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Journals: May, 1806

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May 1
Clark: This morning we collected our horses and made an early Start, haveing preveously Sent a hed 4 hunters with derections to proceed up the Creek and kill every Species of game which they might meet with. the Small portion of rain which fell last night Caused the road to be much furmer and better than yesterday.

the morning Cloudy and Cool. we proceeded up the Creek on the N. E. Side through a Countrey of less sand and Some rich bottoms on the Creek which is partially Supplyed with Small Cotton trees, willow, red willow, choke Cherry, white thorn, birch, elder & honey suckle. Great portion of these bottoms has been latterly burnt which has entirely distroyed the timbered growth.

at the distance of nine miles we over took our hunters, they had killed one bever only

at this place the road forked, one leaveing the Creek and the Corse of it is nearly North. the Chopunnish who had accompanied us with his family informed us that this was our best way. that it was a long distance without water. and advised us to Camp on the Creek at this place and in the morning to Set out early. This information perplexed us a little, in as much as the idea of going a days march without water thro an open sandy plain and on a Course 50° out of our derection. we deturmined to unlode and wate for our Guide, or the Chopunnish man who had accompanied us from the long Narrows, who was in the rear with Drewyer our interpreter.

on his arrival we enquired of him which was the best and most direct roade for us to take. he informed us that the road pointed out by his cumerade was through a open hilly and Sandy Countrey to the river Lewis's River, and was a long ways around, and that we Could not git to any water to day. the other roade up the creek was a more derect Course, plenty of water wood and only one hill in the whole distance and the road which he had always recommended to us. Some words took place between those two men the latter appeared in great pation Mounted his horse and Set out up the Creek. we Sent a man after him and brought him back informed him that we believed what he Said and Should imedeately after dinner proceed on the road up the Creek with him. we gave the former man Some powder and ball which had been promised him, and after an early dinner Set out up the Creek with our guide leaveing the Chopunnish man and his family encamped at the forks of the road where they intended to Stay untill the morning and proceed on the rout he had recommended to us.

we traviled 17 miles this evening makeing a total of 26 mls. and encamped.

the first 3 miles of our afternoons march was through a Simaler Country of that of the fore noon; the Creek bottoms then became higher and wider; to the extent of from 2 to 3 miles. we Saw Several Deer of which Labiech killed one. the timber on the Creek became more abundant and less burnt, and its extensive bottoms afford a pleasent looking Country. we Saw a Great number of Curloos, Some Crains, Ducks, prarie cocks, and Several Species of Sparrows common to the praries. I See Very little difference between the apparant face of the Country here and that of the plains of the Missouri. only that those are not enlivened by the vast herds of Buffalow, Elk &c. which animated those of the Missouri.

The Courses & distances of this day are N. 45° E. 9 mls. & N. 75° E. 17 Miles allong the North Side of this Creek to our encampment. Sometime after we had encamped three young men arrived from the Wallah wallah Village bringing with them a Steel trap belonging to one of our party which had been negligently left behind; this is an act of integrity rearly witnessed among Indians. dureing our Stay with them they Several times found the knives of the men which had been Carefully lossed by them and returned them. I think we can justly affirm to the honor of those people that they are the most hospitable, honist and Sencere people that we have met with on our Voyage.—

Lewis & Clark Map: 04/01/06 Walla Walla County, Washington Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

May 2
Clark: This morning we dispatched two hunters a head.

we had much dificuelty in Collecting our horses. at 8 A. M. we obtained them all except the horse we obtained from the Chopunnish man whome we Seperated from yesterday. we apprehended that this horse would make Some attempts to rejoin the horses of this man and accordingly had him as we thought Scurely hobbled both before and at the Side, but he broke the Strings in the Course of the night and absconded.

we Sent Several men in different directions in Serch of him. and hired one of the men who joined us last night to prosue him and over take us & at ½ after 1 P. M. the indian and Joseph Fields returned with the horse they had found him on his way back about 17 miles. I paid the Indian the price Stipulated for his Services and we imediately loaded up and Set forward East 3 miles over a hilly road along the N. Side of the Creek.

wide bottoms on the S. Side. a branch falls in on the S. side which runds from the S W. Mountains, which appear to be about 25 m. distant low yet Covered with Snow. N. 75° E. 7 m. through an extencive leavel bottom. more timber than usial on the Creek. Some pine of the long leaf kind appear on the Creek hills. also about 50 acres of well timbered pine land where we passed the Creek at 4 m. on the Course. N. 45° E. 9 m. passed the Creek at 4 M. and Continued up on the N. E. Side. the bottoms wide. the main creek bear to the S. and head in the Mountains. we passed a Small Creek at 8¾ m. from the Commencement of this Course and encamped on the N. Side in a little bottom. haveing traviled 19 miles to day.

at this place the road leaves the Creek and passes through the open high plains. this creek is 5 yds wide and bears East towards the Mts. I observed a Considerable quantity of the qua mash in the bottoms through which we passed this evening now in blume. there is much appearance of beaver & otter along these creeks. Saw two deer at a distance, also Sand hill Cranes, Curloos and fowls common to the plains. the Soil appears to improve as we advance on this road. our hunters killed a deer only.

The three young men of the Wallah wallah nation Continue with us in the Course of this day. I observed them cut the inner part of the young and succulent Stem of a large Corse plant with a ternate leaf, the leafest of which are three loabes and Covered with woolly pubersense. the flower and fructification resembles that of the parsnip. this plant is very common in the rich lands on the Ohio and its branches. I tasted of this plant found it agreeable and eate hartily of it without feeling any inconveniance.

Lewis & Clark Map: 04/01/06 Walla Walla County, Washington Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

May 3
Clark: This morning we Set out at 7 A. M. Steared N. 25° E. 12 m. to Kimoo e nimm Creek through a high leavel plain this Creek is 12 yds. wide pebbly bottom low banks and discharges a Considerable quanty of water it head in the S W. Mountains and discharges it Self into Lewis's river a fiew miles Above the narrows. the bottoms of this Creek is narrow with Some timber principally Cotton wood & Willow. the under brush Such as mentioned in the N. E. Creek.

The hills are high and abrupt. the lands of the plains is much more furtile than below, less Sand and Covered with taller grass; very little of the aramatic Shrubs appear in this part of the plain. we halted and dined at this Creek. after which we again proceeded N. 45° E. 3 mes. through a high plain to a Small Creek 5 yds. wide, a branch of the Kimoenimm Creek. the hills of this Stream like those of the Ki moo enimm are high its bottoms narrow and possess but little timber. the land of a good quallity dark rich loam. we Continued our rout up this Creek on it's N. Side N. 75° E 7 mes. the timber increas in quantity the hills continue high.

we met with the We arh koont whome we have usially distinguished by the name of the big horn Chief from the circumstance of his always wareing a horn of that animal Suspended by a Cord to his left arm. he is a 1st Chief of a large band of the Chopunnish Nation. he had ten of his young men with him.

[His real name was Apash Wyakaikt, 'apáswahayqt, "flint necklace." Men of the same name, very likely his son and grandson, were later among the most prominent Nez Perce leaders, known to whites as Looking Glass, senior and junior. The last was a leading figure in the 1877 war, in which he was killed.]

this man Went down Lewis's river by Land as we decended it by water last fall quite to the Columbia, and I believe was very instremental in precureing us a hospital and friendly reception among the nativs. he had now come a Considerable distance to meet us.

after meeting this Cheif we Continued Still up the Creek bottoms N. 75° E. 2 m. to the place at which the roade leaves the Creek and assends the hill to the high plains: here we Encamped in a Small grove of Cotton trees which in some measure broke the violence of the wind.

we Came 28 miles today. it rained, hailed, Snowed & blowed with Great Violence the greater portion of the day. it was fortunate for us that this Storm was from the S. W. and of Course on our backs. the air was very cold.

we devided the last of our dried meat at dinner when it was Consumed as well as the ballance of our Dogs nearly we made but a Scant Supper, and had not anything for tomorrow; however We-ark-koomt Consoled us with the information that there was an Indian Lodge on the river at no great distnace where we might Supply our Selves with provisions tomorrow.

our Guide and the three young Wallah wallah's left us this morning reather abruptly and we have Seen nothing of them Sence. the S W. Mountains appear to become lower as they receed to the N E. This Creek reaches the mountains. we are much nearer to them than we were last evening. they are Covered with timber and at this time Snow.

Lewis & Clark Map: 04/01/06 Garfield County, Washington Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

May 4
Clark: Collected our horses and Set out early; the morning was Cold and disagreeable.

we assended the Lar board Hill of the Creek and Steared N 60° E 4 M. through a high leavil plain to a revine which forms the Source of a small creek, thence down the Creek N 75° E. 8 Ms. to it's enterance into Lewis's river 7½ ms. below the enterance of Koos koos ke. on the river a little above this Creek we arived at a lodge of 6 families of which We-ark'-koomt has Spoken.

We halted here for brackfast and with much dificuelty purchased 2 lean dogs. the inhabitents were miserably pore. we obtained a fiew large cakes of half cured bread made of a root which resembles the Sweet potatoe, with these we made Some Soope and took brackfast.

the lands through which we passed to day are fertile consisting of a dark rich loam. the hills of the river are high and abrupt approaching it nearly on both Sides. no timber in the plains. the S. W. Mountains which appear to be about 15 Miles from us Still Continue to become lower, they are Covered with Snow at present nearly to their bases. Lewis's river appear to pass through those Mountains near the N Eastern extremity. those hills termonate in a high leavil plain between the Kooskoske & Lewis's river. these plains are in maney places well covered with the long leafed pine and Some balsom fir. the Soil is extreamly fertile. no does it appear So thirsty as that of the Same apparrant texture of the open plains. it produces great quantities of the quawmash a root of which the natives are extreemly fond.

a Great portion of the Chopunnish we are informed are now distributed in Small villages through this plain Collecting the Cowse a white Meley root which is very fine in Soup after being dried and pounded; the Salmon not yet haveing arived to Call them to the river—.

The hills of the Creek which we decended this morning are high and in most parts rocky and abrupt. one of our pack horses Sliped from one of those hights and fell into the Creek with it's load Consisting principally of amunition, but fortunately neither the horse nor load Suffered any Matereal injury. the ammunition being Secured in Canesters the water did not effect it.—

after dinner we Continued our rout up the West Side of the river 3 ms. opposit 2 Lodges the one Containing 3 and the other 2 families of the Chopunnish Nation; here we met with Te-toh-ar-sky the oldest of the two Chiefs who accompanied us last fall to the Great falls of the Columbia. here we also met with our old pilot who decended the river with us as low as the Columbia these indians recommended our passing the river at this place and going up on the N E Side of the Kooskoske. they Sayed it was nearer and a better rout to the forks of that river where the twisted hair resided in whose charge we had left our horses; thither they promised to Conduct us.

we determined to take the advise of the indians and imediately prepared to pass the river which with the assistance of three indian Canoes we effected in the Course of the evening, purchased a little Wood, Some Cows bread and encamped, haveing traveled 15 miles to day only.

We ark koomt whose people reside on the West Side of Lewis's river above left us when we deturmined to pass the river. before he left us he expressed his concern that his people would be deprived of the pleasure of Seeing us at the forks at which place they had assimbled to Shew us Sivilities &c. I gave him a Small piece of tobacco and he went off Satisfied.

the evening was Cold and disagreeable, and the nativs Crouded about our fire in great numbers in so much that we Could Scercely Cook or keep ourselves worm. at all those Lodges of the Chopunnish I observe an appendage of a Small lodge with one fire, which Seames to be the retreat of their women in a certain Situation. the men are not permited to approach this Lodge within a certain distance, and if they have any thing to Convey to the Occupents of this little hospital they Stand at the distance of 50 or 60 paces and throw it towards them as far as they Can and retire.

Lewis & Clark Map: 04/01/06 Whitman County, Washington Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

May 5
Clark: Collected our horses and Set out at 7 A M. at 4½ ms. we arived at the enterance of Kooskooske, up the N E. Side of which we continued our March 12 Miles to a large lodge of 10 families haveing passed two other large mat lodges the one at 5 and the other at 8 Miles from the Mouth of the Kooskooske, but not being able to obtain provisions at either of those Lodges continued our March to the 3rd where we arived at 1 P. M. and with much dificuelty obtained 2 dogs and a Small quantity of bread and dryed roots.

at the Second Lodge of Eight families Capt L. & my self both entered Smoked with a man who appeared to be a principal man. as we were about to leave his lodge and proceed on our journey he brought foward a very eligant Gray mare and gave her to me, requesting Some eye water. I gave him a phial of Eye water a handkerchief and some Small articles of which he appeared much pleased—.

While we were encamped last fall at the enterance of Chopunnish river, I gave an Indian man some volitile leniment to rub his knee and thye for a pain of which he Complained. the fellow Soon after recovered and have never Seased to extol the virtue of our medicines. near the enterance of the Kooskooske, as we decended last fall I met with a man, who Could not walk with a tumure on his thye. this had been very bad and recovering fast. I gave this man a jentle pirge cleaned & dressed his Sore and left him Some Casteel Soap to wash the Sore which Soon got well. this man also assigned the restoration of his leg to me. those two cures has raised my reputation and given those nativs an exolted oppinion of my Skill as a phician.

I have already received maney applications. in our present Situation I think it pardonable to continue this deception for they will not give us any provisions without Compensation in merchendize, and our Stock is now reduced to a mear handfull. we take Care to give them no article which Can possible injure them. and in maney Cases can administer & give Such Medicine & Sergical aid as will effectually restore in Simple Cases &c.

We found our Chopunnish Guide with his family. the Indians brought my horse which was left at the place we made Canoes, from the opposit Side and delivered him to me while here. this horse had by Some accident Seperated from our other horses above, and agreeably to indian information had been in this neighbourhood Some weeks.

while at dinner an indian fellow very impertinently threw a half Starved puppy nearly into the plate of Capt. Lewis by way of derision for our eating dogs and laughed very heartily at his own impertinence; Capt L.— was So provoked at the insolence that he cought the puppy and threw it with great violence at him and Struck him in the breast and face, Seazed his tomahawk, and Shewed him by Sign that if he repeeted his insolence that he would tomahawk him, the fellow withdrew apparently much mortified and we continued our Dinner without further Molestation.

after dinner we continued our rout 4 miles to the enterance of Colter's Creek about ½ a mile above the rapid where we Sunk the 1st Canoe as we decended the river last fall. We encamped on the lower Side of this Creek a little distance from two Lodges of the Chopunnish nation haveing traviled 20½ miles to day

one of those Lodges Contained 8 families, the other was much the largest we have yet seen. it is 156 feet long and about 15 feet wide built of mats and Straw, in the form of the roof of a house haveing a number of Small dores on each Side, is closed at the ends and without divisions in the intermediate Space. this lodge at least 30 families. their fires are kindled in a row in the Center of the Lodge and about 10 feet assunder. all the Lodges of these people are formed in this manner.

we arrived here extreemly hungary and much fatigued, but not articles of merchindize in our possession would induce them to let us have any article of Provisions except a Small quantity of bread of Cows and some of those roots dryed. We had Several applications to assist their Sick which we refused unless they would let us have Some dogs or horses to eat. a man whose wife had an absess formed on the Small of her back promised a horse in the morning provided we would administer to her,

I examined the absess and found it was too far advanced to be cured. I told them her case was desperate. agreeably to thir request I opened the absess. I then introduced a tent and dressed it with bisilican; and prepared Some dozes of the flour of Sulpher and Creem of tarter which were given with directions to be taken on each morning.

a little girl and Sundery other patients were brought to me for Cure but we posponed our opperations untill the morning; they produced us Several dogs but they were So pore that they were unfit to eat.

This is the residence of one of four principal Cheafs of the nation whome they call Neesh-ne-park-ke-ook or the Cut nose from the circumstance of his nose being Cut by the Snake Indians with a launce in battle. to this man we gave a Medal of the Small Size with a likeness of the President. he may be a great Chief but his Countinance has but little inteligence and his influence among his people appears very inconsiderable.

a number of Indians besides the inhabitents of these Lodges gathered about us this evening and encamped in the timbered bottom on the Creek near us. We met with a Snake indian man at this place through whome we Spoke at Some length to the nativs this evening with respect to the object which had enduced us to visit their Country. this address was induced at this moment by the Suggestions of an old man who observed to the nativs that he thought we were bad men and had Come most probably in order to kill them.— this impression if really entertained I believe we efected; they appeared well Satisfied with what we Said to them, and being hungary and tired we retired to rest at 11 oClock.— We-ark-koomt rejoined us this evening. this man has been of infinate Service to us on Several former occasions and through him we now offered our address to the nativs—.

Lewis & Clark Map: 04/01/06 Nez Perce County, Idaho Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska History Link

May 6
Clark: This morning the Susband of the Sick woman was as good as his word. he produced us a young horse in tolerable order which we imedeately had killed and butchered.

the inhabitents Seemed more accommodating this morning. they Sold us Some bread. we received a Second horse for Medecine & procription to a little girl with the rhumitism whome I had bathed in worm water, and anointed her a little with balsom Capivia. I dressed the woman again this morning who declared that She had rested better last night than She had Since She had been sick.

Sore Eyes is an universal Complaint among all the nations which we have Seen on the West Side of the rocky Mountains. I was busily imployed for several hours this morning in administering eye water to a Croud of applicants. we once more obtained a plentiful meal, much to the Comfort of all the party.

Capt Lewis exchanged horses with We ark koomt and gave him a small flag with which he was much pleased and gratifyed. the Sorrel which Cap L. obtained is a Strong active well broke horse—.

At this place we met with three men of a nation Called the Skeets-so-mish who reside at the falls of a Small river dischargeing itself into the Columbia on its East Side to the South of the enterance of Clarks river. this river they informed us headed in a large lake in the mountains and that the falls below which they reside was at no great distance from the lake.

these people are the Same in their dress and appearance with the Chopunnish, tho' their language is entirely different. one of them gave me his whip which was a twisted Stick 18 Ins. in length at one end a pice of raw hide Split So as to form two Strings about 20 inches in length as a lash, to the other end a String passed through a hole and fastened at each end for a loope to Slip over the wrist. I gave in return for this whip a fathom of narrow binding.

The River here Calld. Clarks river is that which we have heretofore Called Flathead river. Capt. Lewis has thought proper to Call this after myself for this Stream we know no indian name and no white man but our Selves was ever on this river. The river which Fiddler call's the great lake river may possiably be a branch of it, but if So it is but a very inconsiderable branch, and may as probably empty itself into the Columbia above as into Clarks river.

the Stream which the party has heretofore Called Clarks river imedeately above the great falls, has it's three principal branches in Mountains Jefferson, Hood and the Northern Side of the S. W. Mountains and is of course a Short river. this river is Called by the Skillutes & Eneshure Nations Towannahhiooks which is also the name they Call those bands of Snake indians who Come on this river every Spring to Catch the Salmon—.

The Kooskooske river may be Safely navigated at present all the rocks of the Sholes and rapids are perfectly Covered; the Current is Strong, the water Clear and Cold. this river is riseing fast—.

The timber of this river which consists principally of the long leafed pine which commences about 2 miles below our present encampment on Colters Creek. it was 2 P M. this evening before we could collect our horses. at 3 P M. we Set out accompanied by the brother of the twisted hair and We-ark-koomt. we derected the horse which I had obtained for the purpose of eateing to be led as it was unbroke, in performing this duty a quarrel ensued between Drewyer and Colter—.

We Continued our march along the river on its North Side 9 miles to a lodge of 6 families built of Sticks mats and dryed Hay. of the Same form of those heretofore discribed. we passed a Lodge of 3 families at 4 ms. on the river, no provisions of any discription was to be obtained of these people. a little after dark our young horse broke the rope by which he was Confined and made his escape much to the chagrine of all who recollected the keenness of their appetites last evening. the brother of the twisted hair & wearkkoomt with 10 others encamped with us this evening—.

The nativs have a Considerable Salmon fishery up Colters Creek. this Stream extends itself to the Spurs of the Rocky Mountain and in much the greater part of its Course passes through a well timbered pine Country. it is 25 yds. wide and discharges a large body of water. the banks low and bead formed of pebbles—.

had a Small Shower of rain this evening.

The Chopunnish about the Mouth of the Kooskooske bury their dead on Stoney hill Sides generally, and as I was informed by an Indian who made Signs that they made a hole in the Grown by takeing away the Stones and earth where they wished to deposit the dead body after which they laid the body which was previously raped in a robe and Secured with Cords. over the body they placed Stones So as to form a Sort of arch on the top of which they put Stones and earth So as to Secure the body from the wolves and birds &c. they Sometimes inclose the grave with a kind of Sepulcher like the roof of a house formed of the canoes of the disceased. they also Sacrifice the favorite horses of the disceased. the bones of many of which we See on and about the graves.

Lewis & Clark Map: 04/01/06 Nez Perce County, Idaho Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

May 7
Clark: This morning we collected our horses and Set out early accompanied by the brother of the twisted hair as a guide; Wearkkoomt and his party left us.

we proceeded up the river 4 miles to a lodge of 6 families just below the enterance of a Small Creek, here our guide recommended our passing the river, he informed us that the road was better on the South Side, and that game was more abundant also on that Side near the enterance of Chopunnish river. we deturmined to pursue the rout recommened by the guide, and accordingly unloaded our horses and prepared to pass the river which we effected by means of one Canoe in the Course of 4 hours.

a man of this lodge produced us two Canisters of Powder which he informed us he had found by means of his dog where they had been berried in the bottom near the river a fiew miles above. they were the Same which we had burried as we decended the river last fall. as he had kept them Safe and had honisty enough to return them to us, we gave him a fire Steel by way of Compensation.

dureing our detention at the river we took dinner.

after which we renewed our march along the S. E. Side of the river about 2 miles over a dificuelt Stoney road, when we left the river and assended the hills to the right which are here mountains high. the face of the Country when you have once assended the river hills, is perfectly level and partially Covered with the long leafed pine. the Soil is a dark rich loam, thickly Covered with grass and herbatious plants which afford a delightfull pasture for horses. in Short it is a butifull fertile picteresque Country.

Neeshneparkeeook over took us and after rideing with us a fiew miles turned off to the right to visit some lodges of his people who he informed us were gathering roots in the plains at a little distance from the road.

our guide Conducted us through the plain and down a Steep and lengthy hill to a Creek which we Call Musquetoe Creek in consequence of being infested with Sworms of those insects on our arival at it. this is but an inconsiderable Stream about 6 yards wide heads in the plains at a Short distance and discharges itself into the Kooskooske 9 ms. by water below the forks. we Struck this Creek at the distance of 5 miles from the point at which we left the river our course being a little to the S. of East.

we proceeded up the Creek one Mile and on the S. E. Side we arived at an old Indian incampment of Six Lodges which appeared to have been recently evacuated. here we remained all night haveing traveled 12 ms. only.

the timbered Country on this Side of the river may be Said to Commence a Short distance below this Creek, and on the other Side of the river at a little distance from it the timber reaches as low as Colter's Creek. the earth in maney parts of those plains is thown up in little mounds by Some animal whose habits are Similar to the Sallemander, like that animal it is also invisible; notwithstanding I have observed the work of this animal throughout the whole course of my trail from St. Louis to the Pacific Ocian, I have never obtained a View of this animal.

The Shoshone man of whome I have before mentioned over took us this evening with Neesh neparkeeook or Cut nose and remained with us this evening. we Suped this evening as we had done on horse beef. we Saw Several deer this evening, and a great number of the tracks of these animals we deturmined to remain here untill noon tomorrow in order to obtain some venison, and accordingly gave orders to the hunters to turn out early in the morning.

The Spurs of the rocky mountains which were in view from the high plain to day were perfectly Covered with Snow. The Indians inform us that the Snow is yet So deep on the Mountains that we Shall not be able to pass them untill after the next full moon or about the first of June. others Set the time at a more distant period. this unwelcom intiligence to men confined to a diet of horsebeef and roots, and who are as anxious as we are to return to the fat plains of the Missouri, and thence to our native homes.

The Chopunnish bury their dead in different ways as I have obseved, besides that already discribed they scaffold Some and deposit others in Sepulchers, those are rearly to be Seen in this upper part of the Columbian Waters. the one already discribed is the most Common. they all Sacrifice horses, Canoes and every Species of property to the dead. the bones of maney horses are Seen lyeing about those repositaries of the dead &c.—.

I observed in all the Lodges which we have passed Since we Crossed Lewis's river decoys, or Stocking heads as they are Sometimes called. these decoys are for the deer and is formed of the Skin of the head and upper portion of the neck of that animale extended in the nateral Shape by means of a fiew little Sticks placed within. the hunter when he Sees a deer conseals himself and with his hand givs to the decoy the action of a deer at feed, and this induces the deer within arrowshot; in this mode the Indians near the woody country hunt on foot in Such places where they cannot pursue the deer with horses which is their favourite method when the grounds will permit—.—.

The orniments worn by the Chopunnish are, in their nose a Single Shell of wampom, the pirl & beeds are Suspended from the ears. bears are worn arround their wrists, neck and over their Sholders crosswise in the form of a double Sash—. the hair of the men is Cewed in two rolls which hang on each side in front of the body. Collars of bears Claws are also Common; but the article of dress on which they appear to bestow most pains and orniments is a kind of collar or brestplate; this is most Commonly a Strip of otter skins of about Six inches Wide taken out of the Center of the Skin it's whole length including the head. this is dressed with the hair on, this is tied around the neck & hangs in front of the body the tail frequently reaching below their knees; on this Skin in front is attatched pieces of pirl, beeds, wampom, pices of red Cloth and in Short whatever they conceive most valuable or ornamental—.—.

Lewis & Clark Map: 04/01/06 Nez Perce County, Idaho Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

May 8
Clark: This morning our hunters was out by the time it was light.

about 8 oClock Shields brought in a Small deer, on which we brackfast

by 11 A. M. all our hunters returned Drewyer & P. Crusat brought in a Deer each & Collins wounded one which our Dog Caught near our Camp. Total of our Stock of provisions 4 deer & Some horse flesh.

on the Small Creek which passes our Camp, the nativs have laterly encamped and as we are informed have been much distressed for provisions, they have fallen a number of Small pine in the vicinity of this Encampment for the Seed which is in the bur of which they eate. we are informed that they were Compelled to Collect the moss off the pine boil & eate it in the latter part of the last Winter.

on the Creek near our Camp I observed a kind of trap which was made with great panes to catch the Small fish which pass down with the Stream This was a dam formed of Stone So as to Collect the water in a narrow part not exceeding 3 feet wide from which place the water Shot with great force and Scattered through Some Small willows Closely connected and fastened with bark. this mat of willow Switches was about 4 feet wide and 6 long lyin in a horozontal position, fastened at the extremety. the Small fish which fell on those willows was washed on the Willows where they untill taken off &c. I cought or took off those willows 9 Small trout from 3 to 7 Inches in length.

Soon after I returned from the fishery an Indian came from a fishery of a Similar kind a little above with 12 Small fish which he offered me which I declined axcepting as I found from his Signs that his house was a Short distance above, and that those fisheries afforded the principal part of the food for his Children.

The Great Chief of the Bands below who has a cut nose joined us this morning. we gave the interals with 4 young fauns which was in two of the deer killed to day to the Indians also some of our deer & horse flesh. the Paunch of the deer they eate without any preperation further than washing them a little. the fauns they boiled and eate every part of them even the Skins with the hair.

The Snake Indian was much displeased that he was not furnished with as much Deer as he could eate. he refused to Speake to the wife of Shabono, through whome we Could understand the nativs. we did not indulge him and in the after part of the day he Came too and Spoke verry well.

one of the Indins drew me a Sketch of the river in this Sketch he makes the 1st large Southerly fork of Lewis's river much the longest and on which great numbers of the Snake Indians reside

we loaded up and Set on on the roade leading as we were informed to the lodge of the twisted hair, the Chief in whoes Care we had left our horses. we were accompanied by the Cut nose Chief our old Chief who had accompanied us down the river and Several men.

we assended the hills which was Steep and emencely high to a leavel rich Country thinly timbered with pine. we had not proceeded more than 4 miles before we met the twisted hair and Several men meeting of us. we were verry coolly recved by the twisted hair. he Spoke aloud and was answered by the Cut Nose. we Could not learn what they Said. but plainly discovered that a missunderstanding had taken place between them.

we made Signs to them that we Should proceed on to the next water and encamp. accordingly I set out and they all followed. we had not proceeded far before the road Crossed a Small handsom Stream on which we encamped.

The parties of those two Chiefs took different positions at Some distance from each other and all appeared Sulkey. after we had formed our Camp we Sent Drewyer with a pipe to Smoke with the twisted hair and lern the Cause of the dispute between him and the Cut nose, and also to invite him to our fire to Smoke with us. The twisted hair came to our fire to Smoke we then Sent drewyer to the Cut Noses fire with the Same directions. he returned and informed us that the Cut nose Said he would join us in a fiew minits.

it appears that the Cause of the quarrel between those two men is about our horses. and we cannot lern the particulars of this quarrel which probably originated through jelousy on the part of the Cut nose who blames the twisted hair for Suffer our horses to be rode, and want water dureing the Winter &c. twisted hair Says the horses were taken from him

The Cut nose joined us in a Short time We Smoked with all the party of both Chiefs, and told them that we were Sorry to find them at varience with each other the cut nose said that the twisted hair was a bad man and wore two fases, that he had not taken care of our horses as was expected. that himself an the broken arm had Caused our horses to be Watered in the winter and had them drove together, and that if we would proceed on to the village of the great Chief whome we had left a flag last fall the broken arm he would Send for our horses, that he had himself three of them.

he also informed us that the great Chief hering of our distressed Situation had Sent his Son and 4 men to meet us and have us furnished on the way &c. that the young men had missed us and Could never over take us untill this time. that the great chief had 2 bad horses for us and expected us to go to his lodge which was near the river and about half a days march above &c. The twisted hair told us that he wished to Smoke with us at his lodge which was on the road leading to the Great Chiefs lodge, and but a fiew miles a head. if we would delay at his lodge tomorrow he would go after our Saddles and horses which was near the place we made our Canoes last fall. we deturmined to Set out early in the morning and proceed on to the lodge of the twisted hair and Send for our Saddles and powder which we had left burried mear the forks. and the day after tomorrow to proceed on to the lodge of the Grand Chief.

accordingly we informed the Indians of our intentions. we all Smoked and conversed untill about 10 P M. the Indians retired and we lay down. Derected 5 hunters to turn our early in the morning to hunt and meet us at the twisted hair's lodge.

Lewis & Clark Map: 04/01/06 Clearwater County, Idaho Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

May 9
Lewis: We sent out several hunters early this morning with instructions to meet us at the lodge of the Twisted hair. Collecting our horses detained us untill 9 A. M. when we charged our packhorses and set out.

our rout lay through a level rich country similar to that of yesterday; at the distance of 6 miles we arrived at the lodge of the twisted hair; this habitation was built in the usual form with sticks mats and dryed hay, and contained 2 firs and about 12 persons.

here we halted as had been previously concerted, and one man with 2 horses accompayed the twisted hair to the canoe camp, about 4 ms. in quest of the saddles. the Twisted hair sent two young men in surch of our horses agreeably to his promis.

The country along the rocky mountains for several hundred miles in length and about 50 in width is level extreemly fertile and in many parts covered with a tall and open growth of the longleafed pine. near the watercouses the hills are steep and lofty tho' are covered with a good soil not remarkably stony and possess more timber than the level country. the bottom lands on the watercourses are reather narrow and confined tho' fertile & seldom inundated. this country would form an extensive settlement; the climate appears quite as mild as that of similar latitude on the Atlantic coast if not more so and it cannot be otherwise than healthy; it possesses a fine dry pure air. the grass and many plants are now upwards of knee high. I have no doubt but this tract of country if cultivated would produce in great abundance every article essentially necessary to the comfort and subsistence of civillized man.

to it's present inhabitants nature seems to have dealt with a liberal hand, for she has distributed a great variety of esculent plants over the face of the country which furnish them a plentifull store of provision; these are acquired with but little toil, and when prepared after the method of the natives afford not only a nutricious but an agreeable food. among other roots those called by them the Quawmash and Cows are esteemed the most agreeable and valuable as they are also the most abundant.

the cows is a knobbed root of an irregularly rounded form not unlike the Gensang in form and consistence. this root they collect, rub of a thin black rhind which covers it and pounding it expose it in cakes to the sun. these cakes ate about an inch and ¼ thick and 6 by 18 in width, when dryed they either eat this bread alone without any further preperation, or boil it and make a thick muselage; the latter is most common and much the most agreeable. the flavor of this root is not very unlike the gensang.— this root they collect as early as the snows disappear in the spring and continue to collect it untill the quawmash supplys it's place which happens about the latter end of June. the quawmash is also collected for a few weaks after it first makes it's appearance in the spring, but when the scape appears it is no longer fit for use untill the seed are ripe which happens about the time just mentioned, and then the cows declines. the latter is also frequently dryed in the sun and pounded afterwards and then used in making soope.—

I observed a few trees of the larch and a few small bushes of the balsam fir near the lodge of the Twisted hair.

at 2 P. M. our hunters joined us Drewyer killed a deer but lost it in the river. a few pheasants was the produce of the hunt. we procured a few roots of cows of which we made soope. late in the evening The Twisted hair and Willard returned; they brought about half of our saddles, and some powder and lead which had been buried at that place. my saddle was among the number of those which were lost.

about the same time the young men arrived with 21 of our horses. the greater part of our horses were in fine order. five of them appeared to have been so much injured by the indians riding them last fall that they had not yet recovered and were in low order. three others had soar backs. we had these horses caught and hubbled.

the situation of our camp was a disagreeable one in an open plain; the wind blew violently and was cold. at seven P. M. it began to rain and hail, at 9 it was succeeded by a heavy shower of snow which continued untill the next morning.—

several indians joined us this evening from the village of the broken arm or Tunnachemootoolt and continued all night. The man who had imposed himself on us as a relation of the twisted hair rejoined us this evening we found him an impertinent proud supercilious fellow and of no kind of rispectability in the nation, we therefore did not indulge his advances towards a very intimate connection. The Cutnose lodged with the twisted hair I beleive they have become good friends again. several indians slept about us.

Lewis & Clark Map: 04/01/06 Clearwater County, Idaho Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

May 10
Lewis: This morning the snow continued falling ½ after 6 A. M. when it ceased, the air keen and cold, the snow 8 inches deep on the plain;

we collected our horses and after taking a scant breakfast of roots we set out for the village of Tunnachemootoolt; our rout lay through an open plain course S. 35 E. and distance 16 ms. the road was slippery and the snow clogged to the horses feet, and caused them to trip frequently. the mud at the sources of the little ravines was deep black and well supplyed with quawmash.

Drewyer turned off to the left of the road in order to hunt and did not join us this evening.

at 4 in the afternoon we decended the hills to Commearp Creek and arrived at the Village of Tunnachemootoolt, the cheeif at whos lodge we had left a flag last fall. this flag was now displayed on a staff placed at no great distance from the lodge. underneath the flag the Cheif met my friend Capt. C. who was in front and conducted him about 80 yds. to a place on the bank of the creek where he requested we should encamp;

I came up in a few minutes and we collected the Cheifs and men of consideration smoked with them and stated our situation with rispect to provision. the Cheif spoke to his people and they produced us about 2 bushels of the Quawmas roots dryed, four cakes of the bread of cows and a dryed salmon trout.

We thanked them for this store of provision but informed them that our men not being accustomed to live on roots alone we feared it would make them sick, to obviate which we proposed exchangeing a good horse in reather low order for a young horse in tolerable order with a view to kill. the hospitality of the cheif revolted at the aydea of an exchange, he told us that his young men had a great abundance of young horses and if we wished to eat them we should by furnished with as many as we wanted. accordingly they soon produced us two fat young horses one of which we killed, the other we informed them we would pospone killing untill we had consumed the one already killed. This is a much greater act of hospitality than we have witnessed from any nation or tribe since we have passed the Rocky mountains. in short be it spoken to their immortal honor it is the only act which deserves the appellation of hospitallity which we have witnessed in this quarter.

we informed these people that we were hungry and fatiegued at this moment, that when we had eaten and refreshed ourselves we would inform them who we were, from whence we had come and the objects of our resurches.

a principal Cheif by name Ho-hâst,-ill-pilp

[Somewhat more correctly, Hohots Ilppilp. His name referred to a red, or bleeding, grizzly bear, his spiritual animal helper or guardian. From this, or from his many battle scars, later whites called him "The Bloody Chief." The Nez Perce word is áa·c 'ilpílp, "red grizzly." He was still alive in the early 1840s, when he claimed to be the oldest chief of the Nez Perces, and spoke to whites of having met Lewis and Clark. He was friendly to the missionaries and his grandson, Ellis, having received an education in English, was designated "head chief" by U.S. authorities. Nez Perce legend asserts that the sister of Red Grizzly Bear bore a son by William Clark. This man, who had light hair, was proud of his ancestry and would proclaim "Me Clark!" He was photographed at least once, in his old age. He was with the famous Nez Perce flight in 1877, and with this group was deported to Indian Territory, where he died. His descendents were known by the name Clark. Reportedly a black child was also born after the expedition's passing, but did not live to maturity.]

arrived with a party of fifty men mounted on eligant horses. he had come on a visit to us from his village which is situated about six miles distant near the river. we invited this man into our circle and smoked with him, his retinue continued on horseback at a little distance.

after we had eaten a few roots we spoke to them as we had promised; and gave Tinnachemootoolt and Hohâstillpilp each a medal; the former one of the small size with the likeness of Mr. Jefferson and the latter one of the sewing medals struck in the presidency of Washington, we explained to them the desighn and the importance of medals in the estimation of the whites as well as the red men who had been taught their value.

[A medal showing a man sowing grain, one of a series of three depicting the white man's way of life, to show Indians the attractions of "civilization." They were discontinued because most Indians preferred a likeness of the "Great Father"—the president]

The Cheif had a large conic lodge of leather erected for our reception and a parsel of wood collected and laid at the door after which he invited Capt. C. and myself to make that lodge our home while we remained with him. we had a fire lighted in this lodge and retired to it accompanyed by the Cheifs and as many of the considerate men as could croud in a circcle within it. here after we had taken a repast on some horsebeef we resumed our council with the indians which together with smoking the pipe occupyed the ballance of the evening.

I was surprised to find on decending the hills of Commearp Cr. to find that there had been no snow in the bottoms of that stream. it seems that the snow melted in falling and decended here in rain while it snowed on the plains. the hills are about six hundred feet high about one fourth of which distance the snow had decended and still lay on the sides of the hills.

as these people had been liberal with is with rispect to provision I directed the men not to croud their lodge surch of food in the manner hunger has compelled them to do at most lodges we have passed, and which the Twisted hair had informed me was disgreeable to the natives. but their previous want of hospitality had induced us to consult their enclinations but little and suffer our men to obtain provision from them on the best terms they could.

The village of the broken arm as I have heretofore termed it consists of one house only which is 150 feet in length built in the usual form of sticks matts and dry grass. it contains twenty four fires and about double that number of families. from appearances I presume they could raise 100 fighting men. the noise of their women pounding roots reminds me of a nail factory. The indians seem well pleased, and I am confident that they are not more so than our men who have their somachs once more well filled with horsebeef and mush of the bread of cows.—

Lewis & Clark Map: 04/01/06 Lewis County, Idaho Nez Percé The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

May 11
Lewis: The last evening we were much crouded with the indians in our lodge, the whole floor of which was covered with their sleeping carcases.

we arrose early and took breakfast. at 8 A. M. a cheif of great note among these people arrived from his village or lodge on the S. side of Lewis's River. this is a stout fellow of good countenance about 40 years of age and has lost the left eye. his name is Yoom-park'-kar-tim to this man we gave a medal of the smal kind. those with the likeness of Mr. Jefferson have all been disposed of except one of the largest size which we reserve for some great Cheif on the Yellow rock river.

we now pretty fully informed ourselves that Tunnachemootoolt, Neeshneparkkeeook, Yoom-parkkartim and Hohâstillpilp were the principal Cheif of the Chopunnish nation and ranked in the order here mentioned; as all those cheifs were present in our lodge we thought it a favourable time to repeat what had been said yesterday and to enter more minutely into the views of our government with rispect to the inhabitants of this western part of the continent, their intention of establishing trading houses for their releif, their wish to restore peace and harmony among the natives, the strength power and wealth of our nation &c.

to this end we drew a map of the country with a coal on a mat in their way and by the assistance of the snake boy and our interpretters were enabled to make ourselves understood by them altho' it had to pass through the French, Minnetare, Shoshone and Chopunnish languages. the interpretation being tedious it ocupyed nearly half the day before we had communicated to them what we wished. they appeared highly pleased.

after this council was over we amused ourselves with shewing them the power of magnetism, the spye glass, compass, watch, air-gun and sundry other articles equally novel and incomprehensible to them. they informed us that after we had left the Minnetares last spring that three of their people had visited that nation and that they had informed them of us and had told them that we had such things in our possession but that they could not place confidence in the information untill they had now witnessed it themselves.—

A young man, son of a conspicuous cheif among these people who was killed not long since by the Minnetares of Fort de Prarie, brought and presented us a very fine mare and colt. he said he had opened his ears to our councils and would observe them strictly, and that our words had made his heart glad. he requested that we would accept this mear and colt which he gave in token of his determination to pursue our advise.—

about 3 P. M. Drewyer arrived with 2 deer which he had killed. he informed us that the snow still continued to cover the plain.

many of the natives apply to us for medical aid which we gave them cheerfully so far as our skill and store of medicine would enable us. schrofela, [tuberculosis of the lymph glands] ulsers, rheumatism, soar eyes, and the loss of the uce of their limbs are the most common cases among them.

The Chopunnish notwithstanding they live in the crouded manner before mentioned are much more clenly in their persons and habitations than any nation we have seen since we left the Ottoes on the river Platte.—

The Twisted hair brought us six of our horses

Clark: Some little rain last night. we were Crouded in the Lodge with Indians who continued all night and this morning Great numbers were around us. The One Eyes Chief Yoom-park-kar-tim arived and we gave him a medal of the Small Size and Spoke to the Indians through a Snake boy Shabono and his wife.

In the evening a man was brought in a robe by four Indians and laid down near me. they informed me that this man was a Cheif of Considerable note who has been in the Situation I see him for 5 years. this man is incapable of moveing a single limb but lies like a corps in whatever position he is placed, yet he eats hartily, dejests his food perfectly, enjoys his under standing, his pulse are good, and has retained his flesh almost perfectly; in Short were it not that he appears a little pale from having been So long in the Shade, he might well be taken for a man in good health. I Suspect that their Confinement to a deet of roots may give rise to all the disordes of the Nativs of this quarter except the Rhumitism & Sore eyes, and to the latter of those, the State of debility incident to a vegitable diet may measureably contribute.—.

The Chopunnish not withstanding they live in the Crouded manner before mentioned are much more clenly in their persons and habitations than any nation we have Seen Sence we left the Illinois.

These nativs take their fish in the following manner to wit. a Stand Small Stage or warf consisting of Sticks and projecting about 10 feet into the river and about 3 feet above the water on the extremity of this the fisherman stands with his guig or a Skooping Net which differ but little in their form those Commonly used in our Country it is formed with those nets they take the Suckers and also the Salmon trout and I am told the Salmon also.

Lewis & Clark Map: 04/01/06 Lewis County, Idaho Nez Percé The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

May 12
Lewis: This morning a great number of indians collected about us as usual. we took an early breakfast and Capt. C began to administer eyewater to a croud of at least 50 applicants.

The Indians held a council among themselves this morning with rispect to the subjects on which we had spoken to them yesterday. the result as we learnt was favourable. they placed confidence in the information they had received and resolved to pusue our advise. after this council was over the principal Cheif or the broken Arm, took the flour of the roots of cows and thickened the soope in the kettles and baskets of all his people, this being ended he made a harangue the purport of which was making known the deliberations of their council and impressing the necessity of unanimity among them and a strict attention to the resolutions which had been agreed on in councill; he concluded by inviting all such men as had resolved to abide by the decrees of the council to come and eat and requested such as would not be so bound to shew themselves by not partaking of the feast. I was told by one of our men who was present, that there was not a dissenting voice on this great national question, but all swallowed their objections if any they had, very cheerfully with their mush. during the time of this loud and animated harangue of the Cheif

the women cryed wrung their hands, toar their hair and appeared to be in the utmost distress.

after this cerimony was over the Cheifs and considerate men came in a body to where we were seated at a little distance from our tent, and two young men at the instance of the nation, presented us each with a fine horse. we caused the cheifs to be seated and gave them each a flag a pound of powder and fifty balls. we also gave powder and ball to the two young men who had presented the horses. Neeshneeparkkeeook gave Drewyer a good horse.

The band of Ten-nach-e-moo-toolt have six guns which they acquired from the Minnetaries and appear anxious to obtain arms and amunition. after they had received those presents

the Cheifs requested we would retire to the tent whither they accompanied us, they now informed us that they wished to give an answer to what we had said to them the preceeding day, but also informed us that there were many of their people waiting in great pain at that moment for the aid of our medecine. it was agreed between Capt. C and myself that he should attend the sick as he was their favorite phisician while I would here and answer the Cheifs.

The father of Hohâstillpilp was the orrator on this occasion. he observed that they had listened with attention to our advise and that the whole nation was resolved to follow it, that they had only one heart and one tongue on this subject. he said they were fully sensible of the advantages of peace and that the ardent desire which they had to cultivate peace with their neighbours had induced his nation early last summer to send a pipe by 3 of their brave men to the Shoshonees on the S. side of Lewis's river in the Plains of Columbia, that these people had murdered these men, which had given rise to the war expedition against that nation last fall; that their warriors had fallen in with the shoshonees at that time and had killed 42 of them with the loss of 3 only on their part; that this had satisfyed the blood of their disceased friends and that they would never again make war against the Shoshonees, but were willing to receive them as friends. that they valued the lives of their young men too much to wish them to be engaged in war.

That as we had not yet seen the black foot Indians and the Minnetares of Fort de Prarie they did not think it safe to venture over to the Plains of the Missouri, where they would fondly go provided those nations would not kill them. that when we had established our forts on the Missouri as we had promised, they would come over and trade for arms Amunition &c. and live about us. that it would give them much pleasure to be at peace with these nations altho' they had shed much of their blood.

he said that the whitemen might be assured of their warmest attatchment and that they would alwas give them every assistance in their power; that they were poor but their hearts were good. he said that some of their young men would go over with us to the Missouri and bring them the news as we wished, and that if we could make a peace between themselves and their enimies on the other side of the mountain their nation would go over to the Missouri in the latter end of the summer.

on the subject of one of their cheifs accompanying us to the Land of the whitemen they could not yet determine, but that they would let us know before we left them. that the snow was yet so deep in the mountain if we attempted to pass we would certainly perish, and advised us to remain untill after the next full moon when the said the snow would disappear and we could find grass for our horses.—

when the oald man had concluded I again spoke to them at some length with which they appeared highly gratifyed. after smoking the pipe which was about 2 P. M. they gave us another fat horse to kill which was thankfully received by the party.

Capt. C now joined us having just made an end of his medical distrabution. we gave a phiol of eyewater to the Broken Arm, and requested that he would wash the eyes of such as might apply for that purpose, and that when it was exhausted we would replenish the phiol. he was much pleased with this present.

we now gave the Twisted hair one gun and a hundred balls and 2 lbs. of powder in part for his attention to our horses and promised the other gun and a similar quantity of powder and lead when we received the ballance of our horses. this gun we had purchased of the indians below for 2 Elkskins.

this evening three other of our original stock of horses were produced, they were in fine order as well as those received yesterday. we have now six horses out only, as our old guide Toby and his son each took a horse of ours when they returned last fall. these horses are said to be on the opposite side of the river at no great distance from this place. we gave the young men who had delivered us the two horses this morning some ribbon, blue wampum and vermillion, one of them gave me a hansome pare of legings and the Broken Arm gave Capt. C his shirt, in return for which we gave him a linin shirt.—

we informed the indians of our wish to pass the river and form a camp at some proper place to fish, hunt, and graize our horses untill the snows of the mountains would permit us to pass. they recommended a position a few miles distant from hence on the opposite side of the river, but informed us that there was no canoe at this place by means of which we could pass our baggage over the river, but promised to send a man early in the morning for one which they said would meet us at the river by noon the next day.

The indians formed themselves this evening into two large parties and began to gamble for their beads and other ornaments. the game at which they played was that of hiding a stick in their hands which they frequently changed acompanying their opperations with a song. this game seems common to all the nations in this country, and dose not differ from that before discribed of the Shoshonees on the S. E. branch of Lewis's river.

we are anxious to procure some guides to accompany us on the different routs we mean to take from Travellers rest; for this purpose we have turned our attention to the Twisted hair who has several sons grown who are well acquainted as well as himself with the various roads in those mountains. we invited the old fellow to remove his family and live near us while we remained; he appeared gratifyed with this expression of our confidence and promissed to do so.— shot at a mark with the indians, struck the mark with 2 balls. distn. 220 yds.

Clark: a fine Morning great number of Indians flock about us as usial.

after brackfast I began to administer eye water and in a fiew minits had near 40 applicants with Sore eyes, and many others with other Complaints most Common Rhumatic disorders & weaknesses in the back and loins perticularly the womin.

the Indians had a grand council this morning after which we were presented each with a horse by two young men at the instance of the nation. we caused the chiefs to be Seated and gave then each a flag a pint of Powder and 50 balls to the two young men who had presented the horses we also gave powder and ball. The broken arm or Tun na che mootoolt pulled off his leather Shirt and gave me. I in return gave him a Shirt.

we retired into the Lodge and the natives Spoke to the following purpote, i e they had listened to our advice and that the whole nation were deturmined to follow it, that they had only one heart and one tongue on this Subject. explained the Cause of the War with the Shoshonees. they wished to be a peace with all nations & Some of their Men would accompany us to the Missouri &c. &c. as a great number of men women & Children were wateing and requesting medical assistance maney of them with the most Simple Complaints which Could be easily releived, independent of maney with disorders intirely out of the power of Medison all requesting Some thing, we agreed that I Should administer and Capt L—to here and answer the Indians.

I was closely employed until 12 P. M. administering eye water to about 40 grown persons. Some Simple Cooling Medicenes to the disabled Chief, to Several women with rhumatic effections & a man who had a Swelled hip &c. &c—.

The Cut nose made a present of a horse to Drewyer at the Same time the two horses were offered to Capt. Lewis & my self. The horses of those people are large well formed and active. Generally in fine order. Sore backs Caused by rideing them either with out Saddles, or with pads which does not prevent the wate of the rider pressing imedeately on the back bone, and weathers of the horse.

Lewis & Clark Map: 04/01/06 Lewis County, Idaho Nez Percé The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

May 13
Lewis: This morning Capt. C. as usual was busily engaged with his patients untill eleven OCk.

at 1 P. M. we collected our horses and set out for the river escorted by a number of the natives on horseback. we followed the creek downwards about two miles, passing a stout branch at 1 m. which flowed in on the wright. our course S. E. we now entered an extensive open bottom of the Kooskooske R. through which we passed nearly N. about 1½ miles and halted on the bank of the river at the place appointed to meet the canoe. the man had set out early this morning for the purpose but had not yet arrived with the canoe we therefore unloaded our horses and turned them out to graize.

as the canoe did not arrive untill after sunset we remained here all night; a number of the natives continued with us.

in the evening we tryed the speed of several of our horses. these horses are active strong and well formed. these people have immence numbers of them 50, 60 or a hundred hed is not unusual for an individual to possess.

The Chopunnish are in general stout well formed active men. they have high noses and many of them on the acqueline order with cheerfull and agreeable countenances; their complexions are not remarkable. in common with other savage nations of America they extract their beards I observed several men among them whom I am convinced if they had shaved their beards instead of extracting it would have been as well supplyed in this particular as any of my countrymen.

they appear to be cheerfull; they are fond of gambling and of their amusements which consist principally in shooting their arrows at a bowling target made of willow bark, and in riding and exercising themselves on horseback, racing &c. they are expert marksmen and good riders. they do not appear to be so much devoted to baubles as most of the nations we have met with, but seem anxious always to obtain articles of utility, such as knives, axes, tommahawks, kettles blankets and mockerson alls. blue beads however may form an exception to this remark; this article among all the nations of this country may be justly compared to goald or silver among civilized nations.

They are generally well cloathes in their stile. their dress consists of a long shirt which reaches to the middle of thye, long legings which reach as high as the waist, mockersons, and robes. these are formed of various skins and are in all rispects like those particularly discribed of the Shoshones. their women also dress like the Shoshones. their ornaments consist of beads shells and peices of brass variously attatched to their dress, to their ears arrond their necks wrists arms &c. a bando of some kind usually surrounds the head, this is most frequently the skin of some fir animal as the fox otter &c. tho' they have them also of dressed skin without the hair. the ornament of the nose is a single shell of the wampum. the pirl and beads are suspended from the ears. beads are woarn arround their wrists necks and over their sholders crosswise in the form of a double sash. the hair of the men is cewed in two rolls which hang on each side in front of the body as before discribed of other inhabitants of the Columbia.

collars of bears claws are also common; but the article of dress on which they appear to bstow most pains and ornaments is a kind of collar or brestplate; this is most comonly a strip of otterskin of about six inches wide taken out of the center of the skin it's whole length including the head. this is dressed with the hair on; a hole is cut lengthwise through the skin near the head of the animal sufficiently large to admit the head of the person to pass. thus it is placed about the neck and hangs in front of the body the tail frequently reaching below their knees; on this skin in front is attatched peices of pirl, beads, wampum peices of red cloth and in short whatever they conceive most valuable or ornamental. I observed a tippit woarn by Hohâstillpilp, which was formed of human scalps and ornamented with the thumbs and fingers of several men which he had slain in battle.

their women brade their hair in two tresses which hang in the same position of those of the men. they also wear a cap or cup on the head formed of beargrass and cedar bark. the men also frequently attatch some small ornament to a small plat of hair on the center of the crown of their heads

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May 14
Lewis: The morning was fair, we arrose early and dispatched a few of our hunters to the opposite side of the river, and employed a part of the men in transporting our baggage to the opposite shore wile others were directed to collect the horses;

at 10 A. M. we had taken our baggage over and collected our horses, we then took breakfast, after which we drove our horses into the river which they swam without accedent and all arrived safe on the opposite shore. the river is 150 yds. wide at this place and extreemly rapid. tho' it may be safely navigated at this season, as the water covers all the rocks which lie in it's bed to a considerable debth.

we followed our horses and again collected them, after which we removed our baggage to a position which we had previously selected for our permanent camp about half a mile below.

this was a very eligible spot for defence it had been an ancient habitation of the indians; was sunk about 4 feet in the ground and raised arround it's outer edge about three ½ feet with a good wall of eath. the whole was a circle of about 30 feet in diameter. arround this we formed our tents of sticks and grass facing outwards and deposited our baggage within the sunken space under a shelter which we constructed for the purpose. our situation was within 40 paces of the river in an extentsive level bottom thinly timbered with the longleafed pine.

here we are in the vicinity of the best hunting grounds from indian information, are convenient to the salmon which we expect daily and have an excellent pasture for our horses. the hills to the E and North of us are high broken and but partially timbered; the soil is rich and affords fine grass. in short as we are compelled to reside a while in this neighbourhood I feel perfectly satisfyed with our position.—

immediately after we had passed the river Tunnachemootoolt and Hosâstillpilp arrived on the south side with a party of a douzen of their young men; they began to sing in token of friendship as is their custom, and we sent the canoe over for them. they left their horses and came over accompanyed by several of their party among whom were the 2 young men who had presented us with two horses in behalf of the nation; one of these was the son of Tunnachemootoolt and the other the son of the Cheif who was killed by the Minnetares of Fort de Prarie last year and the same who had given us the mare and Colt.

we received them at our camp and smoked with them; after some hours Hohâstillpilp with much cerimony presented me with a very eligant grey gelding which he had brought for that purpose. I gave him in return a handkercheif 200 balls and 4 lbs. of powder. with which he appeared perfectly satisfyed.

Collins killed two bear this morning and was sent with two others in quest of the meat; with which they returned in the evening; the mail bear was large and fat the female was of moderate size and reather meagre. we had the fat bear fleaced in order to reserve the oil for the mountains.

both these bear were of the speceis common to the upper part of the missouri. they may be called white black grzly brown or red bear for they are found of all those colours. perhaps it would not be unappropriate to designate them the variagated bear. we gave the indians who were about 15 in number half the female bear, with the sholder head and neck of the other. this was a great treat to those poor wretches who scarcely taist meat once a month.

they immediately prepared a brisk fire of dry wood on which they threw a parsel of smooth stones from the river, when the fire had birnt down and heated the stones they placed them level and laid on a parsel of pine boughs, on these they laid the flesh of the bear in flitches, placing boughs between each course of meat and then covering it thickly with pine boughs; after this they poared on a small quantity of water and covered the whoe over with earth to the debth of four inches. in this situation they suffered it to remain about 3 hours when they took it out. I taisted of this meat and found it much more tender than that which we had roasted or boiled, but the strong flavor of the pine distroyed it for my pallate.

Labuish returned late in the evening and informed us that he had killed a female bear and two large cubbs, he brought with him several large dark brown pheasants which he had also killed. Shannon also returned with a few pheasants and two squirrells. we have found our stone horses so troublesome that we indeavoured to exchange them with the Chopunnish for mears or gelings but they will not exchange altho' we offer 2 for one;

we came to a resolution to castrate them and began the operation this evening one of the indians present offered his services on this occasion. he cut them without tying the string of the stone as is usual, and assures us that they will do much better in that way; he takes care to scrape the string very clean and to seperate it from all the adhereing veigns before he cuts it. we shall have an opportunity of judging whether this is a method preferable to that commonly practiced as Drewyer had gelded two in the usual way.

The indians after their feast took a pipe or two with us and retired to rest much pleased with their repast. these bear are tremendious animals to them; they esteem the act of killing a bear equally great with that of an enimy in the field of action.— I gave the claws of those which Collins killed to Hohâstillpulp

Clark: a fine day.

we had all our horses Collected by 10 a. m. dureing the time we had all our baggage Crossed over the Flat head River which is rapid and about 150 yards wide. after the baggage was over to the North Side we Crossed our horss without much trouble and hobbled them in the bottom after which we moved a Short distance below to a convenient Situation and formed a Camp around a very conveniant Spot for defence where the Indiands had formerly a house under ground and hollow circler Spot of about 30 feet diamieter 4 feet below the Serfce and a Bank of 2 feet above this Situation we Concluded would be Seffiently convenient to hunt the wood lands for bear & Deer and for the Salmon fish which we were told would be here in a fiew days and also a good Situation for our horses. the hills to the E. & N. of us are high broken & but partially timbered; the soil rich and affords fine grass. in Short as we are Compelled to reside a while in this neighbourhood I feel perfectly Satisfied with our position.

imediately after we had Crossed the river the Chief Called the broken Arm or Tin nach-e-moo tolt another principal Chief Hoh-hâst'-ill-pitp arived on the opposite Side and began to Sing. we Sent the Canoe over and those Cheifs, the Son of the broken arm and the Sone of a Great Chief who was killed last year by the Big bellies of Sas kas she win river. those two young men were the two whome gave Capt Lewis and my self each a horse with great serimony in behalf of the nation a fiew days ago, and the latter a most elligant mare & colt the morning after we arived at the Village. Hohast ill pilt with much Serimoney presented Capt. Lewis with an elegant Gray horse which he had brought for that purpose. Capt Lewis gave him in return a Handkerchief two hundred balls and four pouds of powder with which he appeared perfictly Satisfyed, and appeared much pleased.

Soon after I had Crossed the river and during the time Cap Lewis was on the opposit Side John Collins whome we had Sent out verry early this morning with Labiech and Shannon on the North Side of the river to hunt, Came in and informed me, that he had killed two Bear at about 5 miles distant on the up lands. one of which was in good order. I imediately dispatched Jo. Fields & P. Wiser with him for the flesh.

we made Several attempts to exchange our Stalions for Geldings or mars without success we even offered two for one. those horses are troublesom and Cut each other very much and as we Can't exchange them we think it best to Castrate them and began the opperation this evening one of the indians present offered his Services on this occasion. he Cut them without tying the String of the Stone as is usial. he Craped it very Clean & Seperate it before he Cut it.

about Meredian Shannon Came in with two Grows & 2 Squireles Common to this Country. his mockersons worn out obliged to come in early.

Collins returned in the evening with the two bears which he had killed in the morning one of them an old hee was in fine order, the other a female with Cubs was Meagure. we gave the Indians about us 15 in number two Sholders and a ham of the bear to eate which they cooked in the following manner. to wit on a brisk fire of dryed wood they threw a parcel of Small Stones from the river, when the fire had burnt down and heated the Stone, they placed them level and laid on a parsel of pine boughs, on those they laid the flesh of the bear in flitches, placeing boughs between each course of meat and then Covering it thickly with pine boughs; after this they poared on a Small quantity of water, and covered the whole over with earth to the debth of 4 inches. in this Situation they Suffered it to remain about 3 hours when they took it out fit for use.

at 6 oClock P M Labiech returned and informed us that he had killed a female Bear and two Cubs, at a long distance from Camp towards the mountains. he brought in two large dark brown pheasents which he had also killed Shannon also returned also with a few black Pheasents and two squirels which he had killed in the wood land towards Collins Creek. This nation esteem the Killing of one of those tremendeous animals (the Bear) equally great with that of an enemy in the field of action—. we gave the Claws of those bear which Collins had killed to Hohâstillpelp.

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May 15
Lewis: This morning early Reubin Fields in surching for his horse saw a large bear at no great distance from camp; several men went in pursuit of the bear, they followed his trail a considerable distance but could not come up with him.

Labuish and Shannon set out with a view to establish a hunting camp and continuing several days, two others accompanyed them in order to bring in the three bear which Labuish had killed. Drewyer and Cruzatte were sent up the river;

Sheilds R. Feilds and Willard hunted in the hills near the camp they returned in the evening with a few pheasants only and reported that there was much late appearance of bear, but beleived that they had gone off to a greater distance.

at 11 A. M. the men returned with the bear which Labuich had killed. These bear gave me a stronger evidence of the various coloured bear of this country being one speceis only, than any I have heretofore had. The female was black with a considerable proportion of white hairs intermixed and a white spot on the breast, one of the young bear was jut black and the other of a light redish brown or bey colour. the poil of these bear were infinitely longer finer and thicker than the black bear their tallons also longer and more blont as if woarn by diging roots. the white and redish brown or bey coloured bear I saw together on the Missouri; the bey and grizly have been seen and killed together here for these were the colours of those which Collins killed yesterday.

in short it is not common to find two bear here of this speceis precisely of the same colour, and if we were to attempt to distinguish them by their collours and to denominate each colour a distinct speceis we should find at least twenty. some bear nearly white have also been seen by our hunters at this place. the most striking differences between this speceis of bear and the common block bear are that the former are larger, have longer tallons and tusks, prey more on other animals, do not lie so long nor so closely in winter quarters, and will not climb a tree tho' eversoheardly pressed.

the variagated bear I beleive to be the same here with those on the missouri but these are not as ferocious as those perhaps from the circumstance of their being compelled from the scarcity of game in this quarter to live more on roots and of course not so much in the habit of seizing and devouring living animals. the bear here are far from being as passive as the common black bear they have attacked and faught our hunters already but not so fiercely as those of the Missouri. there are also some of the common black bear in this neighbourhood.

Frazier, J. Fields and Wiser complain of violent pains in their heads, and Howard and York are afflicted with the cholic. I attribute these complaints to their diet of roots which they have not been accustomed.

Tunnachemootoolt and 12 of his young men left us this morning on their return to their village. Hohâstillpilp and three old men remained untill 5 in the evening when they also departed.

at 1 P. M. a party of 14 natives on horseback passed our camp on a hunting excurtion; they were armed with bows and arrows and had decoys for the deer these are the skins of the heads and upper portions of the necks of the deer extended in their natural shape by means of a fraim of little sticks placed within. the hunter when he sees a deer conceals himself and with his hand gives to the decoy the action of a deer at feed; and thus induces the deer within arrowshot; in this mode the indians hunt on foot in the woodlands where they cannot pursue the deer with horses which is their favorite method when the ground will permit.—

we had all of our horses driven together today near our camp, which we have directed shall be done each day in order to familiarize them to each other. several of the horses which were gelded yesterday are much swolen particularly those cut by Drewyer, the others bled most but appear much better today than the others.

we had our baggage better secured under a good shelter formed of grass; we also strengthened our little fortification with pine poles and brush, and the party formed themselves very comfortable tents with willow poles and grass in the form of the orning of a waggon, these were made perfectly secure as well from the heat of the sun as from rain. we had a bower constructed for ourselves under which we set by day and sleep under the part of an old sail now our only tent as the leather lodge has become rotten and unfit for use.

about noon the sun shines with intense heat in the bottoms of the river. the air on the tom of the river hills or high plain forms a distinct climate, the air is much colder, and vegitation is not as forward by at least 15 or perhaps 20 days. the rains which fall in the river bottoms are snows on the plain. at the distance of fifteen miles from the river and on the Eastern border of this plain the Rocky Mountains commence and present us with winter it it's utmost extreem. the snow is yet many feet deep even near the base of these mountains; here we have summer spring and winter within the short space of 15 or 20 miles.—

Hohâstillpilp and the three old men being unable to pass the river as the canoe had been taken away, returned to our camp late in the evening and remained with us all night.—

Ordway: a fair morning.

one of our hunters Saw a white bear followed it with horses but did not kill it. a number of the party went out to make a camp hunt.

we made a Shelter to put our baggage in down in a large celler where had formerly been a wintering house & has been a large village at this place. we formed our Camp around this celler So as in case of an alarm we can jump in the celler and defend our Selves.

built a bowery for our officers to write in.

we tryed out 5 gallons of bears oil and put it in a keg for the mountains &C.

Gass: This was a fine morning, and some hunters went out early.

The rest of the party were engaged in making places of shelter, to defend them from the stormy weather. Some had small sails to cover their little hovels, and others had to make frames and cover them with grass.

Around our camp the plains have the appearance of a meadow before it is mowed, and affords abundance of food for our horses. Here we expect to remain a month before we can cross the mountains.

The natives staid all day at our camp; and one of them had round his neck a scalp of an Indian, with six thumbs and four fingers of other Indians he had killed in battle, of the Sho-sho-ne, or Snake nation. The nation here, the Cho-co-nish, is very numerous, as well as the other. These nations have been long at war and destroyed a great many of each other in a few years past.

From the Mandan nation to the Pacific Ocean, the arms of the Indians are generally bows and arrows, and the war-mallet. The war-mallet is a club, with a large head of wood or stone; those of stone are generally covered with leather, and fastened to the end of the club with thongs, or straps of leather, and the sinews of animals.

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May 16
Lewis: Drewyer's horse left his camp last night and was brought to us this morning by an indian who informed us he had found him a considerable distance towards the mountains.

Hohâstillpilp and all the natives left us about noon and informed us that they were going up the river some distance to a place at which they expected to fine a canoe, we gave them the head and neck of a bear, a part of which they eat and took the ballance with them. these people sometimes kill the variagated bear when they can get them in the open plain where they can pursue them on horseback and shoot them with their arrows. the black bear they more frequently kill as they are less ferocious.

our sick men are much better today.

Sahcargarmeah geathered a quantity of the roots of a speceis of fennel which we found very agreeable food, the flavor of this root is not unlike annis seed, and they dispell the wind which the roots called Cows and quawmash are apt to create particularly the latter. we also boil a small onion which we find in great abundance, with other roots and find them also an antidote to the effects of the others. the mush of roots we find adds much to the comfort of our diet.—

we sent out several hunters this morning but they returned about 11 A. M. without success; they killed a few pheasants only.

at 5 P. M. Drewyer and Cruzatte returned having killed one deer only. Drewyer had wounded three bear which he said were as white as sheep but had obtained neither of them. they informed us that the hunting was but bad in the quarter they had been, the Country was broken and thickly covered in most parts with underbrush.

a little after dark Shannon and Labuish returned with one deer; they informed us that game was wild and scarce, that a large creek (Collins' Creek) {Lolo Creek, forming the boundary between Clearwater and Idaho counties, Idaho] ran parallel with the river at the distance of about 5 or 6 miles which they found impracticable to pass with their horses in consequence of the debth and rapidity of it's current. beyond this creek the Indians inform us that there is great abundance of game.

Sergt. Pryor and Collins who set out this morning on a hunting excurtion did not return this evening.—

I killed a snake {Great Basin gopher snake, Pituophis melanoleucus deserticola] near our camp, it is 3 feet 11 Inches in length, is much the colour of the rattlesnake common to the middle atlantic states, it has no poisonous teeth. it has 218 scutae on the abdomen and fifty nine squamae or half formed scutae on the tail. the eye is of moderate size, the iris of a dark yellowish brown and puple black. there is nothing remarkable in the form of the head which is not so wide across the jaws as those of the poisonous class of snakes usually are.— I preserved the skin of this snake.

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May 17
Lewis: It rained the greater part of the last night and this morning untill 8 OCk. the water passed through flimzy covering and wet our bed most perfectly in short we lay in the water all the latter part of the night. unfortunately my chronometer which for greater security I have woarn in my fob for ten days past, got wet last night; it seemed a little extraordinary that every part of my breechies which were under my head, should have escaped the moisture except the fob where the time peice was.

I opened it and founded it nearly filled with water which I carefully drained out exposed it to the air and wiped the works as well as I could with dry feathers after which I touched them with a little bears oil. several parts of the iron and steel works were rusted a little which I wiped with all the care in my power. I set her to going and from her apparent motion hope she has sustained no material injury.—

at 9 A. M. Sergt. Pryor and Collins returned, Sergt. Pryor brought the Skin and flesh of a black bear which he had killed; Collins had also killed a very large variegated bear but his horse having absconded last evening was unable to bring it. they had secured this meat perfectly from the wolves or birds and as it was at a considerable distance we did not think proper to send for it today. neither of these bear were in good order.

as the bear are reather ferocious and we are obliged to depend on them pincipally for our subsistence we thought it most advisable to direct at least two hunters to go together, and they accordingly peared themselves out for this purpose. we also apportioned the horses to the several hunters in order that they should be equally rode and thereby prevent any horse being materially injured by being too constantly hunted.

we appointed the men not hunters to take charge of certain horses in the absence of the hunters and directed the hunters to set out in different directions early in the morning and not return untill they had killed some game.

it rained moderately the greater part of the day and snowed as usual on the plain. Sergt. Pryor informed me that it was shoe deep this morning when he came down. it is somewhat astonishing that the grass and a variety of plants which are now from a foot to 18 inches high on these plains sustain no injury from the snow or frost; many of those plants are in blume and appear to be of a tender susceptable texture.

we have been visited by no indians today, and occurrence which has not taken place before since we left the Narrows of the Columbia.— I am pleased at finding the river rise so rapidly, it now doubt is attributeable to the meting snows of the mountains; that icy barier which seperates me from my friends and Country, from all which makes life esteemable.— patience, patience

Clark: I frequently Consult the nativs on the subject of passing this tremendious barier which now present themselves to our view for great extent, they all appear to agree as to the time those Mountains may be passed which is about the Middle of June.

At the distance of 18 Miles from the river and on the Eastern border of the high Plain the Rocky Mountain Commences and presents us with Winter here we have Summer, Spring and Winter in the Short Space of twenty or thirty miles—.

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May 18
Lewis: Twelve hunters turned out this morning in different directions agreeably to the order of last evening. Potts and Whitehouse accompanied Collins to the bear he had killed on the 16th with which they returned in the afternoon. the colours of this bear was a mixture of light redish brown white and dark brown in which the bey or redish brown predominated, the fur was bey as well as the lower pertion of the long hairs, the white next succeeded in the long hairs which at their extremites were dark brown, this uncommon mixture might be termed a bey grizzle.—

our indian woman was busily engaged today in laying in a store of the fennel roots for the Rocky mountains. these are called by the Shoshones year-pah

at 2 P. M. 3 Indians who had been hunting towards the place at which we met with Chopunnish last fall, called by them the quawmash grounds, called at our camp; they informed us that they had been hunting several days and had killed nothing; we gave them a small peice of meat which they told us they would reserve for their small children who were very hungary; we smoked with them and they shortly after departed.

early this morning the natives erected a lodge on the opposite side of the river near a fishing stand a little above us. no doubt to be in readiness for the salmon, the arrival of which they are so ardently wishing as well as ourselves. this stand is a small stage are warf constructed of sticks and projecting about 10 feet into the river and about 3 feet above the surface of the water on the extremity of this the fisherman stands with his scooping net, which differ but little in their form from those commonly used in our country the fisherman exercised himself some hours today but I believe without success.

at 3 P. M. J. Fields returned very unwell having killed nothing.

shortly after an old man and woman arrived; the former had soar eyes and the latter complained of a lax and rheumatic effections. we gave the woman some creem of tartar and flour of sulpher, and washed the old man's eyes with a little eyewater.

a little before dark Drewyer R. Fields and LaPage returned having been also unsuccessfull they had killed a hawk only and taken the part of a salmon from an Eagle, the latter altho' it was of itself not valuable was an agreeable sight as it gave us reason to hope that the salmon would shortly be with us. these hunters had scowered the country between the Kooskooske and Collins's Creek from hence to their junction about 10 miles and had seen no deer or bear and but little sign of either.

shortly after dark it began to rain and continued raining moderately all night. the air was extreemly cold and disagreeable and we lay in the water as the preceeding night.—

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May 19
Lewis: It continued to rain this morning untill 8 OCk. when it became fair. We sent Charbono, Thompson, Potts, Hall and Wiser over the river to a village above in order to purchase some roots to eat with our lean bear meat. for this purpose we gave them a few awls, Kniting pins and Armbands. we were informed that there was a canoe to the village in which they could pass the river.

I sent Joseph and R. Feilds up the river in surch of the horse which I rode over the Rocky mountains last fall. he had been seen yesterday with a parsel of indian horses and has become almost wild.

at 11 A. M. Thompson returned from the village accompanied by a train of invalids consisting of 4 men and 8 women and a child. The men had soar eyes and the women in addition to soar eyes had a variety of other complaints principally rheumatic; a weakness and pain in the loins is a common complaint with their women. eyewater was administered to all; to two of the women cathartis were given, to a third who appeared much dejected and who from their account of her disease we supposed it to be histerical, we gave 30 drops of Laudanum. the several parts of the others where the rheumatic pains were seated were well rubed with volitile linniment. all of those poor wretches thought themselves much benefited and all returned to their village well satisfyed.

at 5 P. M. or marketers returned with about 6 bushels of the cows roots and a considerable quanty of bread of the same materials.

late in the evening Reubin and Joseph Feilds returned with my horse; we had him immediately castrated together with two others by Drewyer in the ordinary. we amused ourselves about an hour this afternoon in looking at the men running their horses. several of those horses would be thought fleet in the U States.

a little after dark Sheilds and Gibson returned unsuccessfull from the chase. they had seen some deer but no bear.—

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May 20
Lewis: It rained the greater part of last night and continued this morning untill noon when it cleared away about an hour and then rained at intervals untill 4 in the evening. our covering is so indifferent that Capt C. and myself lay in the water the greater part of the last night.

Drewyer, and the two Feildses set out on a hunting excurtion towards the mountains. Shannon and Colter came in unsuccessfull, they had wounded a bear and a deer last evening but the night coming on they were unable to pursue them, and the snow which fell in the course of the night and this morning had covered the blood and rendered all further pursuit impracticable.

at 2 P. M. Labuish arrived with a large buck of the Mule deer speceis which he had killed on Collins's Creek yesterday. he had left Cruzatte and Collins on the Creek where they were to wait his return. he informed us that it was snowing on the plain while it was raining at our camp in the river bottom.

late in the evening Labuish and LaPage set out to join Collins and Cruzatte in order to resume their hunt early tomorrow morning. this evening a party of indians assembled on the opposite bank of the river and viewed our camp with much attention for some time and retired.—

at 5 P. M. Frazier who had been permitted to go to the village this morning returned with a pasel of Roots and bread which he had purchased. brass buttons is an article of which they people are tolerable fond, the men have taken advantage of their prepossession in favour of buttons and have devested themselves of all they had in possesson which they have given in exchange for roots and bread.

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May 21
Lewis: It rained a few hours this morning.

Sheilds and Gibson set out to hunt towards the mountains. Collins came to camp at noon and remained about 2 hours; he has killed nothing since he left us last.

we set five men at work to make a canoe for the purpose of fishing and passing the river. the Indians have already promised us a horse for this canoe when we have no longer any uce for her.

as our tent was not sufficient to shelter us from the rain we had a lodge constructed of willow poles and grass in the form of the orning of a waggon closed a tone end. this we had made sufficiently large to sleep in and to shelter the most important part of our baggage. it is perfectly secure against the rain sun and wind and affords us much the most comfortable shelter we have had since we left Fort Clatsop.

today we divided the remnant of our store of merchandize among our party with a view that each should purchase therewith a parsel of roots and bread from the natives as his stores for the rocky mountains for there seems but little probability that we shall be enabled to make any dryed meat for that purpose and we cannot as yet form any just idea what resource the fish will furnish us. each man's stock in trade amounts to no more than one awl, one Kniting pin, a half an ounce of vermillion, two nedles, a few scanes of thead and about a yard of ribbon; a slender stock indeed with which to lay in a store of provision for that dreary wilderness. we would make the men collect these roots themselves but there are several speceis of hemlock which are so much like the cows that it is difficult to discriminate them from the cows and we are affraid that they might poison themselves.

the indians have given us another horse to kill for provision which we keep as a reserved store. our dependence for subsistence is on our guns, the fish we may perhaps take, the roots we can purchase from the natives and as the last alternative our horses.

we eat the last morsel of meat which we had for dinner this evening, yet nobody seems much conserned about the state of provision. Willard, Sergt. Ordway and Goodrich were permitted to visit the village today; the former returned in the evening wiht some roots and bread, the two last remaining all night.

one of our party brought in a young sandhill crain it was about the size of a pateridge and of a redish brown colour, it appeared to be about 5 or six days old; these crains are abundant in this neighbourhood.

Ordway: continues rainy & wet.

I and one more of the party went up to a village about 5 miles on South Side on the Side of a hill & Spring run we purchased some white roots Shappalell &C.

Some of the women in the village were crying aloud at different times in the course of the day. I Signed the reason of their lamenting & they gave me to understand that they had lost Some of their Sons in battle and that was the custom among them when their relation died they mourn and lement a long time after the aged women only make a loud noise.

we Stayed in the village all night.

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May 22
Lewis: A fine morning we exposed all our baggage to air and dry as well as our store of roots and bread purchased from the natives.

permited Windsor and McNeal to go to the indian village. Sergt. Ordway and Goodrich returned this morning with a good store of roots and bread.

about noon 2 indian men came down the river on a raft and continued at our camp about 3 hours and returned to their village.

we sent out Shannon and Colter to hunt towards the mountains. we sent Sergt. Pryor down to the entrance of Collins's Creek to examine the country and look out for a good position for an encampment on the river below that Creek, having determined to remove our camp below that crek if it continues high, as soon as we have completed our canoe, as the country to which we are confined to hunt at present is limited by this creek and river to a very narrow tract, and game have already become scarce. if we can obtain a good situation below the entrance of this creek it will be much more eligible as the hunting country is more extensive and game more abundant than above.

The horse which the indians have given us to kill was driven away yesterday by the natives with a gang of their horses I presume in mistake; being without meat at noon we directed one of the largest of our colts to be killed. we found the flesh of this animal fat tender and by no means illy flavoured. we have three others which we mean to reserve for the rocky mountains if we can subsist here without them.

my horse which was castrated the day before yesterday wounded his thigh on the iner side with the rope by which he was confined that evening and is now so much swolen with the wound the castraiting and the collection of vermen that he cannot walk, in short he is the most wretched specticle; I had his wounds clensed of the vermen by washing them well with a strong decoction of the bark of the roots & leaves of elder but think the chances are against his recovery.

at 3 P. M. we observed a large party of Indians on horseback in pursuit of a deer which they ran into the river opposite to our camp; Capt. C. Myself & three of our men shot and killed the deer in the water; the indians pursued it on a raft and caught it. it is astonishing to see these people ride down those steep hills which they do at full speed.

on our return to camp we found Drewyer the Two Feildses Gibson and Sheilds just arrived with five deer which they had killed at a considerable distance towards the mountains. they also brought with them two red salmon trout which they had purchased from some indians whom they had met with on their return to camp.—

Two Indians who were just arrived at our camp informed us that these salmon trout remained in this river the greater part of the winter, that they were not good at this season which we readily discovered, they were very meagre. these indians also informed us that there were at this time a great number of salmon at no great distance from hence in Lewis's river which had just arrived and were very fat and fine, they said it would be some yet before they would ascend this river as high as this place.

a party of the natives on the opposite shore informed those with us that a party of the Shoshones had two nights past surrounded a lodge of their nation on the South side of Lewis's river, that the inhabitants having timely discovered the enimy effected their retreat in the course of the night and escaped.

Charbono's Child is very ill this evening; he is cuting teeth, and for several days past has had a violent lax, which having suddonly stoped he was attacked with a high fever and his neck and throat are much swolen this evening. we gave him a doze of creem of tartar and flour of sulpher and applyed a poltice of boiled onions to his neck as warm as he could well bear it.

Sergt. Pryor returned late in the evening and informed us that he had been down the river eight miles and that the clifts set in so abruptly to the river he could get no further without returning several miles back and ascending the hills and that he had thought it best to return and ride down tomorrow on the high plain as he believed the mouth of the creek was a considerable distance. Drewyer who has been at the place informs us that it is about 10 ms. and that there is no situation on the river for some distance below this creek which can possibly answer our purposes.—

we dryed our baggage &c perfectly and put it up.—

Ordway: a clear cold frosty morning.

the most of the women went out eairly with their horses to dig roots. the women do the most of the Slavery as those on the Missourie

the men went eairly to a Swet house built a large fire and put in a large quantity of Small Stone and het them red hot then put them in some water in the swet hole which was prepared for that purpose & only a hole big enofe to git in one at a time. about 12 at on once got in to the hole untill they Sweet then went in the water and bathed themselves. then in the hole again and bathed themselves in that way for about 2 hours. they Signed to me that it was to help them of Some disease & Sore eyes, &C. &C.

I then returned with a back load of white roots to the Encampment.

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May 23
Lewis: Segt. Pryor wounded a deer early this morning in a lick near camp; my dog pursud it into the river; the two young Indian men who had remained with us all night mounted their horses swam the river and drove the deer into the water again; Sergt. Pryor killed it as it reached the shore on this side, the indians returned as they had passed over.

we directed half this deer to be given to the indians, they immediately made a fire and cooked their meat, 4 others joined them from the village with the assistance of whom they consumed their portion of the spoil in less than 2 hours and took their leave of our camp.

The Creem of tartar and sulpher operated several times on the child in the course of the last night, he is considerably better this morning, tho' the swelling of the neck has abated but little; we still apply polices of onions which we renew frequently in the course of the day and night. at noon

we were visited by 4 indians who informed us they cad come from their village on Lewis's river at the distance of two days ride in order to see us and obtain a little eyewater, Capt. C. washed their eyes and they set out on their return to their village. our skill as phisicans and the virture of our medecines have been spread it seems to a great distance. I sincerely wish it was in our power to give releif to these poor afficted wretches.

all the horses which have been castrated except my poor unfortunate horse appear as if they would do very well. I am convinced that those cut by the indians will get well much soonest and they do not swell nor appear to suffer as much as those cut in the common way.—

Clark: at 1 oClock Shannon, Colter, Labuish, Cruzatte, Collins all returned from hunting without haveing killed any thing except a fiew heath hens & black Pheasants two of which they brought with them. Labieche also brought a whisteling squerel [Columbian ground squirrel, Spermophilus columbianus, a new species. See Lewis's longer description at May 27, 1806.] which he had killed on it's hole in the high plains. this squerel differs from those on the Missouri in their Colour, Size, food and the length tal and from those found near the falls of Columbia

Our hunters brought us a large hooting owl [The great gray owl, Strix nebulosa, another new species. See Lewis's longer description at May 28, 1806.] which differ from those of the atlantic States. The plumage of this owl is an uniform mixture of dark yellowish brown and white, in which the dark brown prodominates. it's Colour may be properly termed a dark Iron gray. the plumage is very long and remarkably Silky and Soft. those have not the long feathers on the head which give it the appearance of ears, or horns, remarkable large eyes—.

the hunters informed us that they had hunted with great industry all the Country between the river and for Some distance above and below without the Smallest Chance of killing any game. they inform us that the high lands are very cold with snow which has fallen for every day or night for Several past.

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May 24
Lewis: The child was very wrestless last night; it's jaw and the back of it's neck are much more swolen than they were yesterday tho' his fever has abated considerably. we gave it a doze of creem of tartar and applyed a fresh poltice of onions.

we ordered some of the hunters out this morning and directed them to pass Collins's creek if possible and hunt towards the quawmash feilds.

William Bratton still continues very unwell; he eats heartily digests his food well, and his recovered his flesh almost perfectly yet is so weak in the loins that he is scarcely able to walk four or five steps, nor can he set upwright but with the greatest pain. we have tryed every remidy which our engenuity could devise, or with which our stock of medicines furnished us, without effect. John Sheilds observed that he had seen men in a similar situation restored by violent sweats. Bratton requested that he might be sweated in the manner proposed by Sheilds to which we consented.

[Various diagnoses of Bratton's ailment have been offered. Some persons have suggested an abdominal infection, but this seems unlikely. One possibility is an inflammation or strain of the sacroiliac joint. Other possibilities include a herniated intervertebral disc, or an infection of an intervertebral disc with osteomyelitis of the adjacent vertebral margins. If the last, then the heating was probably not the cause of the recovery]

Sheilds sunk a circular hole of 3 feet diamiter and four feet deep in the earth. he kindled a large fire in the hole and heated well, after which the fire was taken out a seat placed in the center of the hole for the patient with a board at bottom for his feet to rest on; some hopps of willow poles were bent in an arch crossing each other over the hole, on these several blankets were thrown forming a secure and thick orning of about 3 feet high. the patient being striped naked was seated under this orning in the hole and the blankets well secured on every side. the patient was furnished with a vessell of water which he sprinkles on the bottom and sides of the hole and by that means creates as much steam or vapor as he could possibly bear, in this situation he was kept about 20 minutes after which he was taken out and suddonly plunged in cold water twise and was then immediately returned to the sweat hole where he was continued three quarters of an hour longer then taken our covered up in several blankets and suffered to cool gradually. during the time of his being in the sweat hole, he drank copious draughts of a strong tea of horse mint. Sheilds says that he had previously seen the tea of Sinnecca snake root used in stead of the mint which was now employed for the want of the other which is not be found in this country.— this experiment was made yesterday; Bratton feels himself much better and is walking about today and says he is nearly free from pain.—

at 11 A. M. a canoe arrived with 3 of the natives one of them the sick man of whom I have before made mentions as having lost the power of his limbs. he is a cheif of considerable note among them and they seem extreemly anxious for his recovery. as he complains of no pain in any particular part we conceive it cannot be the rheumatism, nor do we suppose that it can be a parelitic attack or his limbs would have been more deminished. we have supposed that it was some disorder which owed it's origine to a diet of particular roots perhaps and such as we have never before witnessed. while at the village of the broken arm we had recommended a diet of fish or flesh for this man and the cold bath every morning. we had also given him a few dozes of creem of tarter and flour of sulpher to be repeated every 3rd day. this poor wretch thinks that he feels himself of somewhat better but to me there appears to be no visible alteration. we are at a loss what to do for this unfortunate man. we gave him a few drops of Laudanum and a little portable soup.

4 of our party pased the river and visited the lodge of the broken Arm for the purpose of traiding some awls which they had made of the links of small chain belonging to one of their steel traps, for some roots. they returned in the evening having been very successfull, they had obtained a good supply of roots and bread of cows.— this day has proved warmer than any of the preceeding since we have arrived here.—

Clark: a fine morning the child was very restless last night its jaw and back of its neck is much more Swelled than it was yesterday. I gave it a dost of Creme of Tarter and a fresh Poltice of Onions.

ordered Shields, Gibson, Drewyer, Crusat, Collins, and Jo. & rubin Fields to turn out hunting and if possible Cross Collins Creek and hunt towards the quar mash fields.

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May 25
Lewis: It rained the greater part of last night and continued untill 6 A. M. our grass tent is impervious to the rain.

the Child is more unwell than yesterday. we gave it a doze of creem of tartar which did not operate, we therefore gave it a clyster in the evening.

we caused a sweat to be prepared for the indian Cheif in the same manner in which Bratton had been sweated, this we attempted but were unable to succeed, as he was unable to set up or be supported in the place. we informed the indians that we knew of no releif for him except sweating him in their sweat houses and giving him a plenty of the tea of the horsemint which we shewed them. and that this would probably nos succeed as he had been so long in his present situation. I am confident that this would be an excellent subject for electricity and much regret that I have it not in my power to supply it.—

Gibson and shields returned this evening having killed a Sandhill Crain only. they had wounded a female bear and a deer but got neither of them. Gibson informed me that the bear had two cubbs one of which was white and other as black as jett.

four indians remained with us this evening.—

Clark: rained moderately the greater part of last night and this morning untill 6 A. M.

Drewyer Labiech and Peter crusatt Set out hunting towards the quarmash grounds if they can cross the Creek which is between this and that place, which has been the bearrer as yet to our hunters. Jos. & R Fields crossed the river to hunt on the opposit side some miles above where the natives inform us that there is an abundance of bear and some deer.

Goodrich went to the 2d village to purchase roots a fiew of which he precured. he informed us that only 8 persons remained in the Village. the men were either hunting on Lewis's river fishing, & the women out digging roots. he saw Several fresh Salmon which the nativs informed him Came from Lewis's river and were fat and fine.

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May 26
Lewis: Had frequent showers in the course of the last night.

Collins, Shannon and Colter set out to hunt on the high lands some distance up on the N. E. side of Collins's Creek.

The Clyster given the Child last evening operated very well. it is clear of fever this evening and is much better, the swelling is considerably abated and appears as if it would pass off without coming to a head. we still continue fresh poltices of onions to the swolen part.

we directed the indians in what manner to treat the dieased Cheif, gave him a few dozes of flour of sulpher and Creem of tartar & some portable soupe and directed them to take him home. they seemed unwilling to comply with the latter part of the injunction for they consumed the day and remained with us all night.

at 1 P. M. Joseph and R. Feilds returned, accompanyed by Hohâstillpilp several other inferior Cheifs and some young men. These hunters informed us they were unable to reach the grounds to which they had been directed in consequence of the debth and rapidity of a large creek which falls in about 10 Ms. above. they passed Commearp Creek at about 1½ Ms. and a second creek reather larger at 3 Ms. further. at the distance of 4 Ms. up this last creek on their return they called at a village which our traders have never yet visited, here they obtained a large quantity of bread and roots of Cows on very moderate terms.

we permitted Sergt. Pryor and four men to pass the river tomorrow morning with a view to visit this village we also directed Charbono York and LePage to set out early for the same place and procure us some roots. our meat is again exhausted, we therefore directed R. Fields to hunt the horse in the morning which the Indians have given us to kill. one of our men saw a salmon in the river today.

in the afternoon we compleated our canoe and put her in the water; she appears to answer very well and will carry about 12 persons.— the river still rising fast and snows of the mountains visibly diminish

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May 27
Lewis: Early this morning we sent Reubin Fields in surch of the horse which the indians had given us to kill. at 10 in the morning he returned with the horse and we killed and butchered him; he was large and in good order. Hohâstillpilp told us that most of the horses we saw runing at large in this neighbourhood belonged to himself and his people, and whenever we were in want of meat he requested that we would kill any of them we wished; this is a peice of liberallity which would do honour to such as bost of civilization; indeed I doubt whether there are not a great number of our countrymen who would see us fast many days before their compassion would excite them to a similar act of liberallity.

Sergt. Pryor and the party ordered to the indian Village set out early this morning. in the evening he returned with Gibson and Sheilds. the others remained at the village all night; they brought a good store of roots and bread. we also sent Sergt. ordway and 2 men this morning over to Lewis's river for salmon, which the indians inform us may be procured in abundance at that place, and that it is but half a days ride, nearly south.—

Drewyer, Cruzatte, and Labuish returned at 4 P. M. with five deer which they had killed at some distance up Collins's Creek on this side; that stream still continues so high that they could not pass it.—

Charbono's son is much better today, tho' the swelling on the side of his neck I believe will terminate in an ugly imposthume a little below the ear.

the indians were so anxious that the sick Cheif should be sweated under our inspection that they requested we would make a second attept today; accordingly the hole was somewhat enlarged and his father a very good looking old man, went into the hole with him and sustained him in a proper position during the operation; we could not make him sweat as copiously as we wished. after the operation he complained of considerable pain, we gave him 30 drops of laudanum which soon composed him and he rested very well.—

this is at least a strong mark of parental affection. they all appear extreemly attentive to this sick man nor do they appear to relax in their asceduity towards him notwithstand he has been sick and helpless upwards of three years. the Chopunnish appear to be very attentive and kind to their aged people and treat their women with more rispect than the nations of the Missouri.—

Ordway: J. Frazer and wiser Set out to go over to the ki-mooenim river for fish & Swam our horses and waidd on to village on commeap creek three young men went on with us up Sd. creek about 5 miles left this creek ascended a high hill on a plain and proced. on passd. a lodge where we Struck the creek again followed up Said creek about 8 miles farther and came to the chiefs village which took care of our horses. the chief, and as the old man said he was a going on with us in the morning the young men returned and we camped here, and had a hard Thunder Shower. the Indians grass houses leak.

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May 28
Lewis: We sent Goodrich to the village of the broken arm this morning he returned in the evening with some roots bread and a parsel of goats-hair for making our saddle pads.

Reubin and Joseph Feilds set out this morning to hunt high up on a creek which discharges itself into this river about 8 miles above us.

at Noon Charbono, York and Lapage returned; they had obtained four bags of the dryed roots of Cows and some bread.

in the evening Collins Shannon and Colter returned with eight deer. they had fortunately discovered a ford on Collins's Creek where they were enabled to pass it with their horses and had hunted at the quawmash ground where we first met with the Chopunnish last fall. deer were very abundant they informed us, but there were not many bear.

The sick Cheif was much better this morning he can use his hands and arms and seems much pleased with the prospect of recovering, he says he feels much better than he has for a great number of months. I sincerely wish these sweats may restore him; we have consented that he should still remain with us and repeat these sweats. he set up a great proportion of the day.—

The Child is also better, he is free of fever, the imposthume is not so large but seems to be advancing to maturity.—

Clark: The Country along the rocky mountains for Several hundred Miles in length and about 50 in width is leavel extremely fertile and in many parts Covered with a tall and opult. growth of the long leafed pine. near the Watercourses the hills are lofty tho' are covered with a good Soil and not remarkably Stoney and possess more timber than the leavel country. the bottom lands on the Water courses are reather narrow and confined tho' fertile and Seldom inundated. this Country would form an extensive Settlement; the Climate appears quit as mild as that of a Similar latitude on the Atlantic Coast; & it cannot be otherwise than healthy; it possesses a fine dry pure air. the grass and maney plants are now upwards of Knee high. I have no doubt that this tract of Country if Cultivated would produce in great abundance every article esentially necessary to the comfort and Subsistence of civillized man. to it's present inhabitents nature Seems to have dealt with a liberal hand, for she has distributed a great variety of esculent plants over the face of the Country which furnish them a plentiful Store of provisions; those are acquired but little toil; and then prepared after the method of the nativs afford not only a nutricious but an agreeable food. among other roots those Called by them the Quawmash and Cows are esteemd. the most agreeable and valuable as they are also the most abundant in those high plains.

The Cows is a knobbed root of an erregularly rounded form not unlike the Gensang in form and Consistence; this root they Collect, rub off a thin black rhind which Covers it and pounding it exposes it in cakes to the Sun. these Cakes are about an inch and ¼ thick and 6 by 18 in wedth, when dry they either eat this bread alone without any further preperation, or boil it and make a thick Musilage; the latter is most common & much the most agreeable. the flower of this root is not very unlike the gensang—. this root they Collect as early as the Snow disappears in the Spring, and Continues to collect it untill the Quawmash Supplies it's place which happins about the Middle of June. the quawmash is also Collected for a fiew weeks after it first makes it's appearance in the Spring, but when the scape appears it is no longer fit for use untill the Seed are ripe which happens about the time just mentioned. and then the Cows declines. The Cows is also frequently dried in the Sun and pounded afterwards and used in thickening Supe and Makeing Mush.

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May 29
Lewis: No movement of the party today worthy of notice.

we have once more a good stock of meat and roots. Bratton is recovering his strength very fast; the Child and the Indian Cheif are also on the recovery.

the cheif has much more uce of his hands and arms. he washed his face himself today which he has been unable to do previously for more than twelvemonths. we would have repeated the sweat today had not been cloudy and frequently raining.

Ordway: rained the greater part of last night. a rainy morning. we took a light breakfast

Frazer got 2 Spanish mill dollars from a squaw for an old razer we expect they got them from the Snake Indians who live near the Spanish country to the South

we proceed. on Shortly arived at a fork of the kimoo-enim or Lewises river followed down it Some distance then left it and bore to the right up a creek. passd one lodge crossed a steep bad hill and descended down a long hill an a run pass a large lodge and descended the worst hills we ever saw a road made down.

towards evening we arived at the kimooenim or Lewises river at a fishery at a bad rapid. our chief told us to set down and not go in the lodge untill we were invited so we did at length they invited us in. spread robes for us to sit on and Set a roasted Salmon before us and Some of their white bread which they call uppah we eat hearty of this fat fish but did not eat ¼ of it. It was Set up for us.

this lodge is about 100 feet long and 20 wide and all in one but they have but fiew Salmon

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May 30
Lewis: Lapage and Charbono set out to the indian vilages early this morning for the purpose of trading with them for roots; Sergt. Gass was sent this morning to obtain some goats hair to stuff the padds of our saddles. he ascended the river on this side and being unable to pass the river opposite to the village he wished to visit, returned in the evening unsuccessfull.

Shannon and Collins were permitted to pass the river in order to trade with the natives and lay in a store of roots and bread for themselves with their proporiton of the merchandize as the others had done; in landing on the opposite shore the canoe was driven broad side with the full forse of a very strong current against some standing trees and instantly filled with water and sunk. Potts who was with them in an indifferent swimer, it was with much difficulty he made the land. they lost three blankets a blanket coat and their pittance of merchandize. in our bear state of clootheing this was a serious loss. I sent Sergt. Pryor and a party over with the indian canoe in order to raise and secure ours but the debth of the water and the strength of the current baffled every effort. I fear that we have also lost our canoe.

all our invalides are on the recovery. we gave the sick Cheif a severe sweat today, shortly after which he could move one of his legs and thyes and work his toes pretty well, the other leg he can move a little; his fingers and arms seem to be almost entirely restored. he seems highly delighted with his recovery. I begin to entertain strong hope of his restoration by these sweats.

in the evening Joseph Feild returned in surch of his horses which had left them last evening and returned to camp. Feilds informed us that himself and his brother whom he had left at their camp 6 ms. distant on Collin's creek, had killed 3 deer.

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May 31
Lewis: Goodrich and Willard visited the indian Villages this morning and returned in the evening. Willard brought with him the dressed skin of a bear which he had purchased for Capt. C. this skin was an uniform pale redish brown colour, the indians informed us that it was not the Hoh-host or white bear, that it was the Yâck-kâh.

this distinction of the indians induced us to make further enquiry relative to their opinions of the several speceis of bear in this country. we produced the several skins of the bear which we had killed at this place and one very nearly white which I had purchased. The white, the deep and plale red grizzle, the dark bron grizzle, and all those which had the extremities of the hair of a white or frosty colour without regard to the colour of the ground of the poil, they designated Hoh-host and assured us that they were the same with the white bear, that they ascosiated together, were very vicisious, never climbed the trees, and had much longer nails than the others.

the black skins, those which were black with a number of intire white hairs intermixed, the black with a white breast, the uniform bey, brown and light redish brown, they designated the Yâck-kâh;—said that they climbed the trees, had short nails and were not vicious, that they could pursue them and kill them with safety, they also affirmed that they were much smaller than the white bear. I am disposed to adopt the Indian distinction with rispect to these bear and consider them two distinct speceis.

the white and the grizzly of this neighbourhood are the same of those found on the upper portion of the Missouri where the other speceis are not, and that the uniform redish brown black &c of this neighbourhood are a speceis distinct from our black bear and from the black bear of the Pacific coast which I believe to be the same with those of the Atlantic coast, and that the common black bear do not exist here. I had previously observed that the claws of some of the bear which we had killed here had much shorter tallons than the variagated or white bear usually have but supposed that they had woarn them out by scratching up roots, and these were those which the indians called Yâh-kâh.

on enquiry I found also that a cub of an uniform redish brown colour, pup to a female black bear intermixed with entire white hairs had climbed a tree. I think this a distinct speceis from the common black bear, because we never find the latter of any other colour than an uniform black, and also that the poil of this bear is much finer thicker and longer with a greater proportion of fur mixed with the hair, in other ispects they are much the same.—

This evening Joseph and R. Feilds returned with the three deer which they had killed. The Indians brought us another of our origional Stock of horses; there are only two absent now of those horses, and these the indians inform us that our shoshone guide rode back when he returned. we have sixty five horses at this time, most of them in excellent order and fine strong active horses.—

The Indians pursued a mule deer to the river opposite to our camp this evening; the deer swam over and one of our hunters killed it. there being a large party of indians assembled on this occasion on the opposite side, Hohâst-ill-pilp desired them to raise our canoe which was sunk on that side of the river yesterday; they made the attempt but were unable to effect it.—

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This guide last edited 09/11/2006
This guide last revised 10/19/2007
This guide created 04/21/2006