior as the flesh of this animale is, it is our principal dependance for Subsistance.

This evening we were visited by Comowooll the Clatsop Chief and 14 men women and Children of his nation. Drewyer came a pasinger in their Canoe, and brought with him two dogs.

the Chief and his party had brought for Sale a Sea otter Skin, Some hats, Sturgeon and a Species of fish which now begins to run and are taken in Great quantities in the Columbia River about 40 miles above us by means of Skiming or scooping nets. Capt Lewis gave an old Coat and vest for a Sea otter Skin, we purchased Several hads of the Indian manufactry and distributed them among the party. we also purchased a fiew of the Small fish which we found deliciously fine.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska
February 25
Clark: It continued to rain and blow So violently that there was no movement of the party to day. the Indians left us in the morning on their return to their village.

Willard Somewhat worse the others are on the recovery.

we are mortified at not haveing it in our power to make more Celestial observations since we have been at Fort Clatsop, but Such as been the State of the weather that we have found it utterly impractiable—.

I purchased of the Clatsops this morning about half a bushel of Small fish which they had cought about 40 miles up the Columbia in their scooping nets.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska
February 26
Clark: This morning we dispatched Drewyer and two men in our indian canoe up the Columbia River to take Sturgion and Anchovey. or if they were unsucksessfull in fishing we directed them to purchase fish from the nativs, for which purpose we had furnished them with a fiew articles Such as the nativs are pleased with.

we also Sent Shields Jo. Field and Shannon up the Netul to hunt Elk. and directed Reubin Field and Some other man to hunt in the point towards the Praries & point Adams. thus we hope Shortly to replenish our Stock of provisions which is now reduced to a mear minnamum.

we have three days provisions only in Store and that of the most inferior dried Elk a little tainted. what a prospect for good liveing at Fort Clatsop at present.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska
February 27
Clark: Reubin Field returned this evening and had not killed anything, he reported that there were no Elk towards point Adams.

Collins who had hunted up the Netul on this Side returned in the evening haveing killed a buck Elk.

Willard Still Continue very unwell the other Sick men have nearly recovered. Goodrich & McNeal who have the Pox are recovering fast, the former nearly well. La Page complaining.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska
February 28
Clark: Reubin Field and Collins set out this morning early on a hunting excurtion up the Netul.

Kus ke-lar a Clatsop man, his wife and a Small boy (a Slave, who he informed me was his Cook, and offerd to Sell him to me for beeds & a gun) visited us to day they brought Some anchovies, Sturgeon, a beaver robe, and Some roots for Sale tho' they asked Such high prices for every article that we purchased nothing but a part of a Sturgeon for which we gave a fiew fishing hooks. we Suffered them to Stay all night.

Shields Jos: Field and Shannon returned late this evening haveing killed five Elk tho' two of them are of a mountain at a considerable distance. we ordered these hunters to return early in the morning and continue the hunt, and Sergt. Gass to take a part and go in quest of the Elk which they had killed. the hunters informed us that the Elk is tolerable plenty near the mountains about nine or ten miles distant.

Kuskalaw brought a dog which Peter Crusat had purchased with his Capo which this fellow had on.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

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This guide last edited 09/11/2006
This guide last revised 06/18/2007
This guide created 01/25/2006