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Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery

Journals: April, 1806

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Meriwether Lewis, William Clark
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April 1
Lewis: This morning early we dispatched Sergt. Pryar with two men in a small canoe up quicksand river with orders to proceed as far as he could and return this evening. we also sent a party of three hunters over the river to hunt a large bottom of woodland and prarie above the entrance of the Quicksand river; the ballance of the hunters we sent out in different directions on this side of the Columbia and employed those about camp in making a rope of Elkskin.

the Indians who encamped near us last evening continued with us untill about midday. they informed us that the quicksand river which we have heretofore deemed so considerable, only extendes through the Western mountains as far as the S. Western side of mount hood where it takes it's source.

this mountain bears E from this place and is distant about 40 miles. this information was corroborated by that of sundry other indians who visited us in the course of the day. we were now convinced that there must be some other considerable river which flowed into the columbia on it's south side below us which we have not yet seen, as the extensive valley on that side of the river lying between the mountainous country of the Coast and the Western mountains must be watered by some stream which we had heretofore supposed was the quicksand river. but if it be a fact that the quicksand river heads in Mount Hood it must leave the valley within a few miles of it's entrance and runs nearly parallel with the Columbia river upwards.

we indeavoured to ascertain by what steam the southern portion of the Columbia valley was watered but could obtain no satisfactory information of the natives on this head. they informed us that the quicksand river is navigable a short distance only in consequence of falls and rapids; and that no nation inhabits it.—

Sergt. Pryar returned in the evening and reported that he had ascended the river six miles; that above the point at which it divides itself into two channels it is about 300 yds wide tho' the channel is not more than 50 yds and only 6 ft deep. this is a large vollume of water to collect in so short a distance; I therefore think it probable that there are some large creeks falling into it from the S. W. the bed of this stream is formed entirely of quicksand; it's banks are low and at preasent overflows. the water is turbid and current rapid.—

We were visited by several canoes of natives in the course of the day; most of whom were decending the river with their women and children. they informed us that they resided at the great rapids and that their relations at that place were much streightened at that place for the want of food; that they had consumed their winter store of dryed fish and that those of the present season had not yet arrived.

I could not learn wheather they took the Sturgeon but presume if they do it is in but small quantities as they complained much of the scarcity of food among them. they informed us that the nations above them were in the same situation & that they did not expect the Salmon to arrive untill the full of the next moon which happens on the 2d of May.

we did not doubt the varacity of these people who seemed to be on their way with their families and effects in surch of subsistence which they find it easy to procure in this fertile valley.— This information gave us much uneasiness with rispect to our future means of subsistence. above falls or through plains from thence to the Chopunnish there are no deer Antelope nor Elk on which we can depend for subsistence;

their horses are very poor most probably at this season, and if they have no fish their dogs must be in the same situation. under these circumstances there seems to be but a gloomy prospect for subsistence on any terms; we therefore took it into serious consideration what measures we were to pursue on this occasion; it was at once deemed inexpedient to wait the arrival of the salmon as that would detain us so large a portion of the season that it is probable we should not reach the United States before the ice would close the Missouri; or at all events would hazard our horses which we lelft in charge of the Chopunnish who informed us that they intended passing the rocky mountains to the Missouri as early as the season would permit them wich is as we believe about the begining of May. should these people leave their situation near kooskooske before our arrival we may probably find much difficulty in recovering our horses; without which there will be but little possibility of repassing the mountains; we are therefore determined to loose as little time as possible in geting to the Chopunnish Village.

at 3 P. M. the hunters who were sent over the river returned having killed 4 Elk and two deer; the Elk were in good order but the deer extreemly poor. they informed us that game is very plenty in that quarter. the hunters on this side of the river also returned but had killed nothing; they saw a few Elk and deer. there was also much sign of the black bear seen on the other side of the river.

we sent a party to bring in the flesh of the Elk and deer that were killed. they did not return this evening. I purchased a canoe from an Indian today for which I gave him six fathoms of wampum beads; he seemed satisfyed with his bargain and departed in another canoe but shortly after returned and canceled the bargain; took his canoe and returned the beads. this is frequently the case in their method of traiding and is deemed fair by them.

The last evening and this morning were so cloudy that I could neither obtain any Lunar observations nor equal altitudes.—

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April 2
Lewis: This morning we came to a resolution to remain at our present encampment or some where in this neighbourhood untill we had obtained as much dryed meat as would be necessary for our voyage as far as the Chopunnish. to exchange our perogues for canoes with the natives on our way to the great falls of the columbia or purchase such canoes from them for Elkskins and Merchandize as would answer our purposes.

these canoes we intend exchanging with the natives of the plains for horses as we proceed untill we obtained as many as will enable us to travel altogether by land. at some convenient point, perhaps at the entrence of the S. E. branch of the Columbia,we purpose sending a party of four or five men a head to collect our horses that they may be in readiness for us by our arrival at the Chopunnish; calculating by thus acquiring a large stock of horses we shall not only sucure the means of transporting our baggage over the mountains but that we will also have provided the means of subsisting; for we now view the horses as our only certain resource for food, nor do we look forward to it with any detestation or horrow, so soon is the mind which is occupyed with any interesting object reconciled to it's situation.

The men who were sent in quest of the Elk and deer that were killed yesterday returned at 8 A. M. this morning. we now enformed the party of our intention of laying in a store of meat at this place, and immediately dispatched two parteis consisting of nine men to the opposite side of the river. five of those we sent below the Quicksand river and 4 above. we also sent out three others on this side, and those who remained in camp were employed in collecting wood making a scaffoald and cuting up the meat in order to dry it.

about this time several canoes of the natives arrived at our camp and among others one from below which had on board eight men of the Shah-ha-la nation these men informed us that 2 young men whom they pointed out were Cash-hooks and resided at the falls of a large river which discharges itself into the Columbia on it's South side some miles below us. we readily prevailed on them to give us a sketch of this river which they drew on a mat with a coal. it appeared that this river which they called Mult-no-mâh discharged itself behind the Island which we called the image canoe Island and as we had left this island to the S. both in ascending and decending the river we had never seen it.

they informed us that it was a large river and run a considerable distance to the South between the mountains. Capt. Clark determined to return and examine this river accordingly he took a party of seven men and one of the perogues and set out ½ after 11 A. M., he hired one of the Cashhooks, for a birning glass, to pilot him to the entrance of the Multnomah river and took him on board with him.

in their manners dress language and stature these people are the same with the quathlahpohtle nation and others residing in the neighbourhood of wappetoe Island. near the entrance of multnomah river a considerable nation resides on the lower side of that stream by the same name. as many as ten canoes with natives arrived at our camp in the course of the day; most of them were families of men women and children decencing the river. they all gave the same account of the scarcity of provision above. I shot my air gun, with which they were much astonished.

one family consisting of ten or twelve persons remained near us all night. they conducted themselves in a very orderly manner. the three hunters on this side of the river returned in the evening they had killed two deer, tho' they were so poor and at such a distance from the camp that they brought in their skins only. the night and morning being cloudy I was again disappointed in making the observations I wished. the hunters inform me that there are extensive praries on the highlands a few miles back from the river on this side. the land is very fertile.—

Clark: the natives informed us that there is a large river that runs a Considerable distance to the South between the Mountains. I deturmined to take a Small party and return to this river and examine its Size and Collect as much information of the nativs on it or near its enterance into the Columbia of its extent, the Country which it waters and the nativs who inhabit its banks &c.

I took with me Six Men. Thompson J. Potts, Peter Crusat, P. Wiser, T. P. Howard, Jos. Whitehouse & my man York in a large Canoe, with an Indian whome I hired for a Sun glass to accompany me as a pilot.

at half past 11 A. M. I Set out, and had not proceeded far eer I saw 4 large Canoes at Some distance above decending and bending their Course towards our Camp which at this time is very weak Capt. Lewis haveing only 10 men with him. I hisitated for a moment whether it would not be advisable for me to return and delay untill a part of our hunters Should return to add more Strength to our Camp. but on a Second reflection and reverting to the precautions always taken by my friend Capt Lewis on those occasions banished all apprehensions and I proceeded on down.

at 8 miles passed a village on the South side at this place my Pilot informed me he resided and that the name of his tribe is Ne-cha-co-lee, this village is back or to the South of Dimond island, and as we passed on the North Side of the island both decending & assending did not See or know of this Village. I proceeded on without landing at this village.

at 3 P. M. I landed at a large double house of the Ne-er-cho-ki-oo tribe of the Shah-ha-la Nation. at this place we had Seen 24 aditional Straw Huts as we passed down last fall and whome as I have before mentioned reside at the Great rapids of the Columbia. on the bank at different places I observed Small Canoes which the women make use of to gather Wappato & roots in the Slashes. those Canoes are from 10 to 14 feet long and from 18 to 23 inches wide in the widest part tapering from the center to both ends in this form and about 9 inches deep and So light that a woman may with one hand haul them with ease, and they are Sufficient to Carry a woman on Some loading.

I think 100 of those canoes were piled up and Scattered in different directions about in the Woods in the vecinity of this house, the pilot informed me that those Canoes were the property of the inhabitents of the Grand rapids who used them ocasionally to gather roots. I entered one of the rooms of this house and offered Several articles to the nativs in exchange for Wappato. they were Sulkey and they positively refused to Sell any.

I had a Small pece of port fire match in my pocket, off of which I cut a pece one inch in length & put it into the fire and took out my pocket Compas and Set myself doun on a mat on one Side of the fire, and a magnet which was in the top of my ink Stand the port fire cought and burned vehemently, which changed the Colour of the fire; with the Magnit I turned the Needle of the Compas about very briskly; which astonished and alarmed these nativs and they laid Several parsels of Wappato at my feet, & begged of me to take out the bad fire; to this I consented;

at this moment the match being exhausted was of course extinguished and I put up the magnet &c. this measure alarmed them So much that the womin and children took Shelter in their beads and behind the men, all this time a very old blind man was Speaking with great vehemunce, appearently imploreing his gode.

I lit my pipe and gave them Smoke & gave the womin the full amount of the roots which they had put at my feet. they appeared Somewhat passified and I left them and proceeded on on the South Side of Image Canoe Island which I found to be two Islands hid from the opposit Side by one near the Center of the river. the lower point of the upper and the upper point of the lower cannot be Seen from the North Side of the Columbia on which we had passed both decending and ascending and had not observed the apperture between those islands.

at the distance of 13 Miles below the last village and at the place I had Supposed was the lower point of the image Canoe island, I entered this river which the nativs had informed us of, Called Mult no mah River so called by the nativs from a Nation who reside on Wappato Island a little below the enterance of this river. Multnomah discharges itself in the Columbia on the S. E. and may be justly Said to be ¼ the Size of that noble river. Multnomah had fallen 18 inches from it's greatest annual height. three Small Islands are situated in it's mouth which hides the river from view from the Columbia.

from the enterance of this river, I can plainly See Mt. Jefferson which is high and Covered with snow S. E. Mt. Hood East, Mt St. Helians a high humped Mountain to the East of Mt St. Helians. I also Saw the Mt. Raneer Nearly North.

Soon after I arived at this river an old man passed down of the Clark a'mos Nation who are noumerous and reside on a branch of this river which receives it's waters from Mt. Jefferson which is emensely high and discharges itself into this river one day and a half up, this distance I State at 40 Miles. This nation inhabits 11 Villages their Dress and language is very Similar to the Quath-lah-poh-tle and other tribes on Wappato Island.

The Current of the Multnomar is as jentle as that of the Columbia glides Smoothly with an eavin surface, and appears to be Sufficiently deep for the largest Ship. I attempted fathom it with a Cord of 5 fathom which was the only Cord I had, could not find bottom ? of the distance across.

I proceeded up this river 10 miles from it's enterance into the Columbia to a large house on the N E. Side and Encamped near the house, the flees being So noumerous in the house that we could not Sleep in it.

this is the house of the Cush-hooks Nation who reside at the falls of this river which the pilot informs me they make use of when they Come down to the Vally to gather Wappato. he also informs me that a number of other Smaller houses are Situated on two Bayous which make out on the S. E. Side a little below the house.

this house appears to have been laterly abandoned by its inhabitants in which they had left Sundery articles Such as Small Canoes mats, bladdles of Oil and baskits bowls & trenchers. and as my pilot informed me was gorn up this to the falls to fish which is 2 days or 60 miles up. this house is 30 feet wide & presisely 40 feet long. built in the usial form of broad boads Covered with bark. The course and distance assending the

Lewis & Clark Map: 04/01/06 Clark County, Washington Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

April 3
Lewis: Early this morning Joseph Fields came over and informed me that Reubin Feilds Drewyer and himself had killed four Elk. as the party with me were now but weak and the Indians constantly crouding about our camp, I thought it best to send a few men to dry the meat on the other side of the river;

accordingly Sergt Pryor and two men returned with Jos. Fields for that purpose. the hunters were ordered to continue the chase; while the others were employed in drying the meat. I have had no account as yet from the party below the entrance of Quicksand river.

The Indians continued to visit us today in considerable numbers most of them were decending the river with their families. these poor people appeared to be almost starved, they picked up the bones and little peices of refuse meat which had been thrown away by the party. they confirm the report of the scarcity of provision among the natives above.

I observe some of the men among them frequently wear a cap formed of the skin of the deer's head with the ears left on it, they have some collars of leather wrought with porcupine quills after the method of the Shoshonees.

From this place Mount Hood bears S. 85° E. distant 40 miles.

This evening we completed drying the flesh of the Elk which had been brought to camp.

at 6 P. M. Capt. Clark returned, having completely succeeded in his expedition. he found the entrance of the large river of which the Indians had informed us, just at the upper part of wappetoe Island.


[References to the Multnomah River are to the river known today as the Willamette River.]

The water had fallen in the course of last night five inches.

I Set out and proceeded up a Short distance and attempted a Second time to fathom the river with my cord of 5 fathom but could find no bottom. the mist was So thick that I could See but a Short distance up this river. where I left it, it was binding to the East of S. E.

being perfectly Satisfyed of the Size and magnitude of this great river which must Water that vast tract of Country betwen the Western range of mountains and those on the Sea coast and as far S. as the Waters of Callifornia about Latd. 37° North I deturmined to return.

at 7 oClock A. M. Set out on my return. the men exirted themselves and we arived at the Ne er cho ki oo house in which the nativs were So illy disposed yesterday

at 11 A. M. I entered the house with a view to Smoke with those people who Consisted of about 8 families, finding my presence alarmed them So much that the children hid themselves, womin got behind their men, and the men hung their heads, I detained but a fiew minits and returnd on board the canoe. My pilot who Continued in the Canoe informed me on my return that those people as well as their relations were very illy disposed and bad people.

I proceeded on along the South Side met five canoes of the Shah-ha-la Nation from the Great rapids with their wives and Children decending the Columbia into this fertile Vally in pursute of provisions. my Pilot informed me in a low voice that those people were not good, and I did not Suffer them to come along Side of my Canoe which they appeared anxious to do. their numbers in those canoes who appeard anxious to come along Side was 21 men and 3 boys.

at 3 P M. we arived at the residence of our Pilot which consists of one long house with Seven appartments or rooms in Square form about 30 feet each room opening into a passage which is quit through the house those passages are about 4 feet in width and formed of Wide boads Set on end in the ground and reaching to the Ruff which Serves also as divisions to the rooms. this house is built of bark of the White Cedar Supported on long Stiff poles resting on the ends of broad boads which form the rooms &c.

back of this house I observe the wreck of 5 houses remaining of a very large Village, the houses of which had been built in the form of those we first Saw at the long narrows of the E-lute Nation with whome those people are connected. indeavored to obtain from those people of the Situation of their nation, if scattered or what had become of the nativs who must have peopled this great town. an old man who appeared of Some note among them and father to my guide brought foward a woman who was badly marked with the Small Pox and made Signs that they all died with the disorder which marked her face, and which She was verry near dieing with when a Girl.

from the age of this woman this Distructive disorder I judge must have been about 28 or 30 years past, and about the time the Clatsops inform us that this disorder raged in their towns and distroyed their nation.

Those people Speak a different language from those below tho' in their dress habits and manners &c. they differ but little from the Quathlahpohtles. those people have Some words the Same with those below but the air of their language is entirely different, their men are Stouter and much better made, and their womin ware larger & longer robes than those do below; those are most commonly made of Deer Skins dressed with the hair of them.

they pay great attention to their aged Severall men and women whom I observed in this village had arived at a great age, and appeared to be helthy tho' blind.

I provailed on an old man to draw me a Sketch of the Multnomar River ang give me the names of the nations resideing on it which he readily done, and gave me the names of 4 nations who reside on this river two of them very noumerous.

The first is Clark a-mus nation reside on a Small river which takes its rise in Mount Jefferson and falls into the Moltnomar about 40 miles up. this nation is noumerous and inhabit 11 Towns.

the 2d is the Cush-hooks who reside on the N E. Side below the falls, the 3rd is the Char-cowan who reside above the Falls on the S W. Side neether of those two are noumerous. The fourth Nation is the Cal-lar-po-e-wah which is very noumerous & inhabit the Country on each Side of the Multnomar from its falls as far up as the knowledge of those people extend. they inform me also that a high mountain passes the Multnomar at the falls, and above the Country is an open plain of great extent.

I purchased 5 dogs of those people for the use of their Oil in the Plains, and at 4 P M left the Village and proceeded on to Camp where I joind Capt. Lewis

The enterance of Multnomah river is 142 miles up the Columbia river from its enterance into the Pacific Ocean—.

in my absence and Soon after I left camp Several Canoes of men women and Children came to the camp. and at one time there was about 37 of those people in Camp Capt Lewis fired his Air gun which astonished them in Such a manner that they were orderly and kept at a proper distance dureing the time they Continued with him—

as maney as 10 Canoes arrived at Camp in the Course of this day. they all Seem to give the Same account of the Scercity of Provisions above. one family Continued all night and behaved themselves in a very orderly manner.

Lewis & Clark Map: 04/01/06 Clark County, Washington Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

April 4
Lewis: This morning early we sent Sergt. Ordway in Surch of Sergt. Gass and party below the entrance of the Quicksand river from whom we have yet had no report. in the course of a few hours both parties returned.

Sergt. Gass and party brought the flesh of a bear and some venison. they informed us that they had killed an Elk and six deer tho' the flesh of the greater part of those animals was so meagre that it was unfit for uce and they had therefore left in the woods.

Collins who had killed the bear, found the bed of another in which there were three young ones; and requested to be permitted to return in order to waylay the bed and kill the female bear; we permitted him to do so; Sergt. Gass and Windsor returned with him.

Several parties of the natives visit us today as usual both from above and below; those who came from above were moving with their families, and those from below appeared to be empeled mearly by curiossity to see us.

About noon we dispatched Gibson Shannon Howard and Wiser in one of the light canoes, with orders to proceed up the Columbia to a large bottom on the South side about six miles above us and to hunt untill our arrival.

late in the evening Joseph Fields and Drewyer returned. they had killed two deer yesterday, and informed us that the meat would be dryed by midday tomorrow. we directed Drewyer and the two Feildses to ascend the river tomorrow to join Gibson and party, and hunt untill our arrival.

this evening being fair I observed time and distance of 's Eastern Limb from regulus with Sextant. West.


I and 2 men went over the River to see what success the hunters had met the hunters & returned with 5 of them they had killd. one Elk Six Deer and a handsome black bear & 2 Geese the hunters

Soon went out again 4 was Sent on with a Small Canoe a head 5 or 6 miles to a bottom on S. Side to hunt untill we come up. the after part of the day pleasant. one of the men killd. 2 deer. in the evening 2 of our hunters came in had killd. 2 deer and caught a beaver

Lewis & Clark Map: 04/01/06 Clark County, Washington Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

April 5
Lewis: This morning was so cloudy that I could not obtain any lunar observations with Aquila as I wished.

Joseph Fields and Drewyer departed this morning agreeably to their orders of last evening. at 9 A. M. we Sent Sergt. Ordway and a party to assist Sergt. Pryor in bringing in the meat of four Elk which he had dryed. at 1 P. M the party returned with the meat. it had been so illy dryed that we feared it would not keep. we therefore directed it to be cut thinner and redryed over a fire this evening, as we purpose setting out early in the morning.

the deerskins which we have had cased for the purpose of containing our dryed meat are not themselves sufficiently dryed for that purpose, we directed them to be dryed by the fire also. the weather has been so damp that there was no possibility of pounding the meat as I wished.—

we were visited today by several parties of the natives as usual; they behaved themselves in a very orderly manner.

Observed Magnetic Azimuth and altitude of the with Circumferenter and Sextant. immediately after this observation the sun was suddenly obscured by a cloud and prevented my taking Equal Alitudes. I therefore had recourse to two altitudes in the evening which I obtained as the sun happened to shine a few minutes together through the passing clouds.

Saw the Log cock [pileated woodpecker, Dryocopus pileatus], the hummingbird, gees ducks &c today. the tick has made it's appearance it is the same with those of the Atlantic States. the Musquetoes have also appeared but are not yet troublesome.—

this morning at 10 OClock Sergt. Gass returned with Collins and Windsor they had not succeeded in killing the female bear tho' they brought the three cubs with them. the Indians who visited us today fancyed these petts and gave us wappetoe in exchange for them. Drewyer informed me that he never knew a female bear return to her young when they had been allarmed by a person and once compelled to leave them.

The dogwood grows abundantly on the uplands in this neighbourhood. it differs from that of the United States in the appearance of it's bark which is much smoother, it also arrives here to much greater size than I ever observed it elsewhere sometimes the stem is nearly 2 feet in diameter. we measured a fallen tree of fir No. 1 which was 318 feet including the stump which was about 6 feet high. this tree was only about 3 ½ feet in diameter.

we saw the martin, small gees, the small speckled woodpecker with a white back, the Blue crested Corvus, ravens, crows, eagles Vultures and hawks. the mellow bug and long leged spider have appeared, as have also the butterfly blowing fly and many other insects. I observe not any among them which appear to differ from those of our country or which deserve particular notice.—


Sergt. Gass & 2 other of the hunters returnd. with 3 Small black cubs which was sold to the Savages

I and 5 more men went over to the S. Side and climbed a high River hill on which is excelent rich land. went to the Camp of our hunters and brought in the meat. three more hunters Sent on a head with their Small canoe a hunting

great numbers of Savages visited the Camp continually Since we have lay in at this Camp, who were passing down with their famillys from the country above into the vally of Columbia in Search of food. they inform us that the natives above the great falls have no provisions and many are dieing with hunger. this information has been so repeatedly given by different parties of Indians that it does not admit of any doubt and is the cause of our delay in this neighbourhood for the purpose of procureing as much dryed Elk meat as will last us through the Columbia plains in which we do not expect to find any thing to kill &C.

the River hills are high above Quick Sand River Some of the clifts is 200 feet high. on the tops of those hills the land is excessively rich and thickly timbred with different Species of Fir intermixed with white cedder. I Saw one of the Fir trees which is 100 and 4 feet in length.

Lewis & Clark Map: 04/01/06 Clark County, Washington Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

April 6
Lewis: This morning we had the dryed meat secured in skins and the canoes loaded; we took breakfast and departed at 9 A. M.

we continued up the N. side of the river nearly to the place at which we had encamped on the 3rd of Nov. when we passed the river to the south side in quest of the hunters we had sent up yesterday and the day before. from the appearance of a rock near which we had encamped on the 3rd of November last I could judge better of the rise of the water than I could at any point below. I think the flood of this spring has been about 12 feet higher than it was at that time; the river is here about 1½ miles wide; it's general width from the beacon rock which may be esteemed the head of tide water, to the marshey islands is from one to 2 miles tho' in many places it is still wider.

it is only in the fall of the year when the river is low that the tides are persceptable as high as the beacon rock. this remarkable rock which stands on the North shore of the river is unconnected with the hills and rises to the hight of seven hundred feet; it has some pine or reather fir timber on it's nothern side, the southern is a precipice of it's whole hight. it rises to a very sharp point and is visible for 20 miles below on the river.

at the distance of ten miles from our encampment we met with our hunters in the upper end of the bottom to which we had directed them on the South side of the river. they had killed three Elk this morning and wounded two others so badly that they expected to get them. we therefore determined to encamp for the evening at this place in order to dry the meat, in surch of which we sent a party immediately and employed others in preparing scaffoalds and collecting firewood &c against their return.

we found some indians with our hunters when we arrived; these people are constantly hanging about us.—

the party whom we sent for the flesh of the Elk which Shannon had killed returned in the evening with that of four, one had by some mistake been omitted. Drewyer and shannon found the two wounded Elk and had killed them. we set all hands at work to prepare the meat for the saffoald they continued their operations untill late at night.

we directed Shannon to go out early in the morning with a party to bring in the Elk which had been left last evening in mistake. we also directed Drewyer and the two Feildses to ascend the river early in the morning to a small bottom a few miles above and hunt untill our arrival.—

Lewis & Clark Map: 04/01/06 Multnomah County, Oregon Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

April 7
Lewis: This morning early the flesh of the remaining Elk was brought in and Drewyer with the Feildses departed agreeable to the order of the last evening.

we employed the party in drying the meat today which we completed by the evening, and we had it secured in dryed Elkskins and put on board in readiness for an early departure.

we were visited today by several parties of indians from a village about 8 miles above us of the Sahhalah nation. I detected one of them in steeling a peice of lead and sent him from camp. I hope we have now a sufficient stock of dryed meat to serve us as far the Chopunnish provided we can obtain a few dogs horses and roots by the way. in the neignbourhood of the Chopunnish we can procure a few deer and perhaps a bear or two for the mountains.

last evening Reubin Fields killed a bird of the quail kind it is reather larger than the quail, or partridge as they are called in Virginia. this is a most beautifull bird. I preserved the skin of this bird retaining the wings feet and head which I hope will give a just idea of the bird. it's loud note is single and consists of a loud squall, intirely different from the whistling of our quales or partridge. it has a cherping note when allarmed something like ours.— today there was a second of these birds killed by Capt C. which precisely resembled that just discribed I believe these to be the male bird the female, if so, I have not yet seen.—

the day has been fair and weather extreemly pleasant. we made our men exercise themselves in shooting today and regulate their guns found several of them that had their sights moved by accedent, and others that wanted some little alterations all which were compleately rectifyed in the course of the day.

in the evening all the indians departed for their village.

Clark: about 4 oClock P M all the Indians left us, and returned to their Village. they had brought with them Wappato, & pashequa roots Chapellel cakes, and a Species of Raspberry for Sale, none of which they disposed of as they asked Such enormous prices for those articles that we were not able to purchase any.

Drewyer returned down the river in the evening & informed us that the nativs had Sceared all the Elk from the river above. Joseph & reuben Fields had proceeded on further up the river in the canoe, he expected to the village.

I provaled on an old indian to mark the Multnomah R down on the Sand which hid and perfectly Corisponded with the Sketch given me by sundary others, with the addition of a circular mountain which passes this river at the falls and connects with the mountains of the Seacoast.

he also lais down the Clark a mos passing a high Conical Mountain near it's mouth on the lower Side and heads in Mount Jefferson which he lais down by raiseing the Sand as a very high mountain and Covered with eternal Snow. the high mountain which this Indian lais down near the enterance of Clark a mos river, we have not Seen as the hills in it's direction from this vally is high and obscures the Sight of it from us.

Mt Jefferson we Can plainly See from the enterance of Multnomah from which place it bears S. E. this is a noble Mountain and I think equally as high or Something higher than Mt. St. Heleans but its distance being much greater than that of the latter, So great a portion of it does not appear above the range of mountains which lie between both those Stupendious Mountains and the Mouth of Multnomah. like Mt. St. Heleans its figure is a regular Cone and is covered with eturnial Snow.

that the Clarkamos nation as also those at the falls of the Multnomah live principally on fish of which those Streams abound and also on roots which they precure on it's borders, they also Sometimes Come down to the Columbia in Serch of Wappato.

they build their houses in the Same form with those of the Columbian Vally of wide Split boads and Covered with bark of the White Cedar which is the entire length of the one Side of the roof and jut over at the eve about 18 inches. at the distance of about 18 inches transvers Spinters of dried pine is inserted through the Ceder bark inorder to keep it Smooth and prevent it's edge from Colapsing by the heat of the Sun; in this manner the nativs make a very Secure light and lasting roof of this bark. which we have observed in every Vilege in this Vally as well as those above. this Indian also informed me the multnomah above the falls was Crouded with rapids and thickly inhabited by indians of the Cal-lah-po-é-wah Nation. he informed he had himself been a long way up that river &c.

Lewis & Clark Map: 04/01/06 Multnomah County, Oregon Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

April 8
Lewis: The wind blew so violently this morning that we were obliged to unlode our perogues and canoes, soon after which they filled with water.

being compelled to remain during the day at our present station we sent out some hunters in order to add something to our stock of provision; and exposed our dryed meat to the sun and the smoke of small fires.

in the evening the hunters returned having killed a duck only; they saw two bear and some of the blacktailed jumping or fallow deer, such as are found about Fort Clatsop; this kind of deer are scarce in this neighbourhood, the common longtailed fallow deer being most abundant. we have seen the black bear only in this quarter.

the wind continued without intermission to blow violently all day.

I took a walk today of three miles down the river;

— late at night the centinel detected an old indian man in attempting to creep into camp in order to pilfer; he allarmed the indian very much by presenting his gun at him; he gave the fellow a few stripes with a switch and sent him off. this fellow is one of a party of six who layed incamped a few hundred years below us, they departed soon after this occurrence.—

Clark: This morning about day light I heard a Considerable roreing like wind at a distance and in the Course of a Short time wavs rose very high which appeared to come across the river and in the Course of an hour became So high that we were obliged to unload the canoes, at 7 oClock A. M. the winds Suelded and blew So hard and raised the Waves So emensely high from the N. E and tossed our Canoes against the Shore in Such a manner as to render it necessary to haul them up on the bank.

finding from the appearance of the winds that it is probable that we may be detained all day, we Sent out Drewyer, Shannon Colter & Collins to hunt with derections to return if the Wind Should lul, if not to Continue the hunt all day except they killed Elk or bear Sooner &c. we had the dried meat which was cured at our last encampment below exposed to the Sun.

John Shields Cut out my Small rifle & brought hir to Shoot very well. the party ows much to the injenuity of this man, by whome their guns are repared when they get out of order which is very often.

I observed an Indian Woman who visited us yesterday blind of an eye, and a man who was nearly blind of both eyes. the loss of Sight I have observed to be more Common among all the nations inhabiting this river than among any people I ever observed. they have almost invariably Sore eyes at all Stages of life. the loss of an eye is very Common among them; blindness in persons of middle age is by no means uncommon, and it is almost invariably a concammitant of old age.

I Know not to what cause to attribute this prevalent deficientcy of the eye except it be their exposure to the reflection of the Sun on the water to which they are constantly exposed in the Occupation of fishing.

about 1 P M Collins Shannon and Colter returned. Collins Saw 2 bear but could not get a Shot at them. neither Shannon nor Colter Saw any thing worth Shooting. Soon after Drewyer returned haveing only a Summer Duck. the Elk is gorn to the mountains as the hunters Suppose.

in the evening late an old man his Son & Grand Son and their Wives &c. Came down dureing the time the waves raged with great fury. the wife of the Grand Son is a woman of differant appearance from any we have Seen on this river, she has a very round head and pierceing black eyes. Soon after those people arived the Old man was detected in Stealing a Spoon and he was ordered away, at about 200 yards below our Camp they built themselves a fire and did not return to our fires after—.

The Wind Continued violently hard all day, and threw our Canoes with Such force against the Shore that one of them Split before we Could get it out.

Lewis & Clark Map: 04/01/06 Multnomah County, Oregon Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

April 9
Lewis: This morning early we commenced the operation of reloading our canoes; at 7 A. M. we departed and proceeded on to the Camp of Reubin and Joseph Fields they had not killed any game; we made no halt at this place but continued our rout to the Wah-clel-lah Village which is situated on the North side of the river about a mile below the beacon rock; here we halted and took breakfast.

John Colter one of our party observed the tomehawk in one of the lodges which had been stolen from us on the 4th of November last as we decended this river; the natives attempted to wrest the tomahawk from him but he retained it. they indeavoured afterwards to exculpate themselves from the odium of having stolen it, they alledged that they had bought it from the natives below; but their neighbours had several days previously, informed us that these people had stolen the Tommehawk and then had it at their village.

this village appears to be the winter station of the Wah-clel-lahs and Clahclellars, the greater part of the former have lately removed to the falls of the Multnomah, and the latter have established themselves a few miles above on the North side of the river opposite the lower point of brant island, being the commencement of the rapids, here they also take their salmon;

they are now in the act of removing, and not only take with them their furniture and effects but also the bark and most of the boards which formed their houses. 14 houses remain entire but are at this time but thinly inhabited, nine others appear to have been lately removed, and the traces of ten or twelve others of ancient date were to be seen in the rear of their present village.

they sometimes sink their houses in the earth, and at other times have their floors level with the surface of the earth; they are generally built with boards and covered with Cedar bark. most of them have a devision in their houses near the entrance wich is at the end or in the event of it's bing a double house is from the center of a narrow passage. several families inhabit one appartment.

the women of these people piece the cartelage of the nose in which they wear various ornaments in other rispects they do not differ from those in the neighbourhood of the Diamond island; tho' most of the women brad their hair which hanges in two tresses one hanging over each ear.

these people were very unfriendly, and seemed illy disposed had our numbers not detered them any acts of violence. with some difficuly we obtained five dogs from them and a few wappetoe.

on our way to this village we passed several beautifull cascades which fell from a great hight over the stupendious rocks which cloles the river on both sides nearly, except a small bottom on the South side in which our hunters were encamped. the most remarkable of these casscades falls about 300 feet perpendicularly over a solid rock into a narrow bottom of the river on the south side. it is a large creek, situated about 5 miles above our encampment of the last evening.

several small streams fall from a much greater hight, and in their decent become a perfect mist which collecting on the rocks below again become visible and decend a second time in the same manner before they reach the base of the rocks. the hills have now become mountains high on each side are rocky steep and covered generally with fir and white cedar.

we saw some turkey buzzards this morning of the speceis common to the United states which are the first we have seen on this side the rocky mountains.

during our halt at this village the grand Cheif and two inferior Cheifs of the Chil-luck-kit-te-quaw nation arrived with several men and women of their nation in two large canoes. these people were on their return up the river, having been on a trading voyage to the Columbean vally, and were loaded with wappetoe dryed anchovies, with some beads &c which they had received in exchange for dryed and pounded salmon shappelell beargrass &c These people had been very kind to us as we decended the river we therefore smoked with them and treated them with every attention.

at 2 P. M. we renewed our voyage; passed under the beacon rock on the north side, to the left of two small islands situated near the shore.

at four P.M. we arrived at the Clah-clel-lah village; here we found the natives busily engaged in erecting their new habitations, which appear to be reather of a temperary kind; it is most probable that they only reside here during the salmon season. we purchased two dogs of these people who like those of the village blow were but sulky and illy disposed; they are great rogues and we are obliged to keep them at a proper distance from our baggage.

as we could not ascend the rapid by the North side of the river with our large canoes, we passed to the oposite side and entered the narrow channel which seperates brant Island from the South shore; the evening being far spent and the wind high raining and very cold we thought best not to attempt the rapids this evening, we therefore sought a safe harbour in this narrow channel and encamped on the main shore. our small canoe with Drewyer and the two feildses was unable to pass the river with us in consequence of the waves they therefore toed her up along the N. side of the river and encamped opposite the upper point of brant Island.

after halting this evening I took a turn with my gun in order to kill a deer, but was unsuccessful. I saw much fresh sign. the fir has been lately injured by a fire near this place and many of them have discharged considerable quantities of rozin. we directed that Collins should hunt a few hours tomorrow morning and that Gibson and his crew should remain at his place untill we returned and employ themselves in collectng rozin which our canoes are now in want of.

Clark: last night at a late hour the old emaciated Indian who was detected in Stealing a Spoon yesterday, Crept upon his belley with his hands and feet, with a view as I Suppose to take Some of our baggage which was in Several defferent parcels on the bank. the Sentinal observed the motions of this old amcinated retch untill he got with a fiew feet of the baggage at he hailed him and approached with his gun in a possion as if going to Shoote which allarmed the old retch in Such a manner that he ran with all his power tumbleing over brush and every thing in his way.

made 16 Miles to day. evening wet & disagreeable.

Lewis & Clark Map: 04/01/06 Multnomah County, Oregon Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

April 10
Lewis: We set out early and droped down the channel to the lower end of brant Island from whence we drew them up the rapid by a cord about a quarter of a mile which we soon performed; Collins and Gibson not having yet come over we directed Sergt. Pryor to remain with the cord on the Island untill Gibson arrived and assist him with his crew in geting his canoe up the rapid, when they were to join us on the oposite side at a small village of six houses of the Clah-clah'lahs where we halted for breakfast.

in passing the river which is here about 400 yds. wide the rapidity of the currant was such that it boar us down a considerable distance notwithstanding we employed five oars.

on entering one of these lodges, the natives offered us a sheepskin for sail, than which nothing could have been more acceptable except the animal itself. the skin of the head of the sheep with the horns remaining was cased in such manner as to fit the head of a man by whom it was woarn and highly prized as an ornament. we obtained this cap in exchange for a knife, and were compelled to give two Elkskins in exchange for the skin.

this appeared to be the skin of a sheep not fully grown; the horns were about four inches long, celindric, smooth, black, erect and pointed; they rise from the middle of the forehead a little above the eyes. they offered us a second skin of a full grown sheep which was quite as large as that of a common deer. they discovered our anxity to purchase and in order to extort a great plrice declared that they prized it too much to dispose of it. in expectation of finding some others of a similar kind for sale among the natives of this neighbourhood I would not offer him a greater price than had been given for the other which he refused.

these people informed us that these sheep were found in great abundance on the hights and among the clifts of the adjacent mountains. and that they had lately killed these two from a herd of 36, at no great distance from their village. we could obtain no provision from those people except four white salmon trout.

at ten oclock Sergt. Pryor and Gibson joined us with Collins who had killed 3 deer. these were all of the blacktailed fallow kind.

we set out and continued our rout up the N. side of the river with great difficulty in consequence of the rapidity of the current and the large rocks which form this shore; the South side of the river is impassable. as we had but one sufficient toerope and were obliged to employ the cord in geting on our canoes the greater part of the way we could only take them one at a time which retarded our progress very much.

by evening we arrived at the portage on the North side where we landed and conveyed our bagage to the top of the hill about 200 paces distant where we formed a camp. we had the canoes drawn on shore and secured. the small canoe got loose from the hunters and went a drift with a tin vessel and tommahawk in her; the Indians caught her at the last village and brought her up to us this evening for which service we gave them a couple of knives; the canoe overset and lost the articles which were in her.—

Lewis & Clark Map: 04/01/06 Skamania County, Washington Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

April 11
Lewis: As the tents and skins which covered both our men and baggage were wet with the rain which fell last evening, and as it continued still raining this morning we concluded to take our canoes first to the head of the rapids, hoping that by evening the rain would cease and afford us a fair afternoon to take our baggage over the portage.

this portage is two thousand eight hundred yards along a narrow rough and slipery road. the duty of getting the canoes above the rapid was by mutual consent confided to my friend Capt. C. who took with him for that purpose all the party except Bratton who is yet so weak he is unable to work, three others who were lamed by various accedents and one other to cook for the party. a few men were absolutely necessary at any rate to guard our baggage from the War-clel-lars who crouded about our camp in considerable numbers.

these are the greates theives and scoundrels we have met with. by the evening Capt. C. took 4 of our canoes above the rapids tho' with much difficulty and labour. the canoes were much damaged by being driven against the rocks in dispite of every precaution which could be taken to prevent it. the men complained of being so much fatiegued in the evening that we posponed taking up our 5th canoe untill tomorrow.

these rapids are much worse than they were fall when we passed them, at that time there were only three difficult points within seven miles, at present the whole distance is extreemly difficult of ascent, and it would be impracticable to decend except by leting down the empty vessels by a cord and then even the wrisk would be greater than in taking them up by the same means.

the water appears to be upwards of 20 feet higher than when we decended the river. the distance by way of the river between the points of the portage is 3 Ms—

many of the natives crouded abot the bank of the river where the men were engaged in taking up the canoes; one of them had the insolence to cast stones down the bank at two of the men who happened to be a little detatched from the party at the time.

on the return of the party in the evening from the head of the rapids they met with many of the natives on the road, who seemed but illy disposed; two of these fellows met with John Sheilds who had delayed some time in purchasing a dog and was a considerable distance behind the party on their return with Capt. C.. they attempted to take the dog from him and pushed him out of the road. he had nothing to defend himself with except a large knife which he drew with an intention of puting one or both of them to death before they could get themselves in readiness to use their arrows, but discovering his design they declined the combat and instantly fled through the woods.

three of this same tribe of villains the Wah-clel-lars, stole my dog this evening, and took him towards their village; I was shortly afterwards informed of this transaction by an indian who spoke the Clatsop language, and sent three men in pursuit of the theives with orders if they made the least resistence or difficulty in surrendering the dog to fire on them;

they overtook these fellows or reather came within sight of them at the distance of about 2 miles; the indians discovering the party in pursuit of them left the dog and fled. they also stole an ax from us, but scarcely had it in their possession before Thompson detected them and wrest it from them. we ordered the centinel to keep them out of camp, and informed them by signs that if they made any further attempts to steal our property or insulted our men we should put them to instant death.

a cheif of the Clah-clel-lah tribe informed us that there were two very bad men among the Wah-clel-lahs who had been the principal actors in these seenes of outradge of which we complained, and that it was not the wish of the nation by any means to displease us. we told him that we hoped it might be the case, but we should certainly be as good as our words if they presisted in their insolence. I am convinced that no other consideration but our number at this moment protects us.

The Cheif appeared mortified at the conduct of his people, and seemed friendly disposed towards us. as he appeared to be a man of consideration and we had reason to beleive much rispected by the neighbouring tribes we thought it well to bestoe a medal of small size upon him. he appeared much gratifyed with this mark of distinction, and some little attention which we shewed him.

he had in his possession a very good pipe tomahawk which he informed us he had received as a present from a trader who visited him last winter over land pointing to the N. W., whome he called Swippeton; he was pleased with the tommahawk of Capt. C. in consequence of it's having a brass bowl and Capt. C. gratified him by an exchange.

as a further proof of his being esteemed by this white trader, he gave us a well baked saylor's bisquit which he also informed us he had received from Swippeton. from these evidences I have no doubt but the traders who winter in some of the inlets to the N. of us visit this part of the Columbia by land at certain seasons, most probably when they are confined to their winter harbour. and if so some of those inlets are probably at no great distance from this place, as there seems to be but little inducement to intice the trader hither from any considerable distance particularly as the difficulty in traveling on the borders of this mountainous country must be great at that season as the natives informed me their snows were frequently breast deep. I observe snowshoes in all the lodges of the natives above the Columbean vally.

I hope that the friendly interposition of this chief may prevent our being compelled to use some violence with these people; our men seem well disposed to kill a few of them. we keep ourselves perefectly on our guard.

This evening we send Drewyer and the two Feildses on a few miles up the river to the entrance of Cruzatt's river to hunt untill our arrival.

The inhabitants of the Yeh-huh Village on the North side immediately above the rapids have lately removed to the opposite side of the river, where it appears they usually take their salmon. like their relations the Wah-Clel-lars they have taken their houses with them.

I observe that all the houses lately established have their floors on the surface of the earth, are smaller and of more temperary structure than those which are sunk in the ground. I presume the former are their spring and Summer dwellings and the latter those of the fall and winter. these houses are most generally built with boards and covered with bark. some of an inferior ore more temperary cast are built entirely of cedar bark, which is kept smooth and extended by inserting small splinters of wood through the bark crosswise at the distance of 12 or 14 inches assunder. several families inhabit the same appartment.

their women as well as those of the 3 villages next below us pierce the cartelage of the nose and insert various ornaments. they very seldom imprint any figures on their skins; a few I observed had one or two longitudinal lines of dots on the front of the leg, reaching from the ankle upwards about midleg. most of their women braid their hair in two tresses as before mentioned. the men usually cew their hair in two parsels which like the braded tresses of the female hang over each ear in front of the sholder, and gives an additional width to the head and face so much admired by them. these cews are usually formed with throngs of dressed Otterskin crossing each other and not roled in our manner arrond the hair. in all other rispects I observe no difference in their dress habits manners &c. from those in the Neighbourhood of the diamond Island.

today we recognized a man of the Elute nation who reside at the long narrows of the Columbia, he was on his return from a trading voyage to the Columbean valley with 10 or 12 others of his nation. many other natives from the villages above were employed in taking their roots &c over the portage on their return. I observed that the men equally with the women engage in the labour of carrying. they all left their canoes below the rapids and took others above which they had left as they decended. those which were left below were taken down the river by the persons from whom they had been hired or borrowed. the natives from above behaved themselves in a very orderly manner.

The salmon have not yet made their appearance, tho' the natives are not so much distressed for food as I was induced to believe.

I walked down to day about ¾ of a mile below our encampment to observe the manner in which these people inter their dead. I found eight sepulchers near the north bank of the river built in the following manner. four strong forks are first sunk several feet in the ground and rise about six feet high froming a parrallelogram of 8 by 10 feet. the intervals between these upright forks, on which four poles are laid, are filled up with broad erect boads with their lower ends sunk in the ground and their upper ends confined to the horizontal poles. a flat roof is formed of several layers of boards; the floors of these sepulchres are on a level with the surface of the earth. the human bodies are well rolled in dressed skins and lashed securely with chords and laid horizontally on the back with the head to the west. in some of these sepulchres they are laid on each other to the debth of three or four bodies. in one of those sepulchres which was nearly decayed I observed that the human bones filled it perfectly to the hight of about three feet. many articles appear to be sacreficed to the dead both within and without the sepulcres. among other articles, I observed a brass teakettle, some scollep shells, parts of several robes of cloth and skins, with sticks for diging roots &c.— this appears to be the burying ground of the Wahclellahs, Clahclellahs and Yehhuhs.—

Lewis: rained the greater part of last night and continues this morning.

all of the party except a fiew to guard the baggage turned out with Capt. Clark to takeing up our canoes with the tow Rope up the big Shoote took one large one and one Small one at once the large one filled at the highest pitch where it is allmost perpinticular but with Some difficulty we got the 2 to the head of the portage about noon. then went back took dinner and took another large canoe and a Small one the other Smallest one was taken & carried by land. this large canoe filled twice with water at the worst pitch but with some difficulty & hard fatigue got them Safe up towards evening by the assistance of a number of Indians at the worst pitch &C. and halled the large canoe up by force allthough She was full of water. the most of the mens feet sore towing over the Sharp rocks.

Lewis & Clark Map: 04/01/06 Skamania County, Washington Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

April 12
Lewis: It rained the greater part of last night and still continued to rain this morning. I therefore determined to take up the remaining perogue this morning for which purpose I took with me every man that could be of any service.

a small distance above our camp there is one of the most difficult parts of the rapid. at this place the current sets with great violence against a projecting rock. in hawling the perogue arround this point the bow unfortunately took the current at too great a distance from the rock, she turned her side to the stream and the utmost exertions of all the party were unable to resist the forse with which she was driven by the current, they were compelled to let loose the cord and of course both perogue and cord went a drift with the stream. the loss of this perogue will I fear compell us to purchase one or more canoes of the indians at an extravegant price.

after breakfast all hands were employed in taking our baggage over the portage. we caused all the men who had short rifles to carry them, in order to be prepared for the natives should they make any attempts to rob or injure them. I went up to the head of the rapids and left Capt. C. below.

during the day I obtained a vocabulary of the language of the War-clel-lars &c. I found that their numbers were precisely those of the Chinnooks but the other parts of their language essentially different.

by 5 P. M. we had brought up all our baggage and Capt. C. joined me from the lower camp with the Clahclellah cheif.

there is an old village situated about halfway on the portage road; the fraim of the houses, which are remarkably large one 160 by 45 feet, remain almost entire. the covering of the houses appears to have been sunk in a pond back of the village. this the chief informed us was the residence occasionally of his tribe. these houses are fraimed in the usual manner but consist of a double set as if oune house had been built within the other. the floors are on a level with the ground.

the naives did not croud about us in such numbers today as yesterday, and behaved themselves much better; no doubt the precautions which they observed us take had a good effect.

I employed sergt. Pryor the greater part of the day in reparing and corking the perogue and canoes.

it continued to rain by showers all day. about 20 of the Y-eh-huhs remained with me the greater part of the day and departed in the evening. they conducted themselves with much propryety and contemned the conduct of their relations towards us. We purchased one sheepskin for which we gave the skin of an Elk and one of a deer. this animal was killed by the man who sold us the skin near this place; he informed us that they were abundant among the mountains and usually resorted the rocky parts. the big horned animal is also an inhabitant of these mountains. I saw several robes of their skins among the natives.—

as the evening was rainy cold and far advanced and ourselves wet we determined to remain all night.

the mountains are high steep and rocky. the rock is principally black. they are covered with fir of several speceis and the white cedar. near the river we find the Cottonwood, sweet willow, broad leafed ash, a species of maple, the purple haw, a small speceis of cherry; purple currant, goosberry, red willow, vining and white burry honeysuckle, huckkle burry, sacacommis, two speceis of mountain holley, & common ash. for the three last days this inclusive we have made only 7 miles.—

Lewis & Clark Map: 04/01/06 Skamania County, Washington Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

April 13
Lewis: The loss of one of our perogues rendered it necessary to distribute her crew and cargo among the 2 remaining perogues and 2 canoes, which being done we loaded and set out 8 A. M. we passed the village immediately above the rapids where only one house at present remains entire, the other 8 having been taken down and removed to the oposite side of the river as before mentioned.

we found the additional laiding which we had been compelled to put on board rendered our vessels extreemly inconvenient to mannage and in short reather unsafe in the event of high winds; I therefore left Capt. C. with the two Perogues to proceede up the river on the N. side, and with the two canoes and some additional hands passed over the river above the rapids of the Y-eh-huh village in order to purchase one or more canoes.

I found the village consisting of 11 houses crouded with inhabitants; it appeared to me that they could have mustered about 60 fighting men then present. they appeared very friendly disposed, and I soon obtained two small canoes from them for which I gave two robes and four elkskins. I also purchased four paddles and three dogs from them with deerskins.

the dog now constitutes a considerable part of our subsistence and with most of the party has become a favorite food; certain I am that it is a healthy strong diet, and from habit it has become by no means disagreeable to me, I prefer it to lean venison or Elk, and is very far superior to the horse in any state.

after remaining about 2 hours at this Village I departed and continued my rout with the four canoes along the S. side of the river the wind being too high to pass over to the entrance of Cruzatts river where I expected to have overtaken Capt. C. not seing the perogues on the opposite side I ascended the river untill one oclock or about 5 ms. above the entrance of Cruzat's river. being convinced that the perogues were behind I halted and directed the men to dress the dogs and cook one of them for dinner;

a little before we had completed our meal Capt. C. arrived with the perogues and landed opposite to us. [4] after dinner I passed the river to the perogues and found that Capt. C. had halted for the evening and was himself hunting with three of the party.

the men in formed me that they had seen nothing of the hunters whom we had sent on the 11th ints. to the Entrance of Cruzatt's Riv. I directed Sergt. ordway to take the two small canoes for his mess and the loading which he had formerly carried in the perogue we lost yesterday, and to have them dryed this evening and payed with rozin.

Capt. Clark returned in about an hour and being convinced that the hunters were yet behind we dispatched Sergt. Pryor in surch of them with two men and an empty canoe to bring the meat they may have killed.

John Sheilds returned a little after six P. M. with two deer which he had killed. these were also of the blacktailed fallow deer; there appears to be no other speceis of deer in these mountains.

Capt. C. informed me that the wind had detained him several hours a little above Cruzatt's river; that while detained here he sent out some men to hunt; one of them wounded two deer but got neither of them. the wind having lulled in the evening and not seing anything of Drewyer and the Feildses he had proceeded on to this place where he intended waiting for me, and as he did not see my canoes when he landed had taken a hunt with some of the men as before mentioned.—

Lewis & Clark Map: 04/01/06 Skamania County, Washington Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

April 14
Lewis: This morning at seven oCk. we were joined by Sergt. Pryor and the three hunters they brought with them 4 deer which Drewyer had killed yesterday. we took breakfast and departed. at 9 A. M. the wind arrose and continued hard all day but not so violent as to prevent our proceeding. we kept close along the N. shore all day.

the river from the rapids as high as the commencement of the narrows is from ½ to ¾ of a mile in width, and possesses scarcely any current. the bed is principally rock except at the entrance of Labuish's river which heads in Mount hood and like the quicksand river brings down from thence vast bodies of sand. the mountains through which the river pases nearly to the sepulchre rock, are high broken, rocky, partially covered with fir white cedar, and in many places exhibit very romantic seenes. some handsome cascades are seen on either hand tumbling from the stupendious rocks of the mountains into the river.

near the border of the river I observed today the long leafed pine. this pine increases in quantity as you ascend the river and about the sepulchre rock where the lower country commnces it superceedes the fir altogether. throughout the whole course of this river from the rapids as high as the Chilluckkittequaws, we find the trunks of many large pine trees sanding erect as they grew at present in 30 feet water; they are much doated and none of them vegetating; at the lowest tide of the river many of these trees are in ten feet water.

certain it is that those large pine trees never grew in that position, nor can I account for this phenomenon except it be that the passage of the river through the narrow pass at the rapids has been obstructed by the rocks which have fallen from the hills into that channel within the last 20 years; the appearance of the hills at that place justify this opinion, they appear constantly to be falling in, and the apparent state of the decayed trees would seem to fix the era of their decline about the time mentioned.

at 1 P. M. we arrived at a large village situated in a narrow bottom on the N. side a little above the entrance of canoe creek. their houses are reather detatched and extent for several miles. they are about 20 in number. These people call themselves We-ock-sock, Wil-la-cum. they differ but litte in appeance dress &c. from those of the rapids. Their men have some leging and mockersons among them. these are in the stile of Chopunnish. they have some good horses of which we saw ten or a douzen.

these are the fist horses we have met with since we left this neighbourhood last fall, in short the country below this place will not permit the uce of this valuable animal except in the Columbian vally and there the present inhabitants have no uce for them as they reside immediately on the river and the country is too thickly timbered to admit them to run the game with horses if they had them.

we halted at this village and dined. purchased five dogssome roots, shappalell, filberds and dryed burries of the inhabitants.

here I observed several habitations entirely under grownd; they were sunk about 8 feet deep and covered with strong timber and several feet of earth in a conic form. these habitations were evacuated at present. they are about 16 feet in diameter, nearly circular, and are entered through a hole at the top which appears to answer the double purpose of a chimney and a door. from this entrance you decend to the floor by a ladder.

the present habitations of these people were on the surface of the ground and do not differ from those of the tribes of the rapids. their language is the same with that of the Chilluckkittesquaws. these people appeared very friendly.

some of them informed us that they had lately returned from a war excurtion against the snake indians who inhabit the upper part of the Multnomah river to the S. E. of them. they call them To-wan-nah'-hi'-ooks. that they had been fortunate in their expedition and had taken from their enimies most of the horses which we saw in their possession.

after dinner we pursued our voyage; Capt. Clark walked on shore with Charbono. I ascended the river about six miles at which place the river washed the base of high clifts on the Lard. side, here we halted a few minutes and were joined by Capt. C. and Charbono and proceeded on to the entrance of a small run

on N. side a little below a large village on the same side opposite the sepulchre rock. this village can raise about an hundred fighting men they do not differ in any rispect from the village below. many of them visited our camp this evening and remained with us untill we went to bed. they then left us and retired to their quarters.—

Clark: after dinner we proceeded on our voyage. I walked on Shore with Shabono on the N. Side through a handsom bottom. met Several parties of women and boys in Serch of herbs & roots to Subsist on maney of them had parcels of the Stems of the Sun flower.

Lewis & Clark Map: 04/01/06 Klickitat County, Washington Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

April 15
Lewis: We delayed this morning untill after breakfast in order to purchase some horses of the Indians; accordingly we exposed some articles in exchange for horses the natives were unwilling to barter, we therefore put up our merchandize and at 8 A. M. we set out.

we halted a few minutes at the sepulchre rock, and examined the deposits of the ded at that place. these were constructed in the same manner of those already discribed below the rapids. some of them were more than half filled with dead bodies. there were thirteen sepulchres on this rock which stands near the center of the river and has a surface of about 2 acres above high-water mark.—

from hence we returned to the nothern shore and continued up it about four miles to another village of the same nation with whom we remained last night. here we halted and informed the natives of our wish to purchase horses; the produced us several for sale but would not take the articles which we had in exchange for them. they wanted an instrument which the Northwest traders call an eye-dag [a sort of war hatchet] which we had not. we procured two dogs of them and departed.

a little below the entrance of Cataract river we halted at another village of the same people, at which we were equally unsuccessfull in the purchase of horses. we also halted at the two villages of the Chilluckkittequaws a few miles above with no better success.

at three in the evening we arrived at the entrance of Quinnette creek which we ascended a short distance and encamped at the place we have called rockfort camp. here we were visited by some of the people from the villages at the great narrows and falls. we informed them of our wish to purchase horses, & agreed to meet them on the opposite or North side of the river tomorrow for the purpose of bartering with them. most of them returned to their villages this evening three only remained with us all night.

these people are much better clad than any of the nations below; their men have generally leging mockersons and large robes, many of them wear shirts of the same form those of the Chopunnish and Shoshonees highly ornamented with the quills of the porcupine as are also their mockersons and legings. the dress of their women differs very little from those about the rapids.

both men and women cut their hair in the forehead which comes down as low as the eyebrows, they have long earlocks cut square at the end. the other part of their hair is dressed in the same manner as those of the rapids. after we landed and formed our camp this evening Drewyer and some others took a hunt and killed a deer of the longtailed kind. it was a buck and the young horns had shot fourth about 2 inches.—

Lewis & Clark Map: 04/01/06 Klickitat County, Washington Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

April 16
Lewis: About 8 A. M. Capt. Clark passed the river with the two interpreters, the indian woman and nine men in order to trade with the natives for their horses, for which purpose he took with him a good part of our stock of merchandize.

I remained in camp; sent out the hunters very early in the morning, and set Sergts. Gass and Pryor with some others at work to make a parsel of packsaddles.

twelve horses will be sufficient to transport our baggage and some pounded fish which we intend taking with us as a reserved store for the rocky mountains.

I was visited today by several of the natives, and amused myself in making a collection of the esculent plants in the neighbourhood such as the Indians use, a specemine of which I preserved. I also met with sundry other plants which were strangers to me which I also preserved, among others there is a currant which is now in blume and has yellow blossom something like the yellow currant of the Missouri but is a different speceis.

Reubin Feilds returned in the evening and brought with him a large grey squrrel and two others of a kind I had never before seen. they are a size less than the grey squirrel common to the middle atlantic states and of a pided grey and yellowish brown colour, in form it resembles our grey squrrel precisely. I had them skined leaving the head feet and tail to them and placed in the sun to dry.

Joseph Feilds brought me a black pheasant which he had killed; this I found on examination to be the large black or dark brown pheasant I had met with on the upper part of the Missouri.

our present station is the last point at which there is a single stick of timber on the river for a great distance and is the commencement of the open plains which extend nearly to the base of the rocky Mts.

Labuish returned this evening having killed two deer I sent and had them brought in.

this evening Capt. C. informed me by some of the men whom he sent over that that he had obtained no horses as yet of the natives. that they promised to trade with him provided he would remove to their village. to this he had consented and should proceeded to the Skillute village above the long narrows as soon as the men returned whom he had sent to me for some other articles. I dispatched the men on their return to capt. C. immediately with these articles and he set out with his party accompanyed by the natives to their village where he remained all night.—

the natives who had spent the day with me seemed very well disposed, they left me at 6 in the evening and returned to their rispective villages.

the hunters informed me that they saw some Antelopes, & the tracks of several black bear, but no appearance of any Elk. we were informed by the Indians that the river which falls in on the S. side of the Columbia just above the Eneshur village heads in Mount hood and dose not water the extensive country which we have heretofore calculated on. a great portion of that extensive tract of country to the S. and S. W. of the Columbia and it's S. E. branch, and between the same and the waters of Callifornia must be watered by the Multnomah river.—

Clark: Crossed the river and Sent Drewyer & Goodrich to the Skil lute village to envite the Indians to trade horses with us, also sent Frazer & Shabono to the Che-luck-kit-ti-quar village for the same purpose a number of Indians came of both nations and delayed the greater part of the day without tradeing a Single horse

the Great Chief of the Skillutes also came with Drewyer. he was lame and Could not walk he told me if I would go to his Town his people would trade with me. I Set out late and arrived at Sunset and informed. the natives that in the morning I would trade with them. he gave me onions to eate which had been Sweated. Peter played the violin and the men danced. Saw abt. 100 Stacks of fish. maney nations visit this place for trade. the discription of the houses, their dress habits &c. Smoked &c. I saw great numbers of horses

Lewis & Clark Map: 04/01/06 Klickitat County, Washington Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

April 17
Lewis: This morning early I sent out the hunters, and set several additional hands about the packsaddles.

I find that the sturgeon is not taken by any of the natives above the Columbean vally. the inhabitants of the rapids at this time take a few of the white salmon trout and considerable quantities of a small indifferent mullet on which they principally subsist. I have seen none except dryed fish of the last season in the possession of the people above that place, they subsist on roots principally with some dryed and pounded fish. the salmon not having made their appearance proves a serious inconvenience to us.

but few of the natives visited my camp today and those only remained a few hours.

even at this place which is merely on the border of the plains of Columbia the climate seems to have changed the air feels dryer and more pure. the earth is dry and seems as if there had been no rain for a week or ten days. the plain is covered with a rich virdure of grass and herbs from four to nine inches high and exhibits a beautifull seen particularly pleasing after having been so long imprisoned in mountains and those almost impenetrably thick forrests of the seacoast.

Joseph Feilds brought me today three eggs of the party coloured corvus, they are about the size and shape of those of the pigeon. they are bluish white much freckled with dark redish brown irregular spots, in short it is reather a mixture of those colours in which the redish brwn predominates, particularly towards the larger end.—

This evening Willard and Cruzatte returned from Capt. Clark and brought me a note in which Capt. C informed me that he had sill been unsuccessfull having not obtained a single horse as yet from the natives and the state of our stores are so low that I begin to fear we shall not be enabled to obtain as many horses at this place as will convey our baggage and unless we do obtain a sufficient number for that purpose we shall not hasten our progress as a part of our baggage must still be conveyed by water.

Capt. C informed me that he should proceed as far as the Eneshur village today and would return tomorrow and join me at the Skillute village to which place I mean to proceed with the party tomorrow.

I dispatched Shannon with a note to Capt. Clark in which I requested him to double the price we have heretofore offered for horses and if possible obtain as many as five, by this means we shall be enabled to proceed immediately with our small canoes and those horses to the villages in the neighbourhood of the mussel shell rapid where horses are more abundant and cheaper; with the remainder of our merchandize in addition to the canoes we can no doubt obtain as many horses there as will answer our purposes. delay in the villages at the narrows and falls will be expensive to us inasmuch as we will be compelled to purchase both fuel and food of the indians, and might the better enable them to execute any hostile desighn should they meditate any against us.—

all the hunters returned in the evening. Sheilds had killed one deer which he brought with him. the packsaddles were completed this evening. I had some Elkskins put in the water today make harnes for the packhorses but shall not cut them untill I know the number we can obtain.—

there is a species of hiasinth in these plains the bulb of which the natives eat either boiled baked or dryed in the sun. this bulb is white, not entirely solid, and of a flat form; the bulb of the present year overlays, or crowns that of the last, and seems to be pressed close to it, the old bulb is withered much thiner equally wide with that of the present year and sends fourth from it's sides a number of small radicles.— this hiasinth is of a pale blue colour and is a very pretty flower. I preserved a specemine of it.

Clark: I rose early and took a position near to the village and exposed the artiles I had for Sale Great numbers of Indians Came from different derections, Some from below Some above and others across the Countrey from the Tapteet river

— I obtained a Sketch of the Columbia as also Clarks river.

I made a bargin with the Chief who has more horses than all the village besides for 2 horses. Soon after he Canseled his bargin, and we again bargined for 3 horses, they were brought forward, and only one fit for Service, the others had Such intolerable backs as to render them entirely unfit for Service. as I would not take the 3 he would not Sell the good one to me, and we were off the bargin.

I then packed up and was about Setting out for the Falls when one Indian Sold me 2 horses and one other one horse, and Some others Said they w[ished] to trade which caused me to conclude to delay here one other night.

Maney of the natives from above Come and Said they would trade, but asked a higher price than I thought I could give or reather more than this nation asked.— Great numbers of Men.— I hed to purchase 3 dogs for the men to eate & Some Shap-per-lell.

I Sent Crusat, Wiser, Willard and McNeal back to Capt. Lewis informing him of my ill Suck'sess, and adviseing him to proceed on to this place as Soon as possible, and my intention of proceededing on to the falls to purchase horses if possible

Several Indians arived late this evening. Capt. Lewis Sent me a note by Shannon informing me that he would Set early on tomorrow morning early &c. &c.

I sleped in house of the 2d Chief and they had not any thing except fish to eate and no wood for fire. those people have a number of buffalow robes. They have great number of Skimming nets Lewis & Clark Map: 04/01/06 Klickitat County, Washington Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

April 18
Lewis: Late last evening we were visited by the principal cheif of Chilluckkittaquaws and 12 of his nation they remained with us untill 9 OC. when they all departed except the Cheif and two others who slept at my feet.

we loaded our vessels and set out after an early breakfast this morning. we gave the indians a passage to the N. shore on which they reside and pursued our rout to the foot of the first rapid at the distance of 4 ms. here we found it necessary to unload the perogues and canoes and make a portage of 70 paces over a rock; we then drew our vessels up by a cord and the assistance of setingpoles. from hence we proceeded to the bason below the long narrows 5 ms. further and landed on the Lard. side at ½ after 3.

the Cheif when he left me this morning promised to bring some horses to barter with me at the bason.—

the long narrows are much more formidable than they were when we decended them last fall there would be no possibility of passind either up or down them in any vessel.—

after unloading the canoes and arranging the camp I walked up to the Skillute Village and jouined Capt. he had procured four horses only for which a high price had been given, at least more than double that which we had formerly given for those which we purchased from the Shoshonees and the first band of Flatheads. they have a great abundance of horses but will not dispose of them.

we determined to make the portage to the head of the long narrows with our baggage and five small canoes. the 2 perogues we could take no further and therefore cut them up for fuel.

in the evening Capt. C and myself returned to the camp at the bason and left Drewyer and three others with the merchandize at the village, three parsels of which had been laid by at the request of individuals who promised to give us horses for them in the morning.—

I shot my airgun in the presents of the natives at the village which excited great astonishment.—

Clark: Early this Morning I was awoke by an indian man of the Chopunnish Nation who informed me that he lived in the neighbourhood of our horses. this man delivered me a bag of powder and ball which he had picked up this morning at the place the goods were exposed yesterday—.

I had a fire made of Some poles purchased of the nativs at a Short distance from the houses and the articles exposed as yesterday.

Collected the 4 horses purchased yesterday and Sent Frazier and Shabono with them to the bason where I expected they would meet Cap L—s and Commence the portage of the baggage on those horses.

about 10 A. M. the Indians Came down from the Eneesher Villages and I expected would take the articles which they had laid by yesterday. but to my estonishment not one would make the exchange to day—. two other parcels of good were laid by and the horses promised at 2 P. M. I payed but little attention to this bargain however Suffered the bundles to lye.

I dressed the Sores of the principal Chief gave Some Small things to his children and promised the Chief Some Medicine for to Cure his Sores. his wife who I found to be Sulky and was Somewhat efflicted with pains in her back. this I thought a good oppertunity to get her on my Side giveing here Something for her back. I rubed a little Camphere on her temples and back, and applyed worm flannel to her back which She thought had nearly restored her to her former feelings. this I thought a favourable time to trade with the Chief who had more horses than all the nation besides. I accordingly made him an offer which he excepted and Sold me two horses.

Great numbers of Indians from defferent derections visited me at this place to day, none of them appeared willing to part with their horses, but told me that Several were Comeing from the plains this evening.

among other Nations who visit this place for the purpose of trade is the Skad-datt's. those people bantered the Skillutes to play at a Singular kind of game. in the Course of the day the Skillutes won all their beeds Skins arrows &c. This game was Composed of 9 men on a Side. they Set down opposit to each other at the distance of about 10 feet. in front of each party a long pole was placed on which they Struck with a Small Stick to the time of their Songs. after the bets were made up which was nearly half an hour after they Set down, two round bones was producd about the Size of a mans little finger or Something Smaller and 2¼ inches in length. which they held in their hand Changeing it from one hand to the other with great dexterity. 2 men on each Side performed this part, and when they had the bone in the hand they wished, they looked at their advosarys Swinging arms around their Sholders for their advosary Guess which they pirformed by the motion the hand either to the right or left. if the opposit party guessed the hand of both of the men who had the bone, the bones were given to them. if neither the bones was retained and nothing Counted. if they guessed one and not the other, one bone was dilivered up and the party possessing the other bone Counted one. and one for every time the advosary miss guessed untill they guessed the hand in which the bone was in—in this game each party has 5 Sticks. and one Side wins all the Sticks, once twice or thrice as the game may be Set.

I observed another game which those people also play and is played by 2 persons with 4 Sticks about the Size of a mans finger and about 7 inches in length. two of those Sticks are black and the other 2 White and Something larger than the black ones. those Sticks they place in defferent positions which they perform under a kind of trencher made of bark round and about 14 inches diamieter. this is a very intricate game and I cannot Sufficiently understand to discribe it. the man who is in possession of the Sticks &c places them in defferent positions, and the opposit party tels the position of the black Sticks by a motion of either or both of his hands &c. this game is Counted in the Same way as the one before mentioned. all their games are accompanied with Songs and time.

at 3 P. M Sergt. Ordway & three men arived from Cap Lewis they brought with them Several Elk Skins, two of my Coats and 4 robes of the party to add to the Stores I had with me for the purchase of horses. Sgt. O. informed me that Cap L. had arived with all the Canoes into the bason 2 miles below and wished Some dogs to eate. I had 3 dogs purchased and Sent down.

at 5 P. M. Capt. Lewis Came up. he informed me that he had the river to the bason with much difecuelty and danger, haveing made one portage.

as I had not Slept but very little for the two nights past on account of mice & virmen with which those indian houses abounded, and haveing no blanket with me, and the means of keeping a fire Sufficent to keep me worm out was too Expensive I deturmined to poceed with Capt L down to Camp at the bason. I left the Articles of Merchendize &c. with Drewyer, Werner, Shannon & Goodrich untill the morning—.

at the bason we Cut up two of our Canoes for fire wood verry much to the chagrin of the nativs not with standing they would give us nothing for them.

In my absence Several Inds. visited Capt. Lewis at his camp among others was the great Cheif of the Chilluckitquaw who Continued with him untill he left Rock fort Camp.

Capt L. had 12 pack Saddles Completed and Strings prepared of the Elk skins for Lashing the loads he also kept out all the hunters who killed just deer enough for the party with him to Subsist on.

The Cheif who had Visited Capt Lewis promised him that he would bring Some horses to the bason and trade with him. but he was not as good as his word. Capt Lewis gave a large Kittle for a horse which was offered to him at the bason this evening.

Lewis & Clark Map: 04/01/06 Klickitat County, Washington Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

April 19
Lewis: This morning early we had our small canoes drawn out, and employed all hands in transporting our baggage on their backs and by means of the four pack horses, over the portage. This labour we had accomplished by 3 P. M. and established our camp a little above the present Skil-lute village which has been removed a few hundred yards lower down the river than when we passed them last fall and like others below have the floors of their summer dwellings on the surface of the earth instead of those cellars in which they resided when we passed them.

there was great joy with the natives last night in consequence of the arrival of the salmon; one of those fish was caught; this was the harbinger of good news to them. they informed us that these fish would arrive in great quantities in the course of about 5 days. this fish was dressed and being divided into small peices was given to each child in the village. this custom is founded in a supersticious opinion that it will hasten the arrival of the salmon.

with much difficulty we obtained four other horses from the Indians today, we wer obliged to dispence with two of our kettles in order to acquire those. we have now only one small kettle to a mess of 8 men. in the evening Capt. Clark set out with four men to the Enesher village at the grand falls in order to make a further attempt to procure horses.

these people are very faithless in their contracts. they frequently receive the merchandize in exchange for their horses and after some hours insist on some additional article being given them or revoke the exchange. they have pilfered several small articles from us this evening.—

I directed the horses to be hubbled & suffered to graize at a little distance from our camp under the immediate eye of the men who had them in charge. one of the men Willard was negligent in his attention to his horse and suffered it to ramble off; it was not to be found when I ordered the others to be brought up and confined to the picquits. this in addition to the other difficulties under which I laboured was truly provoking. I repremanded him more severaly for this peice of negligence than had been usual with me.

I had the remaining horses well secured by picquits; they were extreemly wrestless and it required the attention of the whole guard through the night to retain them notwithstanding they were hubbled and picquted. they frequently throwed themselves by the ropes by which they were confined. all except one were stone horses for the people in this neighbourhood do not understand the art of gelding them, and this is a season at which they are most vicious.

many of the natives remained about our camp all night.

Clark: I left Capt L. at the bason and proceeded to the village early this morning with a view to recive the horses which were promised to be brought this morning for articles laid by last evining. in the Course of this day I purchased four horses at the Village, and Capt Lewis one at the bason before he left it.

after the baggage was all Safely landed above the portage, all hands brought over the Canoes at 2 lodes which was accomplished by 5 P. M. as we had not a Sufficiency of horses to transport our baggage we agreed that I should proceed on to the Enesher villages at the great falls of the Columbia and if possible purchase as maney horses as would transport the baggage from that place, and rid us of the trouble and dificuelty of takeing our Canoes further.

I set out with Serjt Pryor, Geo Shannon Peter Crusat & Labiech at half past 5 P. M. for the Enesher Village at which place I arrived at 8 P. M.

Several Showers of rain in the after part of to day, and the S W wind very high.

I entered the largest house of the Eneeshers village in which I found all the enhabitents in bead. they rose and made a light of Straw, they haveing no wood to burn. many men Collected. we Smoked and I informed them that I had come to purchase a fiew horses of them. they promused to Sell me Some in the morning.

Lewis & Clark Map: 04/01/06 Klickitat County, Washington Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

April 20
Lewis: some frost this morning.

The Enesher an Skillutes are much better clad than they were last fall, there men have generally legings mockersons and large robes; many of them wear shirts of the same form with those of the Shoshone Chopunnish &c highly ornamented with porcupine quills. the dress of their women differs very little from those of the great rapids and above. their children frequently wear robes of the large grey squirrel skins, those of the men and women are principally deer skins, some wolf, elk, bighorn and buffaloe; the latter they procure from the nations who sometimes visit the Missouri. indeed a considerable proportion of their wearing apparel is purchased from their neighbours to the N. W. in exchange for pounded fish copper and beads.

at present the principal village of the Eneshur is below the falls on the N. side of the river. one other village is above the falls on the S. side and another a few miles above on the N. side. the first consists of 19, the 2cd of 11, and the 3rd of 5 lodges. their houses like those of the Skillutes have their floors on the surface of the ground, but are formed of sticks and covered with mats and straw. they are large and contain usually several families each for fuel they use straw, small willows and the southern wood. they use the silk grass in manufacturing their fishing nets and bags, the bear grass and cedar bark are employed in forming a variety of articles. they are poor, dirty, proud, haughty, inhospitable, parsimonious and faithless in every rispect, nothing but our numbers I beleive prevents their attempting to murder us at this moment.—

This morning I was informed that the natives had pilfered six tomahawks and a knife from the party in the course of the last night. I spoke to the cheif on this subject. he appeared angry with his people and addressed them but the property was not restored. one horse which I had purchased and paid for yesterday and which could not be found when I ordered the horses into close confinement yesterday I was now informed had been gambled away by the rascal who had sold it to me and had been taken away by a man of another nation. I therefore took the goods back from this fellow.

I purchased a gun from the cheif for which I gave him 2 Elkskins. in the course of the day I obtained two other indifferent horses for which I gave an extravigant price. I found that I should get no more horses and therefore resolved to proceed tomorrow morning with those which I had and to convey the baggage in two small canoes that the horses could not carry.

for his purpose I had a load made up for seven horses, the eighth Bratton was compelled to ride as he was yet unable to walk. I barted my Elksins old irons and 2 canoes for beads. one of the canoes for which they would give us but little I had cut up for fuel.

These people have yet a large quantity of dryed fish on hand yet they will not let us have any but for an exorbitant price. we purchased two dogs and some shappellel from them.

I had the horses graized untill evening and then picquited and hubbled within the limited of our camp. I ordered the indians from our camp this evening and informed them that if I caught them attempting to perloin any article from us I would beat them severely. they went off in reather a bad humour and I directed the party to examine their arms and be on their guard. they stole two spoons from us in the course of the day. The Scaddals, Squan-nan-os, Shan-wah-pums and Shallattas reside to the N. W. of these people, depend on hunting deer and Elk and trade with these people for their pounded fish

Clark: a very cold morning the western mountains Covered with Snow

I Shewed the Eneshers the articles I had to give for their horses. they without hezitation informed me that they would not Sell me any for the articles I had, if I would give them Kittles they would let me have horses, and not without.

that their horses were at a long ways off in the planes and they would not Send for them &c. my offered was a blue robe, a Calleco Shirt, a Silk handkerchief, 5 parcels of paint, a knife, a Wampom moon, 8 yards of ribon, Several pieces of Brass, a mockerson awl and 6 braces of yellow beeds; and to that amount for each horse which is more than double what we gave either the Sohsohne or first flat heads we met with on Clarks river I also offered my large blue blanket, my Coat Sword & plume none of which Seamed to entice those people to Sell their horses. not with standing every exertion not a Single horse Could be precured of those people in the Course of the day.

I precured a Sketch of the Columbia and its branches of those people in which they made the river which falls into the Columbia imediately above the falls on the South Side to branch out into 3 branches one of which they make head in Mt. Jefferson, one in mount Hood and the other in the S W. range of Mountains and does not water that extensive Country we have heretofore Calculated on. a great portion of that extensive tract of Country to the S. and S. W. of the Columbia and Lewis's river and between the Same and the waters of Callifornia must be watered by the Multnomah river.—

Those people are great jokies and deciptfull in trade.

at Sunset finding that Capt Lewis would not arrive this evening as I expected, I packed up all the articles which I had exposed, at a Situation I had pitched on to Encamp, and at which place we had bought as maney fishing poles as made a fire to Cook a dog which I had purchased for the men to eate, and returned to the lodge which I had Slept in last night.

great number gathered around me to Smoke, I gave them two pipes, and then lay my self down with the men to Sleep, haveing our merchendize under our heads and guns &c in our arms, as we always have in Similar Situations

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April 21
Lewis: Notwithstanding all the precautions I had taken with rispect to the horses one of them had broken his cord of 5 strands of Elkskin and had gone off spanseled [Hobbled with rope] I sent several men in surch of the horse with orders to return at 10 A. M. with or without the horse being determined to remain no longer with these villains.

they stole another tomahawk from us this morning I surched many of them but could not find it. I ordered all the spare poles, paddles and the ballance of our canoe put on the fire as the morning was cold and also that not a particle should be left for the benefit of the indians.

I detected a fellow in stealing an iron socket of a canoe pole and gave him several severe blows and mad the men kick him out of camp. I now informed the indians that I would shoot the first of them that attempted to steal an article from us. that we were not affraid to fight them, that I had it in my power at that moment to kill them all and set fire to their houses, but it was not my wish to treat them with severity provided they would let my property alone. that I would take their horses if I could find out the persons who had stolen the tommahawks, but that I had reather loose the property altogether than take the hose of an inosent person. the chiefs were present hung their heads and said nothing.

at 9 A. M. Windsor returned with the lost horse, the others who were in surch of the horse soon after returned also. the Indian who promised to accompany me as far as the Chopunnish country produced me two horses one of which he politely gave me the liberty of packing.

we took breakfast and departed a few minutes after 10 OClock. having nine horses loaded and one which Bratton rode not being able as yet to march; the two canoes I had dispatched early this morning.

at 1 P. M. I arrived at the Enesher Village where I found Capt Clark and party; he had not purchased a single horse. he informed me that these people were quite as unfriendly as their neighbours the Skillutes, and that he had subsisted since he left me on a couple of platters of pounded roots and fish which an old man had the politeness to offer him. his party fared much better on dogs which he purchased from those people.

the man resided here from whom I had purchased the horse which ran off from me yesterday. I had given him a large kettle and a knife in exchange for that horse which I informed him should be taken from him unles he produced me the lost horse or one of equal value in his stead, the latter he prefered and produced me a very good horse which I very cheerfully received.

we soon made the portage with our canoes and baggage and halted about ½ a mile above the Village where we graized our horses and took dinner on some dogs which we purchased of these people. after dinner we proceeded on about four miles to a village of 9 mat lodges of the Enesher a little below the entrance of Clark's river and encamped;

one of the canoes joined us the other not observing us halt continued on. we obtained two dogs and a small quantity of fuel of these people for which we were obliged to give a higher price than usual. our guide continued with us, he appears to be an honest sincere fellow. he tells us that the indians a little above will treat us with much more hospitality than those we are now with.

we purchased another horse this evening but his back is in such a horid state that we can put but little on him; we obtained him for a trifle, at least for articles which might be procured in the U' States for 10 shillings Virga Cory [Virginia currency].—

we took the precaution of piquting and spanseling our horses this evening near our camp.—

Clark: A fair Cold morning I found it useless to make any further attempts to trade horses with those unfriendly people who only Crouded about me to view and make their remarks and Smoke, the latter I did not indulge them with to day.

at 12 oClock Capt Lewis and party Came up from the Skillutes Village with 9 horses packed and one which bratten who was yet too weak to walk, rode, and Soon after the two Small Canoes also loaded with the residue of the baggage which Could not be taken on horses. we had everry thing imedeately taken above the falls, in the mean time purchased 2 Dogs on which the party dined— whilst I remained at the Enesher Village

I Subsisted on 2 platters of roots, Some pounded fish and Sun flour Seed pounded which an old man had the politeness to give me. in return for which I gave him Several Small articles—.

the evening Cold and we Could afford only one fire.

Gass: This was another pleasant morning with some white frost.

We found the horse, which had broke away last night, and made preparations for setting out from this place. While we were making preparations to start, an Indian stole some iron articles from among the men's hands; which so irritated Captain Lewis, that he struck him; which was the first act of the kind, that had happened during the expedition. The Indians however did not resent it, otherwise it is probable we would have had a skirmish with them.

We went on till dark, and then run our small canoe among some willows, and laid down to sleep. We did not make any fire for fear the savages, who are very numerous along this part of the river, might come and rob us

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April 22
Lewis: Last night two of our horses broke loos from the picquits and straggled off some little distance, the men who had charge of them fortunately recovered them early.

at 7 A. M. we set out having previously sent on our small Canoe with Colter and Potts. we had not arrived at the top of a hill over which the road leads opposite the village before Charbono's horse threw his load, and taking fright at the saddle and robe which still adhered, ran at full speed down the hill, near the village he disengaged himself from the saddle and robe, an indian hid the robe in is lodge. I sent our guide and one man who was with me in the rear to assist Charbono in retaking his horse which having done they returned to the village on the track of the horse in surch of the lost articles

they found the saddle but could see nothing of the robe the indians denyed having seen it; they then continued on the track of the horse to the place from whence he had set out with the same success. being now confident that the indians had taken it I sent the Indian woman on to request Capt. C. to halt the party and send back some of the men to my assistance being determined either to make the indians deliver the robe or birn their houses.

they have vexed me in such a manner by such repeated acts of villany that I am quite disposed to treat them with every severyty, their defenseless state pleads forgiveness so far as rispects their lives. with this resolution I returned to their village which I had just reached as Labuish met me with the robe which he informed me he found in an Indian lodg his behind their baggage.

I now returned and joined Capt Clark who was waiting my arrival with the party. the Indian woman had not reached Capt C. untill about the time I arrived and he returned from a position on the top of a hill not far from where he had halted the party. from the top of this emmenense Capt. C. had an extensive view of the country.

he observed the range of mountains in which Mount Hood stands to continue nearly south as far as the eye could reach. he also observed the snow clad top of Mount Jefferson which boar S. 10 W. Mount Hood from the same point boar S. 30 W. the tops of the range of western mountains are covered with snow. Capt C. also discovered some timbered country in a Southern direction from him at no great distance.

we now made the following regulations as to our future order of march (viz) that Capt. C. & myself should devide the men who were disencumbered by horses and march alternately each day the one in front and the other in rear. haveing divided the party agreeably to this arrangement, we proceeded on through an open plain country about 8 miles to a village of 6 houses of the Eneshur nation, here we observed our 2 canoes passing up on the opposite side; the wind being too high for them to pass the river they continued on.

we halted at a small run just above the village where we dined on some dogs which we purchased of the inhabitants and suffered our horses to graize about three hours. there is no timber in this country we are obliged to purchase our fuel of the natives, who bling it from a great distance. while we halted for dinner we purch a horse.

after dinner we proceeded on up the river about 4 miles to a village of 7 mat lodges of the last mentioned nation. here our Chopunnish guide informed us that the next village was at a considerable distance and that we could not reach it tonight. the people at this place offered to sell us wood and dogs, and we therefore thought it better to remain all night.

a man blonging to the next village above proposed exchanging a horse for one of our canoes, just at this moment one of our canoes was passing. we hailed them and ordered them to come over but the wind continued so high that they could not join us untill after sunset and the Indian who wished to exchange his horse for the canoe had gone on.

Charbonoe purchased a horse this evening. we obtained 4 dogs and as much wood as answered our purposes on moderate terms. we can only afford ourselves one fire, and are obliged to lie without shelter, the nights are cold and days warm.— Colter and Pots had passed on with their canoe.

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April 23
Lewis: At day light this morning we were informed that the two horses of our Interpreter Charbono were absent; on enquiry it appeared that he had neglected to confine them to picquts as had been directed last evening. we immediately dispatched Reubin Feilds and Labuish to assist Charbono in recovering his horses. one of them was found at no great distance and the other was given over as lost.

at 8 A. M. Reuben Feilds and Sergt. Gass proceeded in the canoe. at 10 Labuish and Charbono returned unsuccessfull, they had gone back on the road nearly to the last village and suched the plains on either hand to a considerable distance.

our remaining longer would have prevented our making a timely stage which in our situation is all important; we therefore determined to proceed immediately to the next village which from the information of our guide will occupy the greater part of the day to reach at eleven OCk. we loaded our horses and set out.

during the time we were detained this morning we had two packsaddles made. we continued our march along a narrow rocky bottom on the N. side of the river about 12 miles to the Wah-how-pum Village of 12 temperary mat lodges near the Rock rapid.

these people appeared much pleased to see us, sold us 4 dogs and some wood for our small articles which we had previously prepared as our only resource to obtain fuel and food through those plains. these articles conisted of pewter buttons, strips of tin iron and brass, twisted wire &c. we also obtained some shap-le-lell newly made from these people.

here we met with a Chopunnish man on his return up the river with his family and about 13 head of horses most of them young and unbroken. he offered to hire us some of them to pack as far a his nation, but we prefer bying as by hireing his horses we shal have the whole of his family most probably to mentain.

at a little distance below this village we passed five lodges of the same people who like those were waiting the arrival of the salmon. after we had arranged our camp we caused all the old and brave men to set arround and smoke with us. we had the violin played and some of the men danced; after which the natives entertained us with a dance after their method.

this dance differed from any I have yet seen. they formed a circle and all sung as well the spectators as the dancers who performed within the circle. these placed their sholders together with their robes tightly drawn about them and danced in a line from side to side, several parties of from 4 to seven will be performing within the circle at the same time. the whole concluded with a premiscuous dance in which most of them sung and danced. these people speak a language very similar to the Chopunnish whome they also resemble in their dress their women wear long legings mockersons shirts and robes. their men also dress with legings shirts robes and mockersons.

after the dance was ended the indians retired at our request and we retired to rest. we had all our horses side hubbled and turned out to graize;

at this village, a large creek falls in on the N. side which we did not observe as we decended the river. the river is by no means as rapid as when we decended or at least not obstructed with those dangerous rapids the water at present covers most of the rocks in the bed of the river. the natives promised to barter their horses with us in the morning we therefore entertained a hope that we shall be enabled to proceede by land from hence with the whole of our party and baggage.

came 12 miles by land. the sands made the march fatieguing.—

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April 24
Lewis: We were up early this morning and dispatched the men in surch of our horses, they were all found in a little time except McNeal's. we hired an indian to surch for this horse it was one in the evening before he returned with him.

in the intermediate time we had 4 packsaddles made purchased three horses of the Wah-howpums, and hired three others of the Chopunnish man who accompanys us with his family and horses. we now sold our canoes for a few strands of beads, loaded up and departed at 2 P. M.

the natives had tantalized us with an exchange of horses for our canoes in the first instance, but when they found that we had made our arrangements to travel by land they would give us nothing for them I determined to cut them in peices sooner than leave them on those terms,

Drewyer struck one of the canoes and split of a small peice with his tommahawk, they discovered us determined on this subject and offered us several strands of beads for each which were accepted.

we proceeded up the river between the hills and it's Northen shore. the road was rocky and sandy alternately, the road difficult and fatieguing. at 12 ms. we arrived at a village of 5 lodges of the Met-cow-wes, having passed 4 lodges at 4 and 2 at 2 Ms. further.

we ramined all night near the Met-cow-we lodges; we purchased three dogs and some shappellel of these people which we cooked with dry grass and willow boughs. many of the natives pased and repassed us today on the road and behaved themselves with distant rispect towards us.

most of the party complain of the soarness of their feet and legs this evening; it is no doubt caused by walking over the rough stones and deep sands after bing for some months passed been accustomed to a soft soil. my left ankle gives me much pain. I baithed my feet in cold water from which I experienced considerable releif.

the winds which set from Mount Hood or in a westerly direction are much more cold than those from the opposite quarter. there are now no dews in these plains, and from the appearance of the earth there appears to have been no rain for several weeks.—

we derected that the three horses which we purchased yesterday should be hubbled and confined to a picqut, and that the others should be disposed of in the same manner they were last evening.

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April 25
Lewis: This morning we collected our horses and set out at 9 A. M. and proceeded on 11 ms. to the Village of the Pish-quit-pahs [a band of the Yakimas, the Pisquows] of 51 mat lodges where we arrived at 2 P. M. purchased five dogs and some wood from them and took dinner.

this village contains about 7 hundred souls. most of those people were in the plains at a distance from the river as we passed down last fall, they had now therefore the gratification of beholding whitemen for the first time. while here they flocked arround us in great numbers tho' treated us with much rispect.

we gave two medals of the small size to their two principal Cheifs who were pointed out to us by our Chopunnish fellow traveller and were acknowledged by the nation. we exposed a few old clothes my dirk [a long, straight-bladed knife of a type carried by Scottish highlanders] and Capt. C's swoard to barter for horses but were unsuccessfull these articles constitute at present our principal stock in trade. the Pish-quit-pahs insisted much on our remaining with them all night, but sudry reasons conspired to urge our noncomplyance with their wishes.

we passed one house or reather lodge of the Metcowwees about a mile above our encampment of the 20th of October last. the Pish-quit-pahs, may be considered hunters as well as fishermen as they spend the fall and winter months in that occupation. they are generally pleasently featured of statue and well proportioned. both women and men ride extreemly well. their bridle is usually a hair rope tyed with both ends to the under jaw of the horse, and their saddle consists of a pad of dressed skin stuffed with goats hair with wooden stirups. almost all the horses which I have seen in possession of the Indians have soar backs.

the Pishquitpah women for the most part dress with short shirts which reach to their knees long legings and mockersons, they also use large robes; they brade their hair as before discribed but the heads of neither male nor female of this tribe are so much flattened as the nations lower down on this river.

at 4 P. M. we set out accompanyed by eighteen or twenty of their young men on horseback. we continued our rout about nine miles where finding as many willows as would answer our purposes for fuel we encamped for the evening.

the country we passed through was much as that of yesterday. the river hills are about 250 feet high and generally abrupt and craggey in many places faced with a perpendicular and solid rock. this rock is black and hard. [The hard, black rock is basalt of the middle-upper Miocene Saddle Mountains Basalt Member of the Yakima Basalt Subgroup of the Columbia River Basalt Group] leve plains extend themselves from the tops of the river hills to a great distance on either side of the river. the soil is not as fertile as about the falls, tho' it produces a low grass on which the horses feed very conveniently.

it astonished me to seed the order of their horses at this season of the year when I knew that they had wintered on the dry grass of the plains and at the same time road with greater severity than is common among ourselves. I did not see a single horses which could be deemed poor and many of them were as fat as seals. their horses are generally good.

this evining after we had encamped, we traded for two horses with nearly the same articles we had offered at the village; these nags Capt. C. and myself intend riding ourselves; haveing now a sufficiency to transport with ease all our baggage and the packs of the men.—

we killed six ducks in the course of the day; one of them was of a speceis which I had never before seen [The northern shoveler, Anas clypeata] I therefore had the most material parts of it reserved as a specimine, the leggs are yellow and feet webbed as those of the duckandmallard. saw many common lizzards [brown lizard, the western fence lizard], several rattlesnakes [Northern Pacific rattlesnake, Crotalus viridus oreganus] killed by the party, they are the same as those common to the U' States. the horned Lizzard [pigmy horned lizard, Phrynosoma douglassi douglassi] is also common.—

had the fiddle played at the request of the natives and some of the men danced. we passed five lodges of the Wallâh wollâhs at the distance of 4 miles above the Pishquitpahs.—

[The Shahaptian-language Walulas, or Walla Wallas, possessing numerous horses and apparently influenced by plains culture, but also engaging in fishing. They were located on the lower Walla Walla River and on the Columbia River from the vicinity of present Umatilla, Umatilla County, Oregon to the confluence of the Snake River. The party encountered them on October 19, 1805, but were unable to spend any time at their villages.]

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April 26
Lewis: This morning early we set forward and at the distance of three miles entered a low level plain country of great extent. here the river hills are low and receede a great distance from the river this low country commence on the S. side of the river

about 10 miles below our encampment of last evening. these plains are covered with a variety of herbatious plants, grass, and three speceis of shrubs specimines of which I have preserved

at the distance of twelve miles we halted near a few willows which afforded us a sufficient quantity of fuel to cook our dinner which consisted of the ballance of the dogs we had purchased yesterday evening and some jirked Elk.

we were overtaken today by several families of the natives who were traveling up the river with a number of horses; they continued with us much to our annoyance as the day was worm the roads dusty and we could not prevent their horses from crouding in and breaking our order of mach without using some acts of severity which we did not wish to commit.

after dinner we continued our march through the level plain near the river 16 Ms. and encamped about a mile below three lodges of the Wollah wollah nation, and about 7 Ms. above our encampment of the 19 of October last.

after we encamped a little Indian boy caught several chubbs with a bone which he substituted for a hook. these fish were of about 9 inches long small head large abdomen, small where the tail joined the body, the tail wide long is proportion and forked. the back and ventral fins were equadistant from the head and had each 10 bony rays, the fns next the gills nine each and that near the tail 12. the upper exceeded the under jaw, the latter is truncate at the extremity and the tonge and pallet are smooth. the colour is white on the sides and belley and a blewish brown on the back. the iris of the eye is of a silvery colour and puple black.—

we covered ourselves partially this evening from the rain by means of an old tent.


Saw a Goat and a Small wolf at a distance to day. made 28 miles

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April 27
Lewis: This morning we were detained untill 9 A. M. in consequence of the absence of one of Charbono's horses. the horse at length being recovered we set out and & at the distance of fifteen miles passed through a country similar to that of yesterday; the hills at the extremity of this distance again approach the river and are rocky abrupt and 300 feet high.

we ascended the hill and marched through a high plain for 9 miles when we again returned to the river, I now thought it best to halt as the horses and men were much fatiegued altho had not reached the Wallah wollah village as we had been led to beleive by our guide who informed us that the village was at the place we should next return to the river, and the consideration of our having but little provision had been our inducement to make the march we had made this morning.

we collected some of the dry stalks of weeds and the stems of a shrub which resembles the southern wood; made a small fire and boiled a small quantity of our meat on which we dined; while here the principal Cheif of the Wallahwallahs joined us with six men of his nation. this Cheif by name Yel-lept' had visited us on the morning of the 19 of October at our encampment a little below this place; we gave him at that time a small medal, and promised him a larger one on our return. he appeared much gratifyed at seeng us return, invited us to remain at his village three or four days and assured us that we should be furnished with a plenty of such food as they had themselves; and some horses to assist us on our journey.

after our scanty repast we continued our march accompanyed by Yellept and his party to the village which we found at the distance of six miles situated on the N. side of the river at the lower side of the low country about 12 ms. below the entrance of Lewis's river. This Cheif is a man of much influence not only in his own nation but also among the neighbouring tribes and nations.—

This Village consists of 15 large mat lodges. at present they seem to subsist principally on a speceis of mullet which weigh from one to three lbs. and roots of various discriptions which these plains furnish them in great abundance. they also take a few salmon trout of the white kind.—

Yellept haranged his village in our favour intreated them to furnish us with fuel and provision and set the example himself by bringing us an armfull of wood and a platter of 3 roasted mullets. the others soon followed his example with rispect to fuel and we soon found ourselves in possession of an ample stock. they birn the stems of the shrubs in the plains there being no timber in their neighbourhood of any discription.

we purchased four dogs of these people on which the party suped heartily having been on short allowance for near two days. the indians retired when we requested them this evening and behaved themselves in every rispect extreemly well. the indians informed us that there was a good road which passed from the columbia opposite to this village to the entrance of the Kooskooske on the S. side of Lewis's river; they also informed us, that there were a plenty of deer and Antelopes on the road, with good water and grass. we knew that a road in that direction if the country would permit would shorten our rout at least 80 miles. the indians also informed us that the country was level and the road good, under these circumstances we did not hesitate in pursuing the rout recommended by our guide whos information was corroberated by Yellept & others. we concluded to pass our horses over early in the morning.—


made 31 miles to day—

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April 28
Clark: This morning early the Great Chief Yel lip pet brought a very eligant white horse to our Camp and presented him to me Signifying his wish to get a kittle but being informed that we had already disposed of every kittle we could possibly Spare he Said he was Content with what ever I thought proper to give him. I gave him my Swoard, 100 balls & powder and Some Small articles of which he appeared perfectly Satisfied.

it was necessary before we entered on our rout through the plains where we were to meet with no lodges or resident Indians that we Should lay in a Stock of provisions and not depend altogether on the gun. we derected R. Frazer to whome we have intrusted the duty of makeing the purchases, to lay in as maney fat dogs as he could procure; he Soon obtained 10. being anxious to depart we requested the Cheif to furnish us with Canoes to pass the river, but he insisted on our remaining with him this day at least, that he would be much pleased if we would consent to remain two or 3 days, but he would not let us have Canoes to leave him this day. that he had Sent for the Chim-na-pums [Also called Chimnapams, presently known as the Yakimas] his neighbours to come down and join his people this evening and dance for us.

We urged the necessity of our proceeding on imediately in order that we might the Sooner return to them, with the articles which they wishd. brought to them but this had no effect, he Said that the time he asked Could not make any Considerable difference. I at length urged that there was no wind blowing and that the river was consequently in good order to pass our horses and if he would furnish us with Canoes for that purpose we would remain all night at our present encampment, to this proposition he assented and Soon produced a Canoe.

I Saw a man who had his knee Contracted who had previously applyed to me for Some Medisene, that if he would fournish another Canoe I would give him Some Medisene. he readily Consented and went himself with his Canoe by means of which we passed our horses over the river Safely and hobbled them as usial—.

We found a Sho Sho ne woman, prisoner among those people by means of whome and Sah-cah gah-weah, Shabono's wife we found means of Converceing with the Wallahwallârs. we Conversed with them for Several hours and fully Satisfy all their enquiries with respect to our Selves and the Object of our pursute. they were much pleased.

they brought Several disordered persons to us for whome they requested Some Medical aid. one had his knee contracted by the Rhumitism (whome is just mentioned above) another with a broken arm &c. to all of whome we administered much to the gratification of those pore wretches, we gave them Some eye water [eye wash included white vitriol (zinc sulphate) and sugar of lead (lead acetate)] which I believe will render them more esential Sirvece than any other article in the Medical way which we had it in our power to bestow on them Sore eyes Seam to be a universial Complaint among those people; I have no doubt but the fine Sands of those plains and the river Contribute much to the disorder. The man who had his arm broken had it loosely bound in a peice of leather without any thing to Surport it. I dressed the arm which was broken Short above the wrist & Supported it with broad Sticks to keep it in place, put in a Sling and furnished him with Some lint bandages &c. to Dress it in future.

a little before Sun Set the Chim nah poms arrived; they were about 100 men and a fiew women; they joined the Wallah wallahs who were about 150 men and formed a half Circle arround our camp where they waited verry patiently to See our party dance. the fiddle was played and the men amused themselves with danceing about an hour. we then requested the Indians to dance untill 10 at night. the whole assemblage of Indians about 350 men women and Children Sung and danced at the Same time. most of them danced in the Same place they Stood and mearly jumped up to the time of their musick. Some of the men who were esteemed most brave entered the Space around which the main body were formed in Solid Column and danced in a Circular manner Side wise. at 10 P M. the dance ended and the nativs retired; they were much gratified in Seeing Some of our Party join them in their dance.

one of their party who made himself the most Conspicious Character in the dance and Songs, we were told was a Medesene man & Could foretell things. that he had told of our Comeing into their Country and was now about to Consult his God the moon if what we Said was the truth &c. &c

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April 29
Clark: This Morning Yelleppit furnished us with 2 Canoes, and We began to transport our baggage over the river; we also Sent a party of the men over to collect our horses. we purchased Some deer and chappellell this morning. we had now a Store of 12 dogs for our voyage through the plains.

by 11 A. M. we had passed the river with our party and baggage but were detained Several hours in consequence of not being able to Collect our horses. our guide now informed us that it was too late in the evening to reach an eligible place to encamp; that we Could not reach any water before night. we therefore thought it best to remain on the Wallah wallah river about a mile from the Columbia untill the morning,

accordingly encampd on the river near a fish Wear. this weare Consist of two Curtains of Small willows wattled together with four lines of withes of the Same Materials extending quite across the river, parralal with each other and about 6 feet asunder. those are Supported by Several parrelals of poles placed in this manner those Curtains of willows is either roled at one end for a fiew feet to permit the fish to pass or are let down at pleasure. they take their fish which at present are a Mullet only of from one to 5 pounds Wt. with Small Seines of 15 or 18 feet long drawn by two persons; these they drag down to the Wear and rase the bottom of the seine against the willow Curtain. they have also a Small Seine managed by one person, it bags in the manner of the Scooping Nets; the one Side of the Net is Confined to a Simicircular bow of half the Size of a mans arm and about 5 feet long, the other Side is confined to a Strong String which being attatched to the extremities of the bows forms the Cord line to the Simicurcle.

The Wallah wallah River discharges it's Self into the Columbia on it's Souoth Side 15 miles below the enterance of Lewis's River, or the S. E. branch. a range of hills pass the Columbia just below the enterance of this river. this is a handsom Stream about 4½ feet deep and 50 yards wide; it's bead is composed of gravel principally with Some Sand and Mud; the banks are abrupt but not high, tho' it does not appear to overflow; the water is Clear. the Indians inform us that it has it's Source in the range of Mountains in view of us to the E. and S. E. these Mountains commence a little to the South of Mt. Hood and extend themselves in a S Eastwardly direction terminateing near the Southern banks of Lewis's river Short of the rockey Mountains.

Ta wan na-hiooks river and river Lapage take their rise on those Mountains. the two principal branches of the first of those take their rise in the Mountain's, Jefferson and Hood. those Mountains are Covered at present with Snow. those S W. Mountains are Covered with Snow at present tho' do not appear high. they Seperate the Waters of the Multnomah from those of the Columbia river. they appear to be 65 or 70 miles distant from hence.

The Snake indian prisoner informed us that at Some distance in the large plains to the South of those Mountains there was a large river running to the N. W. which was as wide as the Columbia at this place, which is nearly 1 mile. this account is no doubt Somewhat exagurated but it Serves to evince the Certainty of the Mult-nomah being a very large River and that it's waters are Seperated from the Columbia by those Mountains, and that with the aid of a Southwardly branch of Lewis's river which pass around the Eastern extremity of those mountains, it must water that vast tract of Country extending from those Mountains to the Waters of the Gulf of Callifornia. and no doubt it heads with the Rochejhone and Del Nord.

We gave Small Medals to two inferior Chiefs of this nation, and they each furnished us with a fine horse, in return we gave them Sundery articles among which was one of Capt Lewis's Pistols & Several hundred rounds of Amunition.

there are 12 other Lodges of the Wallahwallah Nation on this river a Short distance below our Camp. those as well as those beyond the Columbia appear to depend on their fishing weres for their Subsistance. those people as well as the Chym na poms are very well disposed, much more So particular their women than they were when we decended the river last fall. Most of them have long Shirts and leggings, good robes and Mockersons. I prosume the Suckcess of their Winters hunt has produced this change in their attere. they all Cut their hair in the fore head, and most of the men ware the two Cews over each Sholders in front of the body; Some have the addition of a fiew Small plats formed of the eare locks, and others tigh a Small bundle of the docked foretop in front of the fore head. their orniments are Such as discribed of the nativs below, and are worn in a Similar manner. they insisted on our danceing this evening but rained a little the wind blew hard and the weather was Cold, we therefore did not indulge them.—

Several applyed to me to day for medical aides, one a broken arm another inward fever and Several with pains across their loins, and Sore eyes. I administered as well as I could to all. in the evining a man brought his wife and a horse both up to me. the horse he gave me as a present. and his wife who was verry unwell the effects of violent Coalds was placed before me. I did not think her Case a bad one and gave Such medesine as would keep her body open and raped her in flannel. left Some Simple Medesene to be taken. we also gave Some Eye water 1 G. of Ela v V. & 2 grs. of Sacchm Stry. to an ounce of water and in that perpotion. Great No. of the nativs about us all night

Lewis & Clark Map: 04/01/06 Benton County, Washington Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

April 30
Clark: This morning we had Some dificuelty in Collecting our horses notwithstanding we had hobbled & Picqueted those we obtained of those people. we purchased two other horses this morning and 4 dogs. we exchanged one of our most indeferent horses for a very good one with the Choponnish man who has his family with him.

this man has a doughter now arived at the age of puberty who being in a certain Situation—is not permited to acoiate with the family but Sleeps at a distance from her father's Camp, and when traveling follows at Some distance behind. in this State I am informed that the female is not permited to eat, nor to touch any article of a culinary nature or manly occupation.

at 10 A. M. we had Collected all our horses except the White horse which Yelleppit the Great Chief had given me. the whole of the men haveing returned without being able to find this hors. I informed the chief and he mounted Capt Lewis's horse and went in Serch of the horse himself. about half an hour after the Chopunnish man brought my horse. we deturmined to proceed on with the party leaving one man to bring up Capt L.—s horse when Yelleppit Should return.

We took leave of those honest friendly people the Wallah wallahs and departed at 11 A. M. accompanied by our guide and the Chopunnish man and family. we Continued our rout N. 30° E. 14 ms. through an open leavel Sandy Plain to a bold Creek 10 yards wide. this stream is a branch of the Wallahwallah river, and takes it's rise in the same range of mountains to the East of the main branch. deep and has a bold Current. there are maney large banks of pure Sand which appear to have been drifted up by the wind to the hight of 20 or 30 feet, lying in maney parts of the plains through which we passed to day. This plain as usial is covered with arromatic Shruubs, hurbatious plants and tufts of Short grass. Maney of those plants produce those esculent roots which forms a principal part of the Subsistance of the Nativs. among others there is one which produce a root Somewhat like the Sweet potato. We encamped at the place we intersepted the Creek where we had the pleasure once more to find a Sufficency of wood for the purpose of makeing ourselves comfortable fires, which has not been the Case Since we left Rock fort Camp below the falls.

Drewyer killed a beaver and an otter.

the narrow bottoms of this Creek is fertile. tho' the plains are pore & Sandy. the hills of the Creek are general abrupt and rocky. there is Some timber on this Creek. it consists of Cotton wood, birch, the Crimson haw, red willow, Sweet willow, Choke Cherry, yellow Current, goose berry, white berried honey suckle, rose bushes, Seven bark, Shoemate &c. &c. rushes in Some pats of the bottoms.

R. Fields over took us with Capt Lewis's horse our Stock of horses have now increased to 23 and most of them excellent young horses, but much the greatest part of them have Sore backs. those Indians are cruel horse masters; they ride hard and their Saddles illey constructed. &c. &c.

Lewis & Clark Map: 04/01/06 Walla Walla County, Washington Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

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This guide last edited 09/11/2006
This guide last revised 05/19/2008
This guide created 03/24/2006