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Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery

Journals: March, 1806

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Meriwether Lewis, William Clark
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March 1
Clark: This morning we despatched Sergt. Gass with 12 men in two Canoes in quest of the Elk which had been killed by the hunters the day before yesterday. they returned with the flesh of three of them late in the evening. Thompson was left with the hunters in order to take care of the flesh of the remaining two.

Kuskalar &c. left us about noon. The boy which this Indian offered to Sell to me is about 10 years of age. this boy had been taken prisoner by the Kil a mox from Some Nation on the Coast to the S. East of them at a great distance. like other Indian nations they adopt their Slaves in their famelies and treat them very much like their own Children.

Reubin Field and Collins who had been absent Since yesterday morning returned without killing any thing.

Gass: We had a cloudy wet morning. I set out with 8 men and 4 hunters to bring the meat of the elk that had been killed, which was at a greater distance from the fort than any we had yet brought in. There is a large river that flows into the southeast part of Hayley's Bay; upon which, about 20 miles from its mouth, our hunters discovered falls, which had about 60 feet of a perpendicular pitch.

[Youngs River Falls, about seventy-five feet high, Clatsop County, about ten miles south of Astoria]

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

March 2
Clark: The diet of the Sick is So inferior that they recover their Strength but Slowly. none of them are now Sick but all in a State of Covelessence with keen appetites and nothing to eate except lean Elk meat.

The nativs of this neighbourhood eate the root of the Cattail or Cooper's flag. it is pleasantly tasted and appears to be very nutrecious. the inner part of the root which is eaten without any previous preperation is Composed of a number of capellary white flexable Strong fibers among which is a mealy or Starch like Substance which readily disolves in the mouth and Seperates from the fibers which are then rejected. it appears to me that this Substance would make excellent Starch; nothing Can be of a pureer white than it is..

This evening late Drewyer, Crusat & Wiser returned with a most acceptable Supply of fat Sturgen, fresh anchoves and a bag Containing about a bushel of Wappato. we feasted on the Anchovies and wappatoe..

Gass: This day was also wet. The fishing party returned at night, and brought with them some thousands of the same kind of small fish we got from the natives a few days ago, and also some sturgeon.

The Indian name of the river we were up yesterday is Kil-hou-a-nak-kle, and that of the small river which passes the fort, Ne-tul.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

March 3
Clark: Two of our Canoes have been lately injured very much in consequence of the tide leaveing them partially on Shore. they Split by this means with their own weight. we had them drawn out on Shore.

our convalessents are Slowly on the recovery. La page is taken Sick. gave him Some of Scotts Pills which did not opperate.

no movement of the party to day worthy of notice. every thing moves on in the old way and we are Counting the days which Seperate us from the 1st of April, & which bind us to Fort Clatsop...

Gass: It rained all this day and the following. Our sick men are getting better, but slowly, as they have little or no suitable nourishment.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

March 4
Clark: Not any accurrance to day worthy of notice. we live Sumptiously on our wappatoe and Sturgeon. the Anchovey is so delicate that they Soon become tainted unless pickled or Smoked. the nativs run a Small Stick through their gills and hang them in the Smoke of their Lodges, or Kindle Small fires under them for the purpose of drying them. they need no previous preperation of gutting &c. and will Cure in 24 hours. the nativs do not appear to be very Scrupilous about eating them a little feated.

the fresh sturgeon they Keep maney days by immersing it in water. they Cook their Sturgeon by means of vapor or Steam. the process is as follows. a brisk fire is kindled on which a parcel of Stones are Sufficiently heated, the Stones are So arranged as to form a tolerable leavel Surface, the Sturgeon which had been previously cut into large flaetches is now laid on the hot Stones; a parcel of Small boughs of bushes is next laid on, and a Second course of the Sturgeon thus repeating alternate layers of Sturgeon & boughs untill the whole is put on which they design to Cook. it is next covered closely with mats and water is poared in Such manner as to run in among the hot Stones, and the vapor arriseing being confind by the mats, cooks the fish. the whole process is performd in an hour and the Sturgeon thus Cooked is much better than either boiled or roasted. in their usial way of boiting of other fish in baskets with hot Stones is not so good

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

March 5
Clark: This morning we were visited by two parties of Clatsops they brought Some fish, a hat and Some Skins for Sale most of which we purchased, they returned to their Village in the evening with the returning tide. late in the evening the Hunters returned from the Kil-haw- nack-kle River which discharges itself into the head of the Bay. They had neither killed nor Seen any Elk. they informed us that the Elk had all gorn off to the mountains a considerable distance from us. this is unwelcom information and reather alarming. we have only two days provisions on hand and that nearly Spoiled. we made up a Small assortment of Articles to trade with the Indians, and directed Sergt Natl. Pryor to Set out early in the morning in a canoe with two men, to assend the Columbia to the resort of the Indians fishermen and purchase Some fish; we also derected two parties of hunters to renew the chase tomorrow early. the one up the Netul, and the other towards point Adams. If we find that the Elk have left us, we have determined to assend the river slowly and endeaver to precure Subsistance on the way, Consumeing the month of March in the woody Country, earlyer than april we conceive it a folly to attempt the Open plains where we know there is no fuel except a fiew Small dry Shrubs. we Shall not leave our quarters at Fort Clatsop untill the 1st of April as we intended, unless the want of Subsistance compels us to that measure.

The hunters who were out last informed me that they discovered a very Considerable fall in the Kil-haw--nack-kle River on its main western fork at which place it falls abt. 100 feet from the Side of a mountain S. E. about 6 miles from Fort Clatsop and nearly 15 from its enterance into the bay by the Meanderings of this river

a high mountain is Situated S 60 W. about 18 miles from Fort Clatsop on which there has been Snow Since Nov.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

March 6
Clark: This morning, the fishing and hunting party's Set out agreeably to their instructions given them last evening.

At 11 a. m. we were visited by Commowoll and two boys Sons of his. he presented us with Some Anchovies which had been well Cured in their manner, we found them excellent. they were very acceptable perticularly at this moment.

we gave the old mans Sones a twisted wire to ware about his neck, and I gave him a par of old glovs which he was much pleased with. this we have found much the most friendly and decent Indian that we have met with in this neighbourhood.

Hall had his foot and ankle much injured yesterday by the fall of a log which he had on his Sholder; the bones are fortunately not broken, I expect he will be able to walk again Shortly.

Bratten is now weaker than any of the convalessants, and complains verry much of his back, all of them recovering Slowly in consequence of the want of proper diet, which we have it not in our power to precure.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

March 7
Clark: The wind was So high that Commowol did not leave us untill late this evening.

Drewyer & Labiesh returned at Sunset haveing killed one Elk only. they report that there are Some Scattering mail Elk in the neighbourhood of the place they killed this one or about 5 miles up the Netul river on the west Side.

Bratten is much worst to day he complains of a violent pain in the Small of his back, and is unable in consequence of it to Set up. we gave him one of our flanel Shirts. I applied a bandage of flanel to the part and rubed it well with Some volatile linniment which was prepared with Sperits of wine, camphire, Sastile Soap, and a little laudinum. he felt himself better in the evening at which time I repeated the linnement and bathed his feet, to restore circulation which he complaind of in that part.

John Shields Reubin Fields & Robert frasure measured 2 trees of the fur kind one 37 feet around, appears sound, has but fiew limbs for 200 feet it is East of the Netul abt 280 feet high.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

March 8
Clark: Bratten is much better this morning, his back givs him but little pain.

Collins returned early in the morning, and informed us that he had killed three Elk about five miles distance on the edge of the prarie in point Adams. one of them fell in a deep pond of water and he could not git to it. the other two he butchered and Saved. he saw two large herds of Elk in that quarter.

we Sent Drewyer & Jos: Field to hunt these Elk, a party was also Sent with Labiesh for the flesh of the Elk which Drewyer and himself had killd up the Netul, they returned with it in the evening.

Shields, R. Field and Frasure returned this evening from the Kilhawanackkle unsuccessfull haveing Seen no Elk.

Willard is yet complaining and is low Spirited.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

March 9
Clark: This morning the men Set out at day light to go in quest of the Elk which Collins had killed, they returned at 11 A. M

Bratten complains of his backs being very painfull to him to day. we Still apply the linnement & flannel; in the evening he was much better.

Jos: Field & Drewyer returned not haveing found any Elk.

Sergt. Pryor and the fishing party not yet returned, Suppose they are detained by the winds.

we are visited by 3 Clatsop men who brought a Dog, Some fish and a Sea otter Skin for Sale. we Suffered them to remain all night. we Set Shields at work to make Some Sacks of Elk Skin to contain my papers, and various articles which we wish kept Dry.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

March 10
Clark: about 1 P. M. it became fair and we Sent out two parties of hunters on this Side of the Netul, one above and the other below, we also derected a party to Set out early in the morning and pass Meriwethers Bay and hunt beyond the Kilhow anak kle. from the last we have considerable hope, as we have as yet hunted but little in that quarter.

it blew hard all day, in the evening the Indians departed. The Hunters, who were over the netul the other day informed us that they measured a 2d tree of the fir Speces (No. 1) as high as a man Could reach, was 39 feet in the girth; it tapered but very little for about 200 feet without any Considerable limbs, and that it was a very lofty above the Commencement of the limbs. from the appearance of other Species of fir, and their account of this tree, I think it might safely estimated at 300 feet. it had every appearance of being perfectly Sound in every part.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

March 11
Clark: Early this morning Sergt. Pryor arrived with a Small Canoe loaded with fish which he had obtained from the Cath-lah-mah's for a very Small part of the articles he had taken with him. the wind had prevented his going to the fishery on the opposit Side of the river above the Waukie-cum's, and also as we had suspected, prevented his return as early as he otherwise would have been back. The dogs of the Cathlahmah's had bitten the throng assunder which confined his canoe and she had gorn adrift. he borrowed a Canoe from the Indians in which he has returned. he found his canoe on the way and Secured her, untill we return the Indians their CanoeSent Sergt. Gass and a party in Serch of one of our Canoes which was reported to have been lost from a hunting party of Shields R. Field & Frazier when they were last out on the opposit Side of the Netul. they returned and reported that they Could not find the Canoe which had broken the Cord with which it was attached, and was caried off by the tide. Drewyer Jo. Field & Frazier Set out by light this morning to pass the bay in order to hunt as they had been directed last evening. we once more live in Clover; Anchovies fresh Sturgeon and Wappatoe. the latter Sergt. Pryor had also procured a fiew and brought with him. The Deer of this Coust differ from the Common Deer, fallow Deer or Mule Deer as has beformentioned.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

March 12
Clark: We Sent a party again in Serch of the Canoe but they returned unsucksessfull as yesterday Sent one hunter out on this Side of the Netul he did not return this evening. Our party are now furnished with 358 par of Mockersons exclusive of a good portion of Dressed leather, they are also previded with Shirts Overalls Capoes of dressed Elk Skins for the homeward journey.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

March 13
Clark: This morning Drewyer Jos. Fields and Frazer returned; they had killed two Elk and two deer.

Visited by two Cath-lah-mars who left us in the evening.

we Sent Drewyer down to the Clatsop Village to purchase a couple of their canoes if possible. Sergt. Pryor and a party made another Serch for the lost Canoe but was unsucksessfull; while engaged in Serching for the Canoe, Collins one of this party killed two Elk near the Netul below us. we Sent Sergt. Ordway and a party for the flesh of one of the Elk beyond the Bay with which they returned in the evening; the other Elk and 2 Deer were at Some distance

R. Field and Thompson who Set out on a hunting excursion yesterday morning towards point Adams have not yet returned.

took equal altitudes to day this being the only fair day for Sometime past.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

March 14
Clark: This morning we dispatched a party after two Elk which Collins killed last evening, they returned with them about noon. Jos: Field, Collins, Go:

Shannon & Labiesh went in quest of the Gang of Elk out of which Collins had killed the 2 yesterday. this evening we herd upwards of twenty Shot and expect they have fallen in with and killed Several of them.

Reuben Field and Thompson returned this evening unsuksessfull haveing killed only one Brant.

late in the evening Geo: Drewyer arrived with a party of the Clatsops who brought an indifferent Canoe, three hats and Some roots for Sale we could not purchase the Canoe without giveing more than our Stock of merchandize would lisence us. Capt Lewis offered his laced uniform Coat for a verry indiferent Canoe, agreeable to their usial way of tradeing his price was double.

we are informed by the Clatsops that they have latterly Seen an Indian from the Quin-na-chart Nation who reside Six days march to the N. W and that four vessels were there and the owners Mr. Haley, Moore, Callamon & Swipeton were tradeing with that noumerous nation, whale bone Oile and Skins of various discription.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

March 15
Clark: This morning at 11 oClock the hunters arived, haveing Killed four Elk only. Labiesh it Seams was the only Hunter who fell in with the Elk and haveing by some accident lost the foresight of his gun Shot a great number of times and only killed four. as the Elk were scattered we Sent two parties for them, they returned in the evening with four Skins, and the flesh of three Elk, that of one of them haveing become putred from the liver and pluck haveing been carelessly left in the Animal all night.

Late this evening we were visited by Ca-tel a Clatsop man and his family. he brought a Canoe and a Sea Otter Skin for Sale neither of which we could purchase of him. the Clatsops which had brought a Canoe for Sale last evening us this morning. Bratten is still very weak and unwell.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

March 16
Clark: Not any occurrence worthy of relation took place today.

Drewyer and party did not return from the Cath lah mah's this evening as we expected. we Suppose he was detained by the hard winds today.

the Indians remain with us all day, but would not dispose of their Canoe at a price which it was in our power to give consistently with the State of our Stock of Merchandize. One handkerchief would contain all the Small articles of merchandize which we possess, the ballance of the Stock Consists of 6 Small blue robes or Blankets one of Scarlet. one uniform Artillerist's Coat and hat, 5 robes made of our larg flag, and a fiew our old Clothes trimed with ribon. on this Stock we have wholy to depend for the purchase of horses and Such portion of our Subsistence from the Indians as it will be in our power to obtain. a scant dependence indeed for the tour of the distance of that before us.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

March 17
Clark: we have had our Canoes prepared for our departure, and Shall Set out as Soon as the weather will permit. the weather is So precarious that we fear by waiting untill the first of April that we might be detained Several days longer before we could get from this to the Cath-lah-mahs, as it must be Calm or we cannot accomplish that part of the rout in our Canoes.

Drewyer returned late this evening from the Cath-lah-mahs with our Indian Canoe which Sergt. Pryor had left Some days since, and also a Canoe, which he had purchased from those people. for this canoe he gave Captn. Lewis's uniform laced coat and nearly half a Carrot of tobacco. it Seams that nothing except this Coat would induce them to dispose of a Canoe which in their mode of traffic is an article of the greatest value except a wife, with whome it is nearly equal, and is generally given in exchange to the father for his Daughter. I think that the United States are in justice indebted to Captn Lewis another uniform Coat for that of which he has disposed of on this ocasion, it was but little worn.

We yet want another Canoe as the Clatsops will not Sell us one, a proposition has been made by one of our interpt and Several of the party to take one in lieu of 6 Elk which they Stole from us this winter

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

March 18
Clark: Drewyer was taken last night with a violent pain in his Side. I bled him. Several of the men are complaining of being unwell. it is truly unfortunate that they Should be Sick at the moment of our departure. Derected Sergt. Pryor to prepare the two Indian Canoes which we had purchased for his mess. they wanted Some knees to Strengthen them, and Several cracks corked and payed. he compleated them except paying. the frequent Showers of rain prevented the Canoes drying Sufficient to pay them even with the assistance of fire.

Commorwool and two Cathlahmahs visited us to day; we Suffered them to remain all night. this morning we gave Delashelwilt a certificate of his good deportment &c. and also a list of our names, after which we dispatched him to his village with his female band. Those list's of our Names we have given to Several of the nativs, and also pasted up a Copy in our room. the Object of these lists we Stated in the preamble of the Same as follows Viz: "The Object of this list is, that through the medium of Some civilized person who may See the Same, it may be made known to the informed world, that the party consisting of the persons whose names are hereunto annexed, and who were Sent out by the Government of the United States in May 1804, to explore the interior of the Continent of North America, did penetrate the Same by way of the Missouri and Columbia rivers, to the discharge of the latter into the Pacific Ocian, where they arrived on the 14th of November 1805, and from whence they departed March 1806 on their return to the United States by the Same rout they had come out."

On the back of lists we added a Sketch of the continent of the upper branches of the Missouri with those of the Columbia, particularly of its upper N. E. branch or Lewis's River, on which we also delineated the track we had Came and that we ment to pursue on our return, when the Same happened to vary. There Seemes So many chances against our governments ever obtaining a regular report, through the medium of the Savages, and the traders of this Coast that we decline makeing any. Our party are too small to think of leaveing any of them to return to the Unt. States by Sea, particularly as we Shall be necessarily devided into two or three parties on our return in order to accomplish the Object we have in View; and at any rate we Shall reach the U, States in all humain probabillity much earlier than a man Could who must in the event of his being left here depend for his passage to the U, State on the traders of the Coast, who may not return imediately to the U, States. or if they should, might probably Spend the next Summer in tradeing with the nativs before they would Set out on their return. This evening Drewyer went in quest of his traps, and took an otter. Joseph Field killd and Elk. The Indians repeated to us Eighteen distinct Nations resideing on the S S. E Coast who Speak the Kil a mox language or understand it. and beyend those Six other Nations which Speak a different language which they did not comprehend.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

March 19
Clark: It continued to rain and hail in Such a manner that nothing Could be done to the Canoes. a party were Sent out early after the Elk which was killed last evening, with which they returned in the Course of a fiew hours, we gave Commorwool alias Cania, a Certificate of his good conduct and the friendly intercourse which he has maintained with us dureing our residence at this place: we also gave him a list of our names &c. The Kilamox, Clatsops, Chinnooks, Cath lah mahs Wau ki a cum and Chiltz Iresemble each other as well in their persons and Dress as in their habits and manners. their complexion is not remarkable, being the usial Copper brown of the tribes of North America. they are low in Statue reather diminutive, and illy Shaped, possessing thick broad flat feet, thick ankles, crooked legs, wide mouths, thick lips, noses Stuk out and reather wide at the base, with black eyes and black coarse hair.

I have observed Some high acqualine noses among them but they are extreemly reare. the most remarkable trate in their physiognamy is the peculiar flatness and width of the forehead which they Artificially obtain by compressing the head between two boards while in a State of infancy, and from which it never afterwards perfectly recovers. This is a custom among all the nations, we have met with West of the Rocky Mountains. I have observed the head of maney infants, after this Singular Bandage had been dismissed, or about the age of 11 or 12 months, that were not more than two inches thick about the upper part of the forehead and reather thiner Still higher. from the top of the head to the extremity of the nose is one Streight line. this is done in order to give a greater width to the forehead, which they much admire. This process seams to be continued longer with their female than their male children, and neither appears to Suffer any pain from the opperation. it is from this peculiar form of the head that the nations East of the Rocky Mountains, call all the nations on this Side, except Aliahtans, So-so-ne, or Snake Indians by the General name of Flat Heads. I think my Self that the provalence of this custom is a Strong proof of those nations haveing originally proceeded from the Same Stock. The nations of this neighbourhood or those recpitulated above, ware their hair loosly flowing on their back and Sholders; both men and women divide it on the Center of the Crown in front and throw it back behind the ear on each Side. they are fond of Combs and use them when they Can obtain them; and even without the aid of Combs keep their in better order, than maney nations who are in other respects much more Civilized than themselves.

The large or apparently Sweled legs particularly observable in the women, are obtained in a great measure by tying a cord tight around the leg above the ancle bone. their method of Squating or resting themselves on their hams which they Seam from habit to prefer to Setting, no doubt contributes much to this deformity of the legs by preventing free circulation of the blood. This is also the Custom of the nations above.

The dress of the men like those above on the Columbia river Consists of a Small robe, which reaches about as low as the middle of the thye and is attatched with a String across the breast and is at pleasure turned from Side to Side as they may have an occasion to disincumber the right or left arm from the robe entirely, or when they have occasion for both hands, the fixture of the robe is in front with it's corner loosly hanging over their Arms. they Sometimes wear a hat which have already been discribed Their Robes are made most commonly of the Skins of a Small animal which I have Supposed was the brown mungo, tho' they have also a number of the Skins of the tiger Cat, Some of those of the Elk which are used principally on their war excursions, others of the Skins of Deer, panthor, Bear, and the Speckle Loon, and blankets wove with the fingers of the wool of the native Sheep. and Some of those on the Sea Coast have robes of Beaver and the Sea Otter. a mat is Sometimes temperaly thrown over the Sholders to protect them from rain. they have no other article of Cloathing whatever neither winter nor Summer, and every part except the Sholders and back is exposed to view. they are very fond of the dress of the whites, which they ware in a Similar manner when they Can obtain them, except the Shoe or mockerson which I have never Seen worn by any of them. They Call us ph-shish-e-ooks or Cloath men. The dress of the women consists of a roab, tissue, and Sometimes when the weather is uncomonly Cold, a vest. their robe is much Smaller than that of the men, never reaching lower than the waist nor extending in front Sufficiently far to cover the body. it is like that of the men confined across the breast with a String and hangs loosely over the Sholders and back. the most esteemed & valuable of those robes are made of Strips of the Skin of the Sea Otter net together with the bark of the white Cedar or Silk grass. these fish are first twisted and laid parallel with each other a little distance asunder, and then net or wove together in Such a manner that the fur appears equally on both Sides, and united between the Strands. it makes a worm and Soft covering. other robes are formed in a Similar manner of the Skins of the rackoon, beaver &c. at other times the Skins is dressed in the hair and worn without any further preperation. in this way one beaver Skin or two of the rackoon or one of the tiger Cat forms a vest and Covers the body from the Armpits to the waist, and is confined behind, and destitute of Straps over the Sholder to keep it up. The petticoat or tissue which occupies the waiste has been already described formd. of the Bark of white cedar, Silk grass, flags & rushes. The women as well as the men Sometimes cover themselves from the rain by a mat worn over the Sholders. They also Cover their heads from the rain Sometimes with a common water cup or basket made of Cedar bark and bear grass.

Those people Sometimes mark themselves by punctureing and introducing a Colouring matter. Such of them as do mark themselves in this manner prefur the legs and arms on which they imprint parallel lines of dots either longitudinally or circularly. the woman more frequently than the men mark themselves in this manner. The favorite orniments of both Sexes are the Common corase blue and white beads as before discribed of the Chinnooks. Those beads the men wear tightly wound around their wrists and Ankles maney times untill they obtain the width of three or four inches. they also wear them in large rolls loosely around the neck, or pendulous from the cartelage of the nose or rims of the ears which are purfarated in different places round the extremities for the purpose. the woman wear them in a Similar manner except in the nose which they never purfarate. they are also fond of a Species of wompum, which is furnished by a trader whome they call Swipton. it seams to be the nativ form of the Shell without any preperation. this Shell is of a conic form Somewhat curved about the Size of a ravens quill at the base, and tapering to a point which is Sufficiently large to permit a hollow through which a Small thread passes; it is from 1 to 1 inches in length, white, Smooth, hard and thin these are worn in the Same manner in which the beeds are; and furnish the men with their favorite orniment for the nose. one of these Shells is passed horizontally through cartilage of the nose and Serves frequently as a kind of ring which prevents the string which Suspends other orniments at the Same part from Chafing and freting the flesh. The men Sometimes wear Collars of Bears Claws, and the women and children the tusks of the Elk variously arranged on their necks arms &c. both male and female wear bracelets on their wrists of Copper, Brass or Iron in various forms. The women Sometimes wash their faces & hands but Seldom.

The men of those nations partake of much more of the domestic drudgery than I had at first Supposed. they Collect and prepare all the fuel, make the fires, cook for the Strangers who visit them, and assist in Cleaning and prepareing the fish. they also build their houses, construct their Canoes, and make all their wooden utensils. the peculiar province of the woman Seams to be to collect roots and manufacture various articles which are prepared of rushes, flags, Cedar bark, bear grass or way tape, also dress and manufacture the Hats & robes for Common use. the management of the Canoe for various purposes Seams to be a duty common to both Sexes, as are many other occupations which with most Indian nations devolve exclusively on the womin. their feasts of which they are very fond are always prepared and Served by the men... it Continued to rain So constantly dureing the day that Sergt. Pryor Could not Pay his Canoes. The Clatsop Chief Commowool and the two Cath-lah-mahs left us this evening and returned to their village.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

March 20
Clark: It continued to rain and blow so violently to day that nothing could be done towards forwarding our departure. we intended to have dispatched Drewyer & the 2 Field'es to hunt above Point William untill we joined them from hense but the rain renders our departure So uncertain that we decline this measure for the present.

nothing remarkable happened dureing the day. we have yet Several days provisions on hand, which we hope will be Sufficient to Serve us dureing the time we are compell'd by the weather to remain at this place..

Altho' we have not fared Sumptuously this winter & Spring at Fort Clatsop, we have lived quit as comfortably as we had any reason to expect we Should; and have accomplished every object which induced our remaining at this place except that of meeting with the traders who visit the enterance of this river. our Salt will be very sufficient to last us to the Missouri where we have a Stock in Store. it would have been very fortunate for us has Some of those traders arrived previous to our departure from hence; as we Should then have had it in our power to obtain an addition to our Stock of merchandize, which would have made our homeward bound journey much more comfortable.

Maney of our men are Still Complaining of being unwell; Bratten and Willard remain weak principally I believe for the want of proper food. I expect when we get under way that we Shall be much more healthy. it has always had that effect on us heretofore.

The Guns of Sergt. Pryor & Drewyer were both out of order. the first had a Cock screw broken which was replaced by a duplicate which had been prepared for the Locks at Harpers Ferry; the Second repared with a new Lock, the old one becoming unfit for use. but for the precaution taken in bringing on those extra locks, and parts of locks, in addition to the ingenuity of John Shields, most of our guns would at this moment been entirely unfit for use; but fortunate for us I have it in my power here to record that they are in good order, and Complete in every respect

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

March 21
Clark: as we could not Set out we thought it best to Send out Some hunters and accordingly dispatched Shields and Collins on this Side of the Netul for that purpose with orders to return in the evening or Sooner if they were Successfull. they returned late in the evening unsuccessfull. we have not now more than two days provisions on hand.

we derected Drewyer and the two Fieldses to Set out tomorrow morning early, and indevour to provide us Some provision on the Bay beyond point William.

we were visited to day by Some Clatsops who left us in the evening.

our sick men Willard and Bratten do not Seem to recover; the former was taken with a violent pain in his leg and thye last night. Bratten is now so much reduced that I am Somewhat uneasy with respect to his recovery; the pain of which he complains most Seems to be Settled in the Small of his back and remains obstenate. I believe that it is the Rheumatism with which they are both affected..

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

March 22
Clark: Drewyer and the two Fieldses departed this morning agreably to the order of last evening. we Sent out Six hunters this morning in different directions on both Sides of the Netul.

about 10 A. M. we were visited by Que-ne-o alias Commorwool 8 Clatsops and a Kil-a-mox; they brought Some dried Anchovies, a common Otter Skin and a Dog for Sale all of which we purchased. the Dog we purchased for our Sick men, the fish for to add to our Small Stock of provision's, and the Skin to cover my papers.

those Indians left us in the evening. the air is perfectly temperate, but it continues to rain in Such a manner that there is no possibillity of getting our canoes completed in order to Set out on our homeward journey. The Clatsops inform us that Several of their nation has he Sore throat, one of which has laterly died with this disorder.

the Hunters Sent out to day all returned except Colter unsessfull.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

March 23
Clark: This morning proved So raney and uncertain that we were undeturmined for Some time whether we had best Set out & risque the river which appeared to be riseing or not.

Jo. Colter returned haveing killed an Elk about 3 miles towards Point Adams. the rained Seased and it became fair about Meridean, at which time we loaded our Canoes & at 1 P. M. left Fort Clatsop on our homeward bound journey. at this place we had wintered and remained from the 7th of Decr. 1805 to this day and have lived as well as we had any right to expect, and we can Say that we were never one day without 3 meals of Some kind a day either pore Elk meat or roots, not withstanding the repeeted fall of rain which has fallen almost Constantly Since we passed the long narrows Novr.

Soon after we had Set out from Fort Clatsop we were met by De lash el wilt & 8 men of the Chinnooks, and Delashelwilts wife the old boud and his Six Girls, they had, a Canoe, a Sea otter Skin, Dried fish and hats for Sale, we purchased a Sea otter Skin, and proceeded on, thro' Meriwethers Bay,

there was a Stiff breese from the S. W. which raised Considerable Swells around Meriwethers point which was as much as our Canoes Could ride. above point William we came too at the Camp of Drewyer & the 2 Field's. they had killed 2 Elk which was about 1 miles distant. here we Encampd. for the night having made 16 miles.

Whitehouse: It rained very hard, during the whole of last night. One of our hunters did not return to the fort during that time; This morning it still continued raining, & the Weather appeared very uncertain. Our Officers were undetermined, whether they would set out, on our homeward bound Voyage; or not.

About 9 o'Clock A. M., the hunter that had staid out during last night, returned to the Fort; he had killed one Elk, which he mention'd, he had left about 3 Miles from the Fort, towards Point Adams.

About 12 o'Clock A. M. it ceased raining; & the weather became Clear & pleasant, & we loaded our Canoes, & got every thing in readiness to ascend the Columbia River.

We have been at Fort Clatsop from the 7th day of December last past; Fort Clatsop is situated on the South side of Columbia River, and about 1 Miles up a small River (which empties itself into the Columbia River) called by the Natives Ne-tul, and lay a small distance back, from the West bank of said River.

The fort was built in the form of an oblong Square, & the front of it facing the River, was picketed in, & had a Gate on the North & one on the South side of it. The distance from the head waters of the So fork of the Columbia River; to fort Clatsop is 994 Miles, this being the fork which we descended & from the Mouth of the River de Bois 4134 Miles, the place from whence we took our departure, <& in> Latitude 46 19' 11 1/10S North,

The River Columbia at its mouth also, lay: in Latitude 46 19' 11 1/10S North, & Longitude 124 57' 0 1/10S West from Greenwich; & is 21 Miles wide from Cape disappointment on the No side, to Point Adams on So. side of the River; which is where the Columbia River enters into the Western or pacific Ocean.

the Tide rises & falls, about 8 feet at the small River, near which was built Fort Clatsop.

We have been 60 Miles from Cape disappointment (Where the Chin-ook Indian village lays) which is on the No. side of the River & or its entrance into the Ocean to the No. North West. The two points, Cape disappointment, & point Adams; lay nearly opposite to each other, & about 10 Miles below fort Clatsop The distance that we have went to the Mouth of Columbia River; from the River du Bois, from whence we took our departure is 4,144 Miles, fort Adams being the extreme So point, & lay near to where our party made Salt.

We found that Bands of the flatt head Nation of Indians; are far more numerous that we expected; they extending from the head waters of the Ki-o-me-num River, to the Mouth of the Columbia River; & to the head of all the Rivers, which runs into the No. fork of Columbia River; & to the head of the same. This information we received from numbers of Indians belonging to the different bands of that Nation.

They are called flatt heads from the custom they have among them, of binding flatt pieces of wood, on the foreheads, & back parts of the heads of their Children, when born, which occasions their foreheads & back part of their heads to be flatt.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

March 24
Clark: Sent out 15 men verry early this morning for the flesh of the two Elk killed by Drewyer and Fields yesterday. they returned at 8 oClock,

after taking a Slight brackfast we Set out at half past 9 a. m. and proceeded to the Cath lah mah Village at 1 P. M. and remained untill after 3 p. m.

[On Cathlamet Bay, in the vicinity of Knappa, Clatsop County, Oregon; the people were Cathlamets]

at this village we purchased a fiew wappato and a Dog for our Sick men Willard and Bratten who are yet in a weak State.

at this Village I saw two very large elegant Canoes inlaid with Shills, those Shills I took to be teeth at first View, and the nativs informed Several of the men that they the teeth of their enemies which they had killed in War. in examineing of them Closely haveing taken out Several pices, we found that were Sea Shells they also deckerate their Smaller wooden vessles with those Shells which have much the appearance of humane teeth, Capt Cook may have mistaken those Shills verry well for humane teeth without a Close examination.

The Village of these people is the dirtiest and Stinkingest place I ever Saw in any Shape whatever, and the inhabitants partake of the characteristic of the Village.

we proceeded on through Some difficult and narrow Channels between the Seal Islands [Karlson and Marsh islands in the Columbia River] , and the south side to an old village on the south side opposit to the lower War ki a com village, and Encamped. to this old villg. a very considerable deposit of the dead at a Short distance below, in the usial and Customary way of the nativs of this Coast in Canoes raised from the ground as before described.

Soon after we made our Camp 2 Indians visited us from the opposite Side, one of them Spoke Several words of English and repeeted the names of the traders, and many of the Salors.

made 16 Miles

Ordway: I and 14 men went out eairly this morning and brought in the flesh of the 2 Elk killed by the hunters yesterday.

Gass: After a bad night's rest, on account of the rain 15 men went out and brought the meat of the two elk to our camp.

The morning was fair and after breakfast they all embarked, except the men belonging to my canoe which the tide had left aground. The hunters went on in the small canoe ahead, and I had to wait for the rising of the tide. In about two hours I was able to follow the other canoes, and proceeded on about 12 miles, to a village of the Cath-la-mas where the rest of the party had halted.

When I arrived we all proceeded on again, and in the evening encamped at an old village, which had been vacated.

[Northeast of Brownsmead, Clatsop County, Oregon. The village is discussed at Clark's entry of November 11, 1805]

Whitehouse: This morning early, Our officers sent 15 of our party out, in order to bring in the Meat of the 2 Elk, which our hunters had killed; that party returned & brought it in with them, about 8 O'Clock A. M.

At half past 9 o clock A. M. we embarked & proceeded on to an Indian Village of the Cath-le-mah Tribe, which lay on the South side of the River. this village consisted of about 9 Lodges & about 100 Inhabitants. We delayed at this village about 2 Hours, and proceeded on, & passed through a number of Islands called the Seal Islands, which lay on the So side of the River, and came to where stood an old Indian Village which is on the So. side of the River, opposite to the lower War-ki-a Cum Village.

We continued on about One Mile & encamped on the So. side of the River, Towards evening two of the Natives came to our Camp. These natives could speak some words of english & mentioned the Names of some of the Traders, Sailors &ca. who had been trading among them.

We saw a large burying place of the Natives a short distance below where we were encamped. The method that the Natives take to deposit their Dead is, by placing them in a Canoe. The body of the deceased is rolled up in Skins of some kind of Animal. The Canoe is raised on forks & poles some distance up from the ground, & all the property that the deceased died possessed of is put into the Canoe, with the body of the deceased Indian.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

March 25
Lewis: The morning being disagreeably cold we remained and took breakfast. at 7 A. M. we set out and continued our rout along the South Coast of the river against the wind and a strong current, our progress was of course but slow.

at noon we halted and dined. here some Clatsops came to us in a canoe loaded with dryed anchovies, which they call Olthen', Wappetoe and Sturgeon. they informed us that they had been up on a trading voyage to the Skillutes.

after dinner we passed the river to a large Island 2 and continued our rout allong the side of the same about a mile when we arrived at a Cathlahmah fishing cam of one lodge; here we found 3 men 2 women and a couple of boys, who from appearances had remained here some time for the purpose of taking sturgeon, which they do by trolling. they had ten or douzen very fine sturgeon which had not been long taken. we offered to purchase some of their fish but they asked us such an extravegant price that we declined purchase. one of the men purchased a sea Otterskin at this lodge, for which he gave a dressed Elkskin and an handkercheif.

near this lodge we met some Cathlahmahs who had been up the river on a fishing excurtion. they had a good stock of fish on board, but did not seem disposed to sell them. we remained at this place about half an hour and then continued our rout up the Island to it's head and passed to the south side.

the wind in the evening was very hard. it was with some difficulty that we could find a spot proper for an encampment, the shore being a swamp for several miles back; at length late in the evening opposite to the place we had encamped on the 6th of November last; we found the entrance of a small creek which afforded us a safe harbour from the wind and encamped.

the ground was low and moist tho' we obtained a tolerable encampment. here we found another party of Cathlahmahs about 10 in number who had established a temperary residence for the purpose of fishing and taking seal. they had taken a fine parcel of sturgeon and some seal. they gave us some of the fleese of the seal which I found a great improvement to the poor Elk.

here we found Drewyer and the Feildses who had been seperated from us since morning; they had passed on the North side of the large Island which was much nearer.

Lewis & Clark Map: 03/25/06 Columbia County, Oregon Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

March 26
Lewis: The wind blew so hard this morning that we delayed untill 8 A. M.

we gave a medal of small size to a man by the name of Wal-lal'-le, a principal man among the Cathlahmahs, he appeared very thankfull for the honour conferred on him and presented us a large sturgeon. we continued our rout up the river to an old village on the Stard. side where we halted for dinner.

we met on the way the principal Cheif of the Cathlahmahs, Sh-hh-wh-cap, who had been up the river on a trading voyage. he gave us some Wappetoe and fish; we also purchased some of the latter.

soon after we halted for dinner the two Wackiacums who have been pursuing us since yesterday morning with two dogs for sale, arrived. they wish tobacco in exchange for their dogs which we are not disposed to give as our stock is now reduced to a very few carrots.

our men who have been accustomed to the use of this article Tobaco and to whom we are now obliged to deny the uce of this article appear to suffer much for the want of it. they substitute the bark of the wild crab which they chew; it is very bitter, and they assure me they find it a good substitute for tobacco. the smokers substitute the inner bark of the red willow and the sacacommis.

here our hunters joined us having killed three Eagles and a large goose. I had now an oportunity of comparing the bald with the grey Eagle; I found that the greay Eagle was about larger, it's legs and feet were dark while those of the bald Eagle wer of a fine orrange yellow; the iris of the eye is also of a dark yellowish brown while that of the other is of a bright silvery colour with a slight admixture of yellow.

after dinner we proceeded on and passed an Elegant and extensive bottom on the South side and an island near it's upper point which we call Fanny's Island and bottom. the greater part of the bottom is a high dry prarie. near the river towards the upper point we saw a fine grove of whiteoak trees; we saw some deer and Elk at a distance in the prarie, but did not delay for the purpose of hunting them. we continued our rout after dinner untill late in the evening and encamped on the next island above fanny's Island.

we found it difficult to obtain as much wood as answered our purposes. the hunters who had proceeded on before us after dinner did not join us this evening. some indians visited us after dark, but did not remain long. agreeably to our estimate as we decended the river, we came 16 m. 23rd, 16 m. the 24th, 15 the 25th, and 18 m. the 26th, tho' I now think that our estimate in decending the river was too short.

Lewis & Clark Map: 03/25/06 Columbia County, Oregon Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

March 27
Lewis: We set out early this morning and were shortly after joined by some of the Skillutes who came along side in a small canoe for the purpose of trading roots and fish.

at 10 A. M. we arrived at two houses of this nation on the Stard. side where we halted for breakfast. here we overtook our hunters, they had killed nothing.

the natives appeared extreemly hospitable, gave us dryed Anchovies, Sturgeon, wappetoe, quamash, and a speceis of small white tuberous roots about 2 inches in length and as thick as a man's finger; these are eaten raw, are crisp, milkey, and agreeably flavored. most of the party were served by the natives with as much as they could eat; they insisted on our remaining all day with them and hunting the Elk and deer which they informed us were very abundant in their neighbourhood. but as the weather would not permit us to dry our canoes in order to pitch them we declined their friendly invitation, and resumed our voyage at 12 Ock.

the principal village of these Skillutes reside on the lower side of the Cow-e-lis'-kee river a few miles from it's entrance into the columbia. these people are said to be numerous. in their dress, habits, manners and language they differ but little from the Clatsops Chinnooks &c. they have latterly been at war with Chinnooks but peace is said now to be restored between them, but their intercourse is not yet resumed. no Chinnooks come above the marshey islands nor do the Skillutes visit the mouth of the Columbia. the Clatsops, Cathlahmahs and Wackkiacums are the carriers between these nations being in alliance with both.

The Coweliskee [Cowlitz River, Washington] is 150 yards wide, is deep and from indian Information navigable a very considerable distance for canoes. it discharges itself into the Columbia about three miles above a remarkable high rocky nole which is situated on the N. side of the river by which it is washed on the South side and is seperated from the Nothern hills of the river by a wide bottom of several miles to which it is united. I suspect that this river waters the country lying West of the range of mountains which pass the columbia between the great falls and rapids, and north of the same nearly to the low country which commences on the N. W. coast about Latitude [blank] North. above the Skillutes on this river another nation by the name of the Hul-loo-et-tell reside, who are said also to be numerous. at the distance of 2 m. above the village at which we breakfasted we passed the entrance of this river; we saw several fishing camps of the Skillutes on both sides of the Columbia, and were attended all the evening by parties of the natives in their canoes who visited us for the purpose of trading their fish and roots; we purchased as many as we wished on very moderate terms; they seemed perfectly satisfyed with the exchange and behaved themselves in a very orderly manner.

late in the evening we passed our camp of the 5th of November and encamped about 4 above at the commencement of the bottom land on stard. below Deer Island. we had scarcely landed before we were visited by a large canoe with eight men; from them we obtained a dryed fruit which resembled the raspburry and which I beeive to be the fruit of the large leafed thorn frequently mentioned. it is reather ascid tho' pleasently flavored. I preserved a specemine of this fruit I fear that it has been baked in the process of drying and if so the seed will not vegitate.

saw the Cottonwood, sweet willow, oak, ash and the broad leafed ash, the growth which resembles the beach &c. these form the growth of the bottom lands while the hills are covered almost exclusively with the various species of fir heretofore discribed. the black Alder appears as well on some parts of the hills as the bottoms.

before we set out from the Skillute village we sent on Gibson's canoe and Drewyers with orders to proceed as fast as they could to Deer island and there to hunt and wait our arrival. we wish to halt at that place to repair our canoes if possible. the indians who visited us this evening remained but a short time, they passed the river to the oposite side and encamped. the night as well as the day proved cold wet and excessively disagreeable.

we came 20 miles today.

Lewis & Clark Map: 03/25/06 Columbia County, Oregon Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

March 28
Lewis: This morning we set out very early and at 9 A. M. arrived at the old Indian Village on Lard side of Deer Island where we found our hunters had halted and left one man with the two canoes at their camp; they had arrived last evening at this place and six of them turned out to hunt very early this morning; by 10 A. M. they all returned to camp having killed seven deer.

these were all of the common fallow deer with the long tail. I measured the tail of one of these bucks which was upwards of 17 Inches long; they are very poor, tho' they are better than the black tailed fallow deer of the coast. these are two very distinct speceis of deer. the Indians call this large Island E-lal-lar or deer island which is a very appropriate name. the hunters informed us that they had seen upwards of a hundred deer this morning on this island.

at after ten A. M. it became fair, and we had the canoes which wanted repairing halled out and with the assistance of fires which we had kindled for the purpose dryed them sufficiently to receive the pitch which was immediately put on them; at 3 in the evening we had them compleat and again launched and reloaded. we should have set out, but as some of the party whom we had permitted to hunt since we arrived have not yet returned we determined to remain this evening and dry our beding baggage &c. the weather being fair.

Since we landed here we were visited by a large canoe with ten natives of the quathlahpahtle nation who are numerous and reside about seventeen miles above us on the lard. side of the Columbia, at the entrance of a small river. they do not differ much in their dress from those lower down and speak nearly the same language, it is in fact the same with a small difference of accent.

we saw a great number of snakes on this island they were about the size and much the form of the common garter snake of the Atlantic coast and like that snake are not poisonous. they have 160 scuta on the abdomen and 71 on the tail.

the men who had been sent after the deer returned and brought in the remnent which the Vultures and Eagles had left us; these birds had devoured 4 deer in the course of a few hours. the party killed and brought in three other deer a goose some ducks and an Eagle. Drewyer also killed a tiger cat.

Joseph Fields informed me that the Vultures had draged a large buck which he had killed about 30 yards, had skined it and broken the back bone.

we came five miles only today.

Lewis & Clark Map: 03/25/06 Columbia County, Oregon Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

March 29
Lewis: We set out early this morning and proceeded along the side of Deer Island; halted at 10 A. M. near its upper point and breakfasted. here we were joined by three men of the Clan-nah-min-na-mun nation. the upper point of this Island may be esteemed the lower side or commencement of the Columbian valley.

after breakfast we proceeded on and at the distance of 14 miles from our encampment of the last evening

on the North side of the columbia a little above the entrance of this inlet a considerable river discharges itself. this stream the natives call the Cah-wh-na-hi-ooks. it is 150 yards wide and at present discharges a large body of water, tho' from the information of the same people it is not navigable but a short distance in consequence of falls and rappids a tribe called the Hul-lu-et-tell reside on this river above it's entr.

at the distance of three miles above the entrance of the inlet on the N. side behind the lower point of an island we arrived at the village of the Cath [X: Quath]-lah-poh-tle wich consists of 14 large wooden houses. here we arrived at 3 P. M.

the language of these people as well as those on the inlet and wappetoe Island differs in some measure from the nations on the lower part of the river. tho' many of their words are the same, and a great many others with the difference only of accent. the form of their houses and dress of the men, manner of living habits customs &c as far as we could discover are the same.

the floors of most of their houses are on a level with the surface of the earth tho' some of them are sunk two or 3 feet beneath. the internal arrangement of their houses is the same with those of the nations below. they are also fond of sculpture. various figures are carved and painted on the peices which support the center of the roof, about their doors and beads.

they had large quantities of dryed Anchovies strung on small sticks by the gills and others which had been first dryed in this manner, were now arranged in large sheets with strings of bark and hung suspended by poles in the roofs of their houses; they had also an abundance of sturgeon and wappetoe; the latter they take in great quantities from the neighbouring bonds, which are numerous and extensive in the river bottoms and islands. the wappetoe [bulb of the Sagitifolia or common arrow head, which grows in great abundance in the marshey ground of that butifull and fertile vally on the Columbia] furnishes the principal article of traffic with these people which they dispose of to the nations below in exchange for beads cloth and various articles. the natives of the Sea coast and lower part of the river will dispose of their most valuable articles to obtain this root.

they have a number of large symeters [Scimitar, curved Oriental sword] of Iron from 3 to 4 feet long which hang by the heads of their beads; the blade of this weapon is thickest in the center tho' thin even there. all it's edges are sharp and it's greatest width which is about 9 inches from the point is about 4 inches. this is a formidable weapon.

they have heavy bludegeons of wood made in the same form nearly which I presume they used for the same purpose before they obtained metal.

we purchased a considerable quantity of wappetoe, 12 dogs, and 2 Sea otter skins of these people. they were very hospitable and gave us anchovies and wappetoe to eat. notwithstanding their hospitality if it deserves that appellation, they are great begers, for we had scarcely finished our repast on the wappetoe and Anchovies which they voluntarily set before us before they began to beg.

we gave them some small articles as is our custom on those occasions with which they seemed perfectly satisfyed. we gave the 1st Cheif a small medal, which he soon transfered to his wife.

after remaining at this place 2 hours we set out & continued our rout between this island, which we now call Cath-lah-poh-tle after the nation, and the Lard shore. at the distance of 2 miles we encamped in a small prarie on the main shore, having traveled 19 miles by estimate.

the river rising fast. great numbers of both the large and small swans, gees and ducks seen today. the former are very abundant in the ponds where the wappetoe is found, they feed much on this bulb. the female of the duck which was described yesterday is of a uniform dark brown with some yellowish brown intermixed in small specks on the back neck and breast. the garter snakes are innumerable, & are seen entwined arround each other in large bundles of forty of fifty lying about in different directions through the praries. the frogs are croaking in the swams and marhes; their notes do not differ from those of the Atlantic States; they are not found in the salt marshes near the entrance of the river. heared a large hooting owl hollowing this evening. saw several of the crested fishers and some of the large and small black-birds.

Clark: we Set out very early this morning and proceeded to the head of deer island and took brackfast. the morning was very cold wind Sharp and keen off the rainge of Mountains to the East Covered with snow.

the river is now riseing very fast and retards our progress very much as we are compelled to keep out at Some distance in the Curent to clear the bushes, and fallin trees and drift logs makeing out from the Shore. dureing the time we were at Brackfast a Canoe with three Indians of the Clan-nar-min-na-mon Nation came down, one of those men was dressed in a Salors Jacket & hat & the other two had a blanket each,

we proceeded on to the lower point of the Said island accompanied by the 3 Indians, & were met by 2 canoes of nativs of the quath-lah-pah-tal who informed us that the chanel to the N E of the Island was the proper one. we prosued their advice and Crossed into the mouth of the Chah-wah-na-hi-ooks River which is about 200 yards wide and a great portion of water into the columbia at this time it being high. The indians inform us that this river is crouded with rapids after Some distance up it.

Several tribes of the Hul-lu-et-tell Nation reside on this river. at 3 oClock P. M. we arived at the Quath lah pah tle Village of 14 Houses on main Shore to the N E. Side of a large island. those people in their habits manners Customs and language differ but little from those of the Clatsops and others below.

here we exchanged our deer Skins killed yesterday for dogs, and purchased others to the Number of 12 for provisions for the party, as the deer flesh is too poore for the Men to Subsist on and work as hard as is necessary. I also purchased a Sea Otter robe. we purchased wappatoe and Some pashaquar roots.

gave a Medal of the Small Size to the principal Chief, and at 5 oClock reembarked and proceeded up on the N E. of an Island to an inlet about 1 mile above the village and encamped on a butifull grassy plac, where the nativs make a portage of their Canoes and Wappato roots to and from a large pond at a Short distance.

in this pond the nativs inform us they Collect great quantities of pappato, which the womin collect by getting into the water, Sometimes to their necks holding by a Small canoe and with their feet loosen the wappato or bulb of the root from the bottom from the Fibers, and it imedeately rises to the top of the water, they Collect & throw them into the Canoe, those deep roots are the largest and best roots.

Great numbers of the whistling Swan, Gees and Ducks in the Ponds.

Soon after we landed 3 of the nativs came up with Wappato to Sell a part of which we purchased. they Continued but a Short time. our men are recoverey fast.

Willard quite well & Bratten much Stronger.

we made 15 miles to day only.

Lewis & Clark Map: 03/25/06 Clark County, Washington Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

March 30
Lewis: We got under way very early in the morning, and had not reached the head of the island before we were met by three men of the Clan-nah-min-na-mun nation one of whom we recognized being the same who had accompanied us yesterday, and who was very pressing in his entreaties that we should visit his nation on the inlet S. W. of Wappetoe island.

at the distance of about 2 M. or at the head of the quathlahpahtle island we met a party of the Claxtars and Cathlahcumups in two canoes; soon after we were met by several canoes of the different nations who reside on each side of the river near this place. Wappetoe Island is about 20 miles long and from 5 to 10 in width; the land is high and extreemly fertile and intersected in many parts with ponds which produce great quantities of the sagittaria Sagittifolia, the bulb of which the natives call wappetoe. there is a heavy growth of Cottonwood, ash, the large leafed ash and sweet willow on most parts of this island. the black alder common on the coast has now disappeared.

we passed several fishing camps on wappetoe island and at the distance of 5 miles above quathlahpotle Island on the N. E. side we halted for breakfast near the place we had encamped on the evening of the 4th of November last; here we were visited by several canoes which came off from two towns situated a little distance above us on wappetoe Island. the 1st of these tribes about 2 miles above us call themselves Clan-nah-quah, the other about a mile above them call themselves Mult-no-mah. from these visiters we purchased a sturgeon and some wappetoe and pashequa, for which we gave some small fishinghooks. these like the natives below are great higglers in dealing.

at 10 A. M. we set out and had not proceeded far before we came to a landing place of the natives where there were several large canoes drawn out on shore and several natives seting in a canoe apparently waiting our arrival; they joined the fleet and continued with us some miles. we halted a few minutes at this landing and the Indians pointed to a village which was situated abut 2 miles from the river behid a pond lying parallel with it on the N. E. side nearly opposite to the Clan-nah-quah town. here they informed us that the Sho-toes resided. here we were joined by several other canoes of natives from the Island. most of these people accompanyed us untill 4 in the evening when they all returned; their principal object I beive was merely to indulge their curiossity in looking at us. they appeared very friendly, tho' most had taken the precaution to bring with them their warlike implements.

we continued our rout along the N. E. shore of the river to the place we had halted to dine on the 4th of November opposite to the center of Immage canoe island where the Indians stole Capt. Clarks tomahawk. here we encamped a little before sunset in a beautifull prarie above a large pond

having traveled 23 M. I took a walk of a few miles through the prarie and an open grove of oak timber which borders the prarie on the back part. I saw 4 deer in the course of my walk and much appearance of both Elk and deer.

Joseph feields who was also out a little above me saw several Elk and deer but killed none of them; they are very shye and the annual furn which is now dry and abundant in the bottoms makes so much nois in passing through it that it is extreemly difficult to get within reach of the game. Feilds killed and brought with him a duck.

about 10 P. M. an indian alone in a small canoe arrived at our camp, he had some conversation with the centinel and soon departed. The natives who inhabit this valley are larger and reather better made than those of the coast. like those people they are fond of cold, hot, & vapor baths of which they make frequent uce both in sickness and in health and at all seasons of the year. they have also a very singular custom among them of baithing themselves allover with urine every morning.

The timber and apearance of the country is much as before discribed. the up lands are covered almost entirely with a heavy growth of fir of several speceis like those discribed in the neighbourhood of Fort Clatsop; the white cedar is also found here of large size; no white pine nor pine of any other kind.

we had a view of mount St. helines and Mount Hood. the 1st is the most noble looking object of it's kind in nature. it's figure is a regular cone. both these mountains are perfectly covered with snow; at least the parts of them which are visible.

the highlands in this valley are rolling tho' by no means too steep for cultivation they are generally fertile of a dark rich loam and tolerably free of stones. this valley is terminated on its lower side by the mountanous country which borders the coast, and above by the rainge of mountains which pass the Columbia between the great falls and rapids of the Columbia river. it is about 70 miles wide on a direct line and it's length I beleive to be very extensive tho' how far I cannot determine. this valley would be copetent to the mantainance of 40 or 50 thousand souls if properly cultivated and is indeed the only desireable situation for a settlement which I have seen on the West side of the Rocky mountains. [

Ordway: we Set out eairly and proceed on the River Still riseing & is now So high that the tide has no effect to be perceived at this time considerable of drift wood floating down the River.

Saw 2 large villages on a large long Island which is named wa pa-toe Isld. & is about 25 miles long, partly timbered & partly prarie & soil rich. a number of the Savages followed us Some distance with their canoes I must give these Savages as well as those on the coast the praise of makeing the neatest and handsomest lightest best formed canoes I ever Saw & are the best hands to work them.

Saw mount rainey and Mount Hood which is verry white with Snow &C

about Sunset we Camped at a handsom prarie & Groves of oak timber &C the country is lower & more Smooth than below.

Lewis & Clark Map: 03/25/06 Clark County, Washington Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

March 31
Lewis: We set out early this morning and proceeded until 8 A. M. when we Landed on the N. side opposite one large wooden house of the Shh-ha-la nation and took breakfast.

when we decended the river in November last there were 24 other lodges formed of Straw and covered with bark near this house; these lodges are now distroyed and the inhabitants as the indians inform us have returned to the great rapids of this river which is their permanent residence; the house which remains is inhabited; soon after we landed two canoes came over from this house with 4 men and a woman. they informed us that their relations who were with them last fall usuly visit them at that season for the purpose of hunting deer and Elk and collecing wappetoe and that they had lately returned to the rapids I presume to prepare for the fishing season as the Salmon will begin to run shortly.

this morning we overtook the man who had visited our camp last night he had a fine sturgeon in his canoe which he had just taken.

the Sagittaria Sagittifolia dose not grow on this river above the Columbian valley.These indians of the rapids frequently visit this valley at every season of the year for the purpose of collecting wappetoe which is abundant and appears never to be out of season at any time of the year.

at 10 A. M. we resumed our march accompanyed by three men in a canoe; one of these fellows appeared to be a man of some note among them; he was dressed in a salor's jacket which was decorated in this own fassion with five rows of large and small buttons in front and some large buttons on the pocket flaps. they are remarkably fond of large brass buttons.

these people speak a different language from those below tho' in their dress habits manners &c they differ but little from the quathlahpohtles. they differ in the manner of intering their dead. they lay them horizontally on boards and cover them with mats, in a valt formed with boards like the roof of a hose supported by forks and a single pole laid horizontally on those forks. many bodies are deposited in the same valt above ground. these are frequently laid one on the other, to the hight of three or for corps. they deposit with them various articles of which they die possessed, and most esteem while living. their canoes are frequently broken up to strengthen the vault.

these people have a few words the same with those below but the air of the language is intirely different, insomuch, that it may be justly deemed a different language.

their women wear longer and larger robes generally, than those below; these are most commonly made of deer skins dressed with the hair on them.

we continued our rout along the N. side of the river passed diamond Island and whitebrant island to the lower point of a handsom prarie opposite to the upper entrance of the Quicksand river; here we encamped having traveled 25 miles today.

a little below the upper point of the White brant Island Seal river discharges itself on the N. side. it is about 80 yards wide, and at present discharges a large body of water. the water is very clear. the banks are low and near the Columbia overflow and form several large ponds. the natives inform us that it is of no great extent and heads in the mountains just above us. at the distance of one mile from the entrance of this stream it forks, the two branches being nearly of the same size. they are both obstructed with falls and innumerable rappids, insomuch that it cannot be navigated.

as we could not learn any name of the natives for this stream we called it Seal river from the great abundance of those animals which we saw about it's entrance. we determined to remain at our present encampment a day or two for the several purposes of examining quicksand river, making some Celestial observations, and procuring some meat to serve us as far as the falls or through the Western mountains where we found the game scarce as we decended.

the three indians who accompanied us last evening encamped a little distance above us and visited our camp where they remained untill 9 P. M.

in the entrance of Seal river I saw a summer duck or wood duck as they are sometimes called. this is the same with those of our country and is the first I have seen since I entered the rocky mountains last summer.

our hunters who had halted a little below Seal river in consequence of the waves being too high for their small canoe did not join us untill after dark. Drewyer who was out below Seal river informed us that game was very scarce in that quarter, a circumstance which we did not expect

Lewis & Clark Map: 03/25/06 Clark County, Washington Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

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This guide last edited 09/11/2006
This guide last revised 07/17/2007
This guide created 02/21/2006