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Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery

Journals: August, 1806

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Meriwether Lewis, William Clark
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1803 1804 1805

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August 11
Lewis: We set out very early this morning. it being my wish to arrive at the birnt hills by noon in order to take the latitude of that place as it is the most northern point of the Missouri, enformed the party of my design and requested that they would exert themselves to reach the place in time as it would save us the delay of nearly one day; being as anxious to get forward as I was they plyed their oars faithfully and we proceeded rapidly.

I had instructed the small [c]anoes that if they saw any game on the river to halt and kill it and follow on; however we saw but little game untill about 9 A. M. when we came up with a buffaloe swiming the river which I shot and killed; leaving the small canoes to dress it and bring on the meat I proceeded.

we had gone but little way before I saw a very large grizzly bear and put too in order to kill it, but it took wind of us and ran off. the small canoes overtook us and informed that the flesh of the buffaloe was unfit for uce and that they had therefore left it

half after 11 A. M. we saw a large herd of Elk on the N. E. shore and I directed the men in the small canoes to halt and kill some of them and continued on in the perogue to the birnt hills; when I arrived here it was about 20 minutes after noon and of course the observation for the 's meridian Altitude was lost; jus opposite to the birnt hills there happened to be a herd of Elk on a thick willow bar and finding that my observation was lost for the present I determined to land and kill some of them accordingly we put too and I went out with Cruzatte only.

we fired on the Elk I killed one and he wounded another, we reloaded our guns and took different routs through the thick willows in pursuit of the Elk; I was in the act of firing on the Elk a second time when a ball struck my left thye about an inch below my hip joint, missing the bone it passed through the left thye and cut the thickness of the bullet across the hinder part of the right thye; the stroke was very severe;

I instantly supposed that Cruzatte had shot me in mistake for an Elk as I was dressed in brown leather and he cannot see very well; under this impression I called out to him damn you, you have shot me, and looked towards the place from whence the ball had come, seeing nothing I called Cruzatte several times as loud as I could but received no answer;

I was now preswaded that it was an indian that had shot me as the report of the gun did not appear to be more than 40 paces from me and Cruzatte appeared to be out of hearing of me; in this situation not knowing how many indians there might be concealed in the bushes I thought best to make good my retreat to the perogue, calling out as I ran for the first hundred paces as loud as I could to Cruzatte to retreat that there were indians hoping to allarm him in time to make his escape also;

I still retained the charge in my gun which I was about to discharge at the moment the ball struck me. when I arrived in sight of the perogue I called the men to their arms to which they flew in an instant, I told them that I was wounded but I hoped not mortally, by an indian I beleived and directed them to follow me that I would return & give them battle and releive Cruzatte if possible who I feared had fallen into their hands;

the men followed me as they were bid and I returned about a hundred paces when my wounds became so painfull and my thye so stiff that I could scarcely get on; in short I was compelled to halt and ordered the men to proceed and if they found themselves overpowered by numbers to retreat in order keeping up a fire. I now got back to the perogue as well as I could and prepared my self with a pistol my rifle and air-gun being determined as a retreat was impracticable to sell my life as deerly as possible.

in this state of anxiety and suspense remained about 20 minutes when the party returned with Cruzatte and reported that there were no indians nor the appearance of any; Cruzatte seemed much allarmed and declared if he had shot me it was not his intention, that he had shot an Elk in the willows after he left or seperated from me.

I asked him whether he did not hear me when I called to him so frequently which he absolutely denied. I do not beleive that the fellow did it intentionally but after finding that he had shot me was anxious to conceal his knowledge of having done so.

the ball had lodged in my breeches which I knew to be the ball of the short rifles such as that he had, and there being no person out with me but him and no indians that we could discover I have no doubt in my own mind of his having shot me.

with the assistance of Sergt. Gass I took off my cloaths and dressed my wounds myself as well as I could, introducing tents of patent lint into the ball holes, the wounds blead considerably but I was hapy to find that it had touched neither bone nor artery.

I sent the men to dress the two Elk which Cruzatte and myself had killed which they did in a few minutes and brought the meat to the river. the small canoes came up shortly after with the flesh of one Elk.

my wounds being so situated that I could not without infinite pain make an observation I determined to relinquish it and proceeded on.

we came within eight miles of our encampment of the 15th of April 1805 and encamped on N. E. side. as it was painfull to me to be removed I slept on board the perogue; the pain I experienced excited a high fever and I had a very uncomfortable night.

at 4 P. M. we passed an encampment which had been evacuated this morning by Capt. Clark, here I found a note from Capt. C. informing me that he had left a letter for me at the entrance of the Yelow stone river, but that Sergt. Pryor who had passed that place since he left it had taken the letter; that Sergt. Pryor having been robed of all his horses had decended the Yelowstone river in skin canoes and had over taken him at this encampment.

this I fear puts an end to our prospects of obtaining the Sioux Cheifs to accompany us as we have not now leasure to send and enjage Mr. Heney on this service, or at least he would not have time to engage them to go as early as it is absolutely necessary we should decend the river.

Lewis & Clark Map: 08/18/05 Burleigh County, North Dakota Native Americans

The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

August 18
Lewis: moderate rain last night, the wind of this morning from the S. E. as to cause the water to be So rough that we Could not proceed on untill 8 a. m. at which time it fell a little & we proceeded on tho' the waves were yet high and the wind Strong.

Saw Several Indians on either Side of the river. at 9 A. M. I saw an Indian running down the beech and appd. to be anxious to Speak to us I derected the Canoes to land. this Indian proved to be the brother of the Chief we had on board and Came down from his Camp at no great distance to take his leave of his brother. the Chief gave him a par of Legins and took an effectunate leave of his brother and we procedeed on

haveing previously Sent on 2 canoes with hunters to kill Some meat at 2 P. M we overtook the Canoe hunters, they had killed three deer which was divided and we halted and Cooked Some dinner on the Sandbar. wind Still high and from the Same point.

The Chief pointed out Several places where he Said his nation formerly lived and related Some extroadinary Stories of their tredition. after Dinner we proceeded on, to a point on the N E. Side opposit the remains of an old Mandan village a little below the enterance of Chiss-che-tor River and the place we Encamped as we assended this river 20th of October 1804 haveing come 40 miles to day.

after landing which was a little before night the hunters run out into the bottom and Killed four deer. The winds blew hard from the S. E. all day which retarded our progress very much after the fires were made I set my self down with the big white man Chiefe and made a number of enquiries into the tredition of his nation as well as the time of their inhabiting the number of Villages the remains of which we see on different parts of the river, as also the cause of their evacuation.

he told me his nation first Came out of the ground where they had a great village. a grape vine grew down through the Earth to their village and they Saw light Some of their people assended by the grape vine upon the earth, and Saw Buffalow and every kind of animal also Grapes plumbs &c. they gathered Some grapes & took down the vine to the village, and they tasted and found them good, and deturmined to go up and live upon the earth, and great numbers climbed the vine and got upon earth men womin and children. at length a large big bellied woman in climbing broke the vine and fell and all that were left in the Village below has remained there ever Since (The Mandans beleive when they die that they return to this village)

Those who were left on earth made a village on the river below and were very noumerous &c. he Said that he was born in the Village Opposit to our Camp and at that time his nation inhabited 7 villages as large as that and were full of people, the Sieoux and Small pox killed the greater part of them and made them So weak that all that were left only made two Small villages when Collected, which were built near the old Ricaras village above. their troubles with the Scioux & Pawnees or Ricaras Compelled them to move and build a village where they now live.

Lewis & Clark Map: 08/18/05 Burleigh County, North Dakota Native Americans

The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

August 19
Clark: Some rain last night and this morning the wind rose and blew with great Violence untill 4 P. M and as our camp was on a Sand bar we were very much distressed with the blows of Sand.

I directed the hunters to proceed on down the bottom and kill and butcher Some meat and if the wind Should lie that I should proceed on down to their Camp &c.

Capt. Lewis'es wounds are heeling very fast, I am much in hope of his being able to walk in 8 or 10 days—.

at 4 P. M the wind Seased to blow with that violence which it had done all day we Set out and proceeded on down. the hunters which was Sent out this morning killed 4 Elk & 12 deer near the river we came too and brought in the most of the flesh and proceeded on to a Sand on the N E Side and Encamped.

the wind rose and become very Strong from the S. E. and a great appearance of rain. Jessomme the Interpreter let me have a piece of a lodge and the Squars pitched or Stretched it over Some Sticks, under this piece of leather I Slept dry, it is the only covering which I have had Suffecient to keep off the rain Since I left the Columbia.

it began to rain moderately Soon after night. The indians appear well Satisfyed with the party and mode of proceedure.

we decended only 10 miles to day Saw Some Elk and buffalow on the Shore near where we Encamped. the Elk beginning to run. the Buffalow are done running & the bulls are pore.

Lewis & Clark Map: 08/18/05 Burleigh County, North Dakota Native Americans

The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

August 20
Clark: a violent hard rain about day light this morning. all wet except myself and the indians.

we embarked a little after Sun rise wind moderate and ahead. we proceeded on at meridn. passed the enterance of Cannonball river imediately above is the remains of a large Sieoux encampment which appears to have been made this Spring. at 3 P M passed the enterance of Wardepon River Saw great number of wolves on the bank Some Buffalow & Elk, tho' not so abundant as near the River Rochejhone. passed the place where we left the last encampment of Ricaras in the fall 1804 and encamped on a Sandbar from the N. E. Side, having made 81 miles only,

the wind blew hard all day which caused the waves to rise high and flack over into the Small Canoes in Such a manner as to employ one hand in throwing the water out.

The plains begin to Change their appearance the grass is turning of a yellow colour. I observe a great alteration in the Corrent course and appearance of this pt. of the Missouri. in places where there was Sand bars in the fall 1804 at this time the main Current passes, and where the current then passed is now a Sand bar— Sand bars which were then naked are now covered with willow Several feet high. the enteranc of Some of the Rivers & Creeks Changed owing to the mud thrown into them, and a layor of mud over Some of the bottoms of 8 inches thick.

Lewis & Clark Map: 08/18/05 Campbell County, South Dakota Native Americans

The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

August 21
Clark: Musquetors very troublesom in the early part of last night and again this morning

I directed Sergt. Ordway to proceed on to where there was Some ash and get enough for two ores which were wanting. Men all put their arms in perfect order and we Set out at 5 a. m. over took Sergt. ordway with wood for oars &c.

at 8 A. M. Met three french men Comeing up, they proved to be three men from the Ricaras two of them Reevea & Greinyea wintered with us at the mandans in 1804 we Came too, those men informed us that they were on their way to the Mandans, and intended to go down to the Illinois this fall. one of them quit a young lad requested a passage down to the Illinois, we concented and he got into a Canoe to an Ore.

Those men informed us that 700 Seeoux had passed the Ricaras on their way to war with the Mandans & Menitarras and that their encampment where the Squaws and Children wer, was Some place near the Big Bend of this river below. no ricaras had accompanied them but were all at home, they also informed us that no trader had arived at the Ricaras this Season, and that they were informed that the Pania or Ricara Chief who went to the United States last Spring was a year, died on his return at Smoe place near the Sieoux river &c.

those men had nether nor lead we gave them a horn of powder and Some balls and after a delay of an hour we parted from the 2 men Reevey & Grienway and proceeded on.

the wind rose and bley from the N. W. at half past 11 a. m. we arived in view of the upper Ricara villages, a Great number of womin Collecting wood on the banks, we Saluted the village with four guns and they returned the Salute by fireing Several guns in the village, I observed Several very white Lodges on the hill above the Town which the ricaras from the Shore informed me were Chyennes who had just arived—.

we landed opposit to the 2d Village and were met by the most of the men women and children of each village as also the Chyennes they all appeared anxious to take us by the hand and much rejoiced to See us return. I Steped on Shore and was Saluted by the two great Chiefs, whome we had made or given Medals to as we assend this river in 1804, and also Saluted by a great number both of Ricaras & Chyennes, as they appeared anxious to here what we had done &c. as well as to here Something about the Mandans & Minetarras.

I Set my self down on the Side of the Bank and the Chiefs & brave men of the Ricaras & Chyennes formed a Cercle around me. after takeing a Smoke of Mandan tobacco which the Big white Chief who was Seated on my left hand furnished, I informed them as I had before informed the Mandans & Menitarras, where we had been what we had done and Said to the different nations in there favour and envited Some of their Chiefs to accompany us down and See their great father and receve from his own mouth his good Councils and from his own hands his bountifull gifts &c. telling pretty much the Same which I had told the mandans and menitarras. told them not to be afraid of any nation below that none would hurt them &c.

a man of about 32 years of age was intreduced to me as 1st Chief of the nation this man they Call the grey eyes he was absent from the Nation at the time we passed up, the man whome we had acknowledged as the principal chief informed me that the Grey eyes was a greater Chief than himself and that he had given up all his pretentions with the Flag and Medal to the Grey eyes—

The principal chief of the Chyenne's was then introduced he is a Stout jolley fellow of about 35 years of age whome the Ricaras Call the Grey Eyes I also told the ricaras that I was very Sorrey to here that they were not on friendly terms with their neighbours the Mandans & Menetarras, and had not listened to what we had Said to them but had Suffered their young men to join the Sieoux who had killed 8 Mandans &c. that their young men had Stolen the horses of the Minetarras, in retaliation for those enjories the Mandans & Menetarras had Sent out a war party and killed 2 ricaras. how could they expect other nations would be at peace with them when they themselves would not listen to what their great father had told them.

I further informed them that the Mandans & Menetaras had opened their ears to what we had Said to them but had Staid at home untill they were Struk that they were Still disposed to be friendly and on good terms with the ricaras, they then Saw the great Chief of the Mandans by my Side who was on his way to see his great father, and was derected by his nation & the Menetaras & Maharhas, to Smoke in the pipe of peace with you and to tell you not to be afraid to go to their towns, or take the Birds in the plains that their ears were open to our Councils and no harm Should be done to a Ricara. The Chief will Speak presently—.

The Grey eyes Chief of the ricaras made a very animated Speach in which he mentioned his williness of following the councels which we had given them that they had Some bad young men who would not listen to the Councels but would join the Seioux, those men they had discarded and drove out of their villages, that the Seioux were the Cause of their Misunderstanding &c. that they were a bad peoples. that they had killed Several of the Ricaras Since I Saw them.

That Several of the chiefs wished to accompany us down to See their great father, but wished to see the Chief who went down last Sumer return first, he expressed Some apprehention as to the Safty of that Chiefs in passing the Sieoux.

that the Ricaras had every wish to be friendly with the Mandans&c. that every mandans &c. who chose to visit the ricares should be Safe that he Should Continue with his nation and See that they followed the Council which we had given them &c.—

The Sun being very hot the Chyenne Chief envited us to his Lodge which was pitched in the plain at no great distance from the River. I accepted the invitation and accompanied him to his lodge which was new and much larger than any which I have Seen it was made of 20 dressed Buffalow Skins in the Same form of the Sceoux and lodges of other nations of this quarter. about this lodges was 20 others Several of them of nearly the Same Size. I enquired for the ballance of the nation and was informed that they were near at hand and would arive on tomorrow and when all together amounted to 120 Lodges—.

after Smokeing I gave a medal of the Small size to the Chyenne Chief &c. which appeared to alarm him, he had a robe and a fleece of fat Buffalow meat brought and gave me with the meadel back and informed me that he knew that the white people were all medecine and that he was afraid of the midal or any thing that white people gave to them. I had previously explained the cause of my gveing him the medal & flag, and again told him the use of the medal and the caus of my giveing it to him, and again put it about his neck delivering him up his preasent of a roab & meat, informing him that this was the medecene which his Great father directed me to deliver to all the great Chiefs who listened to his word and followed his councils, that he had done So and I should leave the medal with him as a token of his cincerity &c. he doubled the quantity of meat, and received the medal

The Big White chief of the Mandans Spoke at some length explainin the Cause of the misunderstanding between his nation and the ricaras, informing them of his wish to be on the most freindly termes &c. the Chyennes accused both nations of being in folt. I told to them all that if they eve wished to be hapy that they must Shake off all intimecy with the Seioux and unite themselves in a Strong allience and attend to what we had told them &c. which they promesed all to do and we Smoked and parted on the best terms, the Mandan Chief was Saluted by Several Chiefs and brave men on his way with me to the river—

I had requested the ricaras & Chyennes to inform me as Soon as possible of their intentions of going down with us to See their great father or not. in the evening the Great Chief requested that I would walk to his house which I did, he gave me about 2 carrots of Tobacco, 2 beaver Skins and a trencher of boiled Corn & beans to eat (as it is the Custom of all the Nations on the Missouri to give Something to every white man who enters their lodge Something to eat)

this Chief informed me that none of his Chiefs wished to go down with us they all wished to See the cheif who went down return first, that the Chyennes were a wild people and were afraid to go. that they Should all listen to what I had Said. I gave him Some ribon to Suspend his Medal to and a Shell which the Snake indians gave me for which he was very much pleased.

The interpreter informed me that the Cheifs of those villages had no intention of going down. one the Cheifs of the Village on the island talkd. of going down. I returned to the boat where I found the principal Chief of the lower vilege who had Cut part of his hair and disfigured himself in Such a manner that I did not know him, he informed me the Sieux had killed his nephew and that Was in tears for him &c.

we deturmind to proceed down to the Island and accordingly took the chief on board and proceeded on down to the 1sd village at which place we arived a little before dark and were met as before by nearly every individual of the Village, we Saluted them and landed imediately opposit the town.

The one arm 2d Cheif of this village whome we had expected to accompany us down Spoke to the mandan Cheif in a loud and thretening tone which Caused me to be Some what alarmed for the Safty of that Cheif, I inform the Ricaras of this village that the Mandans had opened their ears to and fold. our Councils, that this Cheif was on his way to see their Great Father the P. of U S. and was under our protection that if any enjorey was done to him by any nation that we Should all die to a man.

I told the Ricaras that they had told us lies, they promised to be at peace with the mandans & Menetarras. that our back was Scrcely turned before they went to war & Killd. them and Stole their horses &c—

The Cheif then envited me & the Mandan Chief to his house to talk there. I accompanied him, after takeing a very Serimonious Smoke the 2d Cheif informd. me that he had opened his ears to what we had Said to him at the time we gave him the medal that he had not been to war against any Natn. Since, that once been to See the mandans and they were going to kill him, they had not killed the Mandans, it was the Seioux who killed them and not the ricaras, he Said that the Mandan Cheif was as Safe as if he was in his own Vilg that he had opened his ears and Could here as well as the mandans.

I then informd them what I had told the upper villages and we all become perfectly reconsiled all to each other and Smoked in the most perfect harmony we had invatations to go into their lodges and eate. I at length went to the grand Chiefs Lodge by his particelar invitation, the Mandan Chief Stuck close to me the Chief had prepd. a Supper of boiled young Corn, beens & quashes of which he gave me in Wooden bowls. he also gave me near 2 quarts of the Tobacco Seed, & informed me he had always had his ears open to what we had Said, that he was well convinced that the Seioux was the caus of all the trouble between the Mandans & them the Ricaras had Stolen horses from the Mandan which had been returned all except one which could not be got, this mischief was done by Some young men who was bad.

along Converseation of explanations took place between the Ricara & mandan Chiefs which appeared to be Satisfactory on both Sides. the Chief gave a pipe with great form and every thing appeared to be made up.

I returned to the river & went to bead. the Indians contd on board. made 22 miles to day only.

Lewis & Clark Map: 08/18/05 Campbell County, South Dakota Native Americans

The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

August 22
Clark: rained all the last night every person and all our bedding wet, the Morning cloudy,

at 8 A M. I was requested to go to the Chiefs, I walkd up and he informed me that he Should not go down but would Stay and take Care of the village and prevent the young men from doing rong and Spoke much to the Same porpt of the Grey Eyes, the 2d Chief Spoke to the Same and all they Said was only a repitition of what they had Said before.

the Chief gave me some Soft Corn and the 2d Chief Some Tobacco Seed— the Interpreter Garrow

[Joseph Garreau first visited the Arikaras with Jacques D'Eglise's expedition in 1793, and remained with the tribe. Described as either a Frenchman or a Spaniard, he has been called the first white settler in South Dakota. He was an interpreter and trader among the Arikaras and Mandans for various concerns for some forty years. Various witnesses gave a low estimate of his character. He may have been the Spaniard the captains met at the Arikara villages on October 8, 1804, and the "Old Spaniard" who interpreted for Nathaniel Pryor's expedition in 1807.]

informed me that he had been Speeking to the Chiefs & warriers this morning and assured me that they had no intention of going down untill the return of the Cheif who went down last Spring was a year. I told the Cheifs to attend to what we had Said to them, that in a Short time they would find our words tru and Councils good. they promised to attend Strictly to what had been Said to them, and observed that they must trade with the Sieoux one more time to get guns and powder; that they had no guns or powder and had more horses than they had use for, after they got guns and powder that they would never again have any thing to do with them &c. &c.

I returned the Canoes & derected the men to prepare to Set out. Some Chyennes from two Lodges on the Main S E. Shore Came and Smoked with me and at 11 A. M we Set out haveing parted with those people who appeared to be Sorry to part with us.

at this nation we found a french man by the name of Rokey who was one of our Engagees as high as the Mandans this man had Spend all his wages, and requested to return with us— we agreed to give him a passage down.

I directed 2 guns to be fired. we proceeded on passed the Marapa and the We ter hoo Rivers,

[The first stream is Rampart Creek, the second Grand River, both in Corson County, South Dakota; the party first passed these streams on October 8, 1804]

and landed to dry our bedding and robes &c which were all wet. here we delayed untill 6 P M. and dryed our things which were much Spoiled.

I derected 5 of the hunters to proceed on to Grouse Island a fiew miles below and hunt on that island untill we arived, we proceded on to the main N E Shore below the Island and encamped,

[Grouse Island is later Blue Blanket Island, which the party passed on October 7, 1804. The camp was below the island in Walworth County, South Dakota, some six miles southeast of present Mobridge; the site is now be inundated by the Oahe Reservoir. ]

the hunters joined us without any thing. they Saw no game on the island. we made only 17 Mies to day. below the ricaras the river widens and the Sand bars are emencely noumerous much less timber in the bottoms than above—.

The Chyenne's are portly Indians much the complections of the Mandans & ricaras high Cheeks, Streight limbed & high noses the men are large, their dress in Sumner is Simpelly a roab of a light buffalow Skin with or without the hair and a Breach clout & mockerson Some ware leagins and mockersons, their ornaments are but fiew and those are composed principally of Such articles as they precure from other indians Such as blue beeds, Shell, red paint rings of brass broaches &c. they also ware Bears Claws about their necks, Strips of otter Skin (which they as well as the ricaras are excessively fond of) around their neck falling back behind. their ears are cut at the lower part, but fiew of them were ornements in them,

their hair is generally Cut in the forehead above their eyes and Small ornimented plats in front of each Sholder the remainder of the hair is either twisted in with horse or buffalow hair divided into two plats over the Sholder or what is most common flow's back,

Their women are homely, corse feetured wide mouthes they ware Simpially a leathe habit made in a plain form of two pieces of equal length and equal weadth, which is sewen together with Sinues from the tail to about half way from the hip to the arm, a String fastens the 2 pieces together over the Sholders leaveng a flap or lapells which fall over near half way ther body both before and behind. those dresses usially fall as low as mid leg, they are frequently ornemented with beeds and Shells & Elk tuskes of which all Indians are very fond of. those dresses are als frequently Printed in various regular figures with hot sticks which are rubed on the leather with Such velosity as to nearly burn it this is very handsom. they were their hair flowing and are excessively fond of ornimenting their ears with blue beeds—

this nation peacbly disposed they may be estimated at from 350 to 400 men inhabetig from 130 to 150 Lodges, they are rich in horses & Dogs, the dogs Carry a great preportion of their light baggage. they Confess to be at war with no nation except the Sieoux with whome they have ever since their remembranc been on a difencive war, with the Bands of Sieoux.

as I was about to leave the Cheifs of the Chyenne's lodge he requested me to Send Some traders to them, that their country was full of beaver and they would then be encouraged to Kill beaver, but now they had no use for them as they could get nothing for their skins and did not know well, how to catch beaver. if the white people would come amongst them they would become acquainted and the white people would learn them how to take the beaver—. I promised the Nation that I would inform their Great father the President of the U States, and he would have them Supplied with goods, and mentioned in what manner they would be Supplied &c. &c.—

I am happy to have it in my power to Say that my worthy friend Capt Lewis is recovering fast, he walked a little to day for the first time. I have discontinud the tent in the hole the ball came out—

I have before mentioned that the Mandans Maharhas Menetarras & Ricaras, keep their horses in the Lodge with themselves at night.

Lewis & Clark Map: 08/18/05 Walworth County, South Dakota Map: 08/22/1806 Native Americans

The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

August 23
Clark: We Set out very early, the wind rose & became very hard, we passed the Sar-war-kar-na-har river

[present Moreau River in Dewey County, South Dakota]

at 10 A. M and at half past eleven the wind became So high and the water So rough that we were obliged to put to Shore and Continue untill 3 p. M. when we had a Small Shower of rain after which the wind lay, and we proceeded on.

Soon after we landed I Sent Shields & Jo. & Reubin Fields down to the next bottom of timber to hunt untill our arival. we proceeded on Slowly and landed in the bottom. the hunters had killed three Elk and 3 Deer the deer were pore and Elk not fat had them fleece & brought in. the Musqueters large and very troublesom.

at 4 P. M a Cloud from the N W with a violent rain for about half an hour after the rain we again proceeded on.

I observe great quantities of Grapes and Choke Cheries, also a Speces of Currunt which I had never before observed the leas is larger than those above, the Currt. black and very inferior to either the yellow, red, or perple—

at dark we landed on a Small Sand bar under a Bluff on the S W. Side and encamped, this Situation was one which I had Chosen to avoid the Musquetors, they were not very troublesome after we landed. we Came only 40 Miles to daye

My Frend Capt Lewis is recoverig fast the hole in his thy where the Ball passed out is Closed and appears to be nearly well. the one where the ball entered discharges very well—.

Lewis & Clark Map: 08/18/05 Potter County, South Dakota Map: 08/23/1806

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August 24
Clark: a fair morning we Set out as usial about Sunrise and proceeded on untill 2 P M when the wind blew So hard from the N. W. that we could not proceed came too on the S W. Side where we continued untill 5 P. M. when the wind lay a little and we again proceeded on.

at 8 a M. we passed La-hoo-catts Island,

[Dolphees Island between Dewey and Potter counties, South Dakota]

opposit the lower point of this Island on the S. W. Side near the top of the Bluff I observed a Stratea of White stone I landed and examined it found it to be a Soft White Stone containing very fine grit, when expd. to the Sun and become Dry this Stone will Crumble the Clay of this bluff to the above and below is remarkably Black.

at half past 9 a. m. passed Good hope Island and at 11 a. m passed Caution Island a Short distance below this Island we came too.

Sent out a hunter he Saw Several deer they were very wild and he returned without haveing killed any, the deer on this pt. of the Missouri is mostly the Mule or black tail Species.

we Saw only 6 buffalow to day the Sieoux have been laterly encamped on the river and have Secured the most of the game opp. a large trail has passed on a derection to the enterance of the Chyenne this probably is the trail of a war party.

at 5 P. M. we proceeded on a fiew miles and Encampd. on the gouge of the lookout bend of 20 miles around and ¾ through, a little above an old tradeing house and 4 miles above of our outward bound encampment of the 1st of October 1804, haveing made 43 miles to day.

Lewis & Clark Map: 08/18/05 Dewey County, South Dakota Map: 08/24/1806

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August 25
Clark: a cool clear morning a Stiff breeze ahead we Set out at the usial hour and proceeded on very well.

I derected Shields Collins Shannon and the two fieldses to proceed on in the two small Canoes to the Ponia Island and hunt on that Island untill we came on, they Set out before day light—

The Skirt of timber in the bend above the Chyenne is not very Considerable the timber is Scattered from 4 to 16 miles on the S W Side of the river, and the thickest part is at the distance of 6 & 10 miles from the Chyenne, a narrow bottom of Small Cotton trees <& willow> is also on the N E pt. at the distance of from 4 to 4½ miles above the Chyenne imediately at the enterance of that river I observe but fiew large trees Some Small Growth and willows on the lower Side bottom on the Missouri about ½ a mile and extends up the Chyen 1 mile about a quarter of a mile above is a 2d bottom of Cotton timber, in the point above the Chyenne there is a considerable bottom of about 2 miles on that river and a large timbered bottom a Short distance above.

at 8 A. M. we Came to at the mouth of the Chyenne to delay untill 12 to make a meridian observation and derected 3 hunters to proced up this river and hunt its bottoms untill twelve at which hou we Shall proceed on. the hunters returned with 2 deer

the Chyenne discharges but little water which is much the colour of the missouri tho not So muddy I observe a very eligable Situation on the bank of the Chyenne on it's lower Side about 100 paces from it's enterance. this Situation is above the high floods and has a perfect Command of each river we obtained a Meridian altitude with the Sextt. and artificial Horizon 112° 50' 00"— after which we proceeded on passed the pania Island and came up with Shields and Collins they had killed two deer only

at 3 P M we passed the place where we Saw the last encampement of Troubleson Tetons below the old ponia village on the S W Side. a very large timbered bottom on the N. E. Side imedialely below the Pania Island.

at Sunset we landed about the Center of a large bottom on the N E Side a little below the enterance of No timber Creek and below our Encampment of 29th of Septr. 1804. dreyer killed a deer after we encamped. a little above our encampmt.

the ricaras had formerly a large village on each Side which was destroyed by the Seioux. there is the remains of 5 other villages on the S W. Side below the Chyenne river and one on Le ho catts Isld. all those villages have been broken up by the Seioux.

This day proved a fine Still day and the men played their oars and we made 48 miles to day. The 2 the two fieldses and Shannon did not join this evening which caused me to encamp earlier than usial for them. we Saw no game on the plains today. the Tetons have been on the river not long Since—.

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August 26
Clark: a heavy dew this morning

the hunters or Shannon & the 2 fields came up at Sunrise and we Set out, they had killed only 2 Small deer one of which they had eat

at 8 passed the place the Tetons were encamped at the time they attempted to Stop us in Septr. 1804, and at 9 A. M. passed the enterance of Teton River.

Saw Several black tail or Mule deer and Sent out to kill them but they were wild and the hunters Could not get a Shot at either of them. a fiew miles below the Teton river I observed a buffalow Skin Canoe lying on the S Shore and a Short distance lower a raft which induces me to Suspect that the Tetons are not on the Missouri at the big bend as we were informed by the Ricaras, but up the Teton river.

at Meridn. we halted on the N E. Side opposit a handsom leavel plain in which there is great quantities of plumbs which are not yet ripe. we passed the enteranc of Smoke Creek and landed and Continued two hours to Stop a leak in the perogue and fix the Stearing oare, Saw great quantities of Grapes, they are black tho' not thurerly ripe.

at 5 P M. we landed a Louisells fort on Ceder Island, this fort is entire and every part appears to be in the Same state it was when we passed it in Septr. 1804. I observed the appearance of 3 fires in the houses which appeared to have been made 10 or 12 days past.

we proceeded on about 10 miles lower and encamped on the S. W. Side opposit our outward bound encampment of the 21st of Septr. 1804, a fiew miles above Tylors River.

we had a Stiff breeze from the S. E. which continued to blow the greater part of the night dry and pleasent. as we were now in the Country where we were informed the Sceoux were assembled we were much on our guard deturmined to put up with no insults from those bands of Seioux, all the arms &. in perfect order.

Capt. L. is Still on the mending hand he walks a little. I have discontinued the tent in the hole where the ball entered, agreeable to his request. he tells me that he is fully Convinced that the wound is sufficiently heeled for the tents to be discontinued. we made 60 miles to day with the wind ahead greater part of the day—

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August 27
Clark: Set out before Sunrise

a Stiff breeze a head from the East proceeded to the enterance of Tylors river on the S W Side and landed on a Sand bar and Sent out the hunters to kill Some meat, our Stock of meat being now exousted and this the most favourable place to precure a fresh Supply,

the hunters returned in 3 hours without haveing killed any thing. they informed me that the bottoms were entirely beaten up and the grass laid flat by the emence number of Buffalow which had been here a Short time past. the deer had left the bottom. they Saw several Buffalow Bulls which they did not think proper to kill as they were unfit for use. here we discover the first Signs of the wild turkey.

at 1 P M we halted in the big bend and killed a fat buck elk near the river, which was very timely as our meat was entirely exhosted.

at 2 P. M we again proceeded on down saw Several Buffalow Bulls on each Side of the river also Some deer of the Common kind.

at 6 P. M. we herd the bellowing of the Buffalow Bulls in the lower Isld. of the Big bend below the Gouge which induced a belief that there was Some fat Cows, 5 men went out from the 2 Small Canoes which was a little a head, and killed two Cows one Bull and a Calf nether of them wer fat

we droped the Perogue & Canoes to the lower part of the Island near to where the buffalow was killed and incamped haveing Come 45 Miles only to day. had the buffalow butched and brought in and divided.

My friend Capt Lewis hurt himself very much be takeing a longer walk on the Sand bar in my absence at the buffalow than he had Strength to undergo, which Caused him to remain very unwell all night.

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August 28
Clark: Capt Lewis had a bad nights rest and is not very well this morning.

we Set out early and proceded on very well, Saw a number of Buffalow bulls on the banks in different places. passd the 3 rivers of the Seioux pass at 9 A. M. a Short distance below on the S W Side Sent out Reubin & Joseph Feild to hunt for the Mule deer or the antilope neither of which we have either the Skins or Scellitens of, we derected those two men to proceed on down to the places we encamped the 16th & 17th of Septr. 1804 and which place the party had called pleasant Camp from the great abundance of Game Such as Buffalow Elk, antilopes, Blacktail or mule deer, fallow deer, common deer wolves barking Squirels, Turkies and a variety of other animals, aded to which there was a great abundance of the most delicious plumbs and grapes. this Situation which is a Short distance above the enterance of Corvus Creek we are deturmined to delay one day for the purpose of prcureing the sceletins of the Mule deer & antilope, and Some barking Squirels.

a fiew miles below the place the 2 Fields were Set on Shore we Set Drewyer and Labeech on Shore with the Same directions which had been given to the 2 field's

at 12 oClock we Landed on the S W. Side at the Same Spot which we had encamped on the 16th and 17th of September 1804, and formed a Camp,

Sent out Serjt. Pryor, Shields, Go. Gibson, Willard and Collins to hunt in the plains up Corvus Creek for the Antilope and Mule deer Sent out Bratten and Frazier to kill the barking Squirel, and Gave directions to all of them to kill the Magpye if they Should See any of them

Several of the men and the Squaws of the enterpreter Jessomme and the Mandan Chief went to Some plumb bushes in the bottom and geathered more plumbs than the party Could eate in 2 days, those blumbs are of 3 Speces, the most of them large and well flavored.

our Situation is pleasent a high bottom thinly timbered and covered with low grass without misquitors.

at 3 P. M Drewyer and Labeech arived, the latter haveing killd. a Deer of the Common Speceis only. in the evening late all the hunters returned without any Speces of animal we were in want of, they killed 4 Common deer and two buffalow a part of the best of the meat of those animals they brought in. we precured two of the barking Squirels only.

as we Could not precere any Mule deer or antelope we concluded to Send the hunters on a head early in the morning and delay untill 10 A. M to give them time to hunt.

I derected Shannon & Collins to go on the opposit Side, and Labeech and Willard to proceed down on this Side at Some distance from the river and join the party at the round Island &c. and R. Field to proceed on Slowly in the Small Canoe to that place and take in any thing which the hunters might kill.

Made 32 miles to day

The hunters informed me that they Saw great numbers of Buffalow in the plains. I Saw Several herds of those animals on either Side to day at a distance

Lewis & Clark Map: 08/18/05 Stanley County, South Dakota Map: 08/25/1806

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August 29
Clark: a cloudy morning the hunters proceeded on agreeable to their orders of last night. I Sent out two men to the village of barking Squirels with direcitions to kill Some of them. they after 2 hours returned and informed me that not one of those Squirels were to be Seen out of their holes.

the Skins of the party which they had been dressing Since yesterday being now completely dressed I derected all loose baggage to be put on board the Canoes and at 10 A. M. Set out and proceeded on passed the white river at 12 oClock and halted below the enterance of Shannons Creek where we were joined by Labeech Shannon and Willard, they had killed 2 common der but no Mule deer or antilopes. Willard informed me that he Saw 2 antilopes but Could not get near to them. Willard and Labeech waded white river a fiew miles above its enterance and inform me that they found it 2 feet water and 200 yards wide. the water of this river at this time nearly as white as milk.

put Drewyer out to hunt on the S W. Side and proceeded on below the round Island and landed on the N. E. Side I with Several of the men went out in pursute of Buffalow. the men killed 2 Bulls near me they were very por

I assended to the high Country and from an eminance, I had a view of the plains for a great distance. from this eminance I had a view of a greater number of buffalow than I had ever Seen before at one time. I must have Seen near 20,000 of those animals feeding on this plain. I have observed that in the country between the nations which are at war with each other the greatest numbers of wild animals are to be found—

on my return to the river I killed 2 young deer. after Dinner we proceeded down the river about 3 mile to the Camp of Jo. & Rubin fields and Collins, and encamped on the S W. Side a little below our encampment of 13th Septr. 1804,

haveing made 20 Miles only. neither of the hunters killed either a Black tail deer or an antilope. Jo Fields & Shields each killed a porcupin and two others of the hunters Killed Deer,

Drewyer did not join us untill 10 P. M. he informed that he Saw some antilopes and Mule deer but Could kill none of them. Jo. Field informed that he wounded female of the Mule deer a little below our Camp late in the evening and could not prosue her I directed him to Set out with 3 others and follow the Deer and get her if possible early in the morning

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August 30
Clark: Capt. Lewis is mending Slowly.

we set out at the usial hour and proceeded on very well a fiew miles Jo Field who was on the Shore being behind I derected one of the Small Canoes with R. Fields & Shannon to continue on the point of a Sand bar untill he coms up.

I took 3 hunters and walked on the N E Shore with a view to kill Some fat meet. we had not proceeded far before Saw a large plumb orchd of the most deelicious plumbs, out of this orchard 2 large Buck Elks ran the hunters killed them. I Stoped the Canoes and brought in the flesh which was fat and fine. here the party Collected as many plumbs as they could eate and Several pecks of which they put by &c.

after a delay of nearly 2 hours we again proceeded on downwards passed 3 Small Islands and as we were about to land at the place appointed to wait for the 2 fields and Shannon, I saw Several men on horseback which with the help of a Spie glass I found to be Indians on the high hills to the N E

we landed on the S. W. Side and I sent out two men to a village of Barking Squirels to kill Some of those animals

imedeatily after landing about 20 indians was discovered on an eminanc a little above us on the opposite Side. one of those men I took to be a freinch man from his a blanket Capoe & a handkerchief around his head. imediately after 80 or 90 Indian men all armed with fusees & Bows & arrows Came out of a wood on the opposite bank about ¼ of a mile below us. they fired of their guns as a Salute we returned the Salute with 2 rounds. we were at a loss to deturmin of what nation those indians were. from their hostile appearance we were apprehensive they were Tetons. but from the Country through which they roved we were willing to believe them eithe the Yanktons, Ponars or Mahars either of which nations are well disposed towards the white people.

I deturmined to find out who they were without running any resque of the party and indians, and therefore took three french men who could Speak the Mahar Pania and some Seioux and in a Small canoe I went over to a Sand bar which extended Sufficently near the opposite Shore to Converse. imedeately after I Set out 3 young men Set out from the opposite Side and Swam next me on the Sand bar. I derected the men to Speak to them in the Pania and mahar Languages first neither of which they could understand I then derected the man who could Speak a fiew words of Seioux to inquire what nation or tribe they belong to they informed me that they were Tetons and their Chief was Tar-tack-kah-sabbar or the black buffalow

This Chief I knew very well to be the one we had seen with his band at Teton river which band had attempted to detain us in the fall of 1804 as we assended this river and with whome we wer near comeing to blows. I told those Indians that they had been deef to our councils and ill treated us as we assended this river two years past, that they had abused all the whites who had visited them since. I believed them to be bad people & Should not Suffer them to cross to the Side on which the party lay, and directed them to return with their band to their Camp, that if any of them come near our camp we Should kill them certainly.

I lef them on the bear and returned to th party and examined the arms &c. those indians seeing Some Corn in the Canoe requested Some of it which I refused being deturmined to have nothing to do with those people. Several others Swam across one of which understood pania, and as our pania interpreter was a very good one we had it in our power to inform what we wished. I told this man to inform his nation that we had not forgot their treatment to us as we passed up this river &c. that they had treated all the white people who had visited them very badly; robed them of their goods, and had wounded one man whome I had Seen. we viewed them as bad people and no more traders would be Suffered to come to them, and whenever the white people wished to visit the nations above they would Come Sufficiently Strong to whip any vilenous party who dare to oppose them and words to the Same purpote.

I also told them that I was informed that a part of all their bands were gorn to war against the Mandans &c, and that they would be well whiped as the Mandans & Menetarres & had a plenty of Guns Powder and ball, and we had given them a Cannon to defend themselves. and derected them to return from the Sand bar and inform their Chiefs what we had Said to them, and to keep away from the river or we Should kill every one of them &c. &c.

those fellows requested to be allowed to Come aecross and make Cumerads which we positively refused and I directed them to return imediately which they did and after they had informed the Chiefs &c. as I Suppose what we had Said to them, they all Set out on their return to their Camps back of a high hill. 7 of them halted on the top of the hill and blackguarded us, told us to come across and they would kill us all &c. of which we took no notice.

we all this time were extreamly anxious for the arival of the 2 fields and Shannon whome we had left behind, and were Some what consd. as to their Safty. to our great joy those men hove in Sight at 6 P. M. Jo. Fields had killed 3 black tail or mule deer. we then Set out, as I wished to See what those Indians on the hill would act.

we Steared across near the opposit Shore, this notion put them Some agitation as to our intentions, some Set out on the direction towards their Camps others walked about on the top of the hill and one man walked down the hill to meet us and invited us to land to which invitation I paid no kind of attention. this man I knew to be the one who had in the fall 1804 accompaned us 2 days and is Said to be the friend to the white people. after we passd. him he returned on the top of the hill and gave 3 Strokes with the gun he had in his hand this I am informed is a great oath among the indians.

we proceeded on down about 6 miles and encamped on a large Sand bar in the middle of the river about 2 miles above our encampment on Mud Island on the 10th Septr. 1804 haveing made 22 miles only to Day.

Saw Several Indians on the hills at a distance this evening viewing us. our encampment of this evening was a very disagreable one, bleak exposed to the winds, and the Sand wet. I pitched on this Situation to prevent being disturbed by those Scioux in the Course of the night as well as to avoid the Musquetors—. Killed 9 whisteling squirels.

Lewis & Clark Map: 08/18/05 Charles Mix County, South Dakota Teton Indians The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

August 31
Clark: all wet and disagreeable this morning.

at half past 11 last night the wind Shifted about to the N. W. and it began to rain with hard Claps of thunder and lightning the Clouds passd over and the wind Shifted about to the S W. & blew with great violence So much So that all hands were obliged to hold the Canoes & Perogue to prevent their being blown off from the Sand bar, however a Suden Squal of wind broke the cables of the two Small canoes and with Some dificuelty they were got to Shore Soon after the 2 Canoes in which Sergt. Pryor and the indians go in broke loose with wiser and Willard in them and were blown quite across the river to the N E. Shore where fortunately they arived Safe,

I Sent Sergt. Jo Ordway with a Small perogue and 6 men to prosue the 2 Canoes and assist them in effecting a landing, those 2 Canoes being tied together 2 men could not manage them, the wind Slackened a little and by 2 A. M. Sergt Ordway with Willard wiser and the 2 Canoes returned all Safe, the wind continud to blow and it rained untill day light all wet and disagreeable.

all the party examind their arms and put them in order and we Set out and proceeded on down. Saw Several Indians on the hills untill we passed the Island of Cedar 9 A. M the morning Cloudy and wind down the the river at 4 P. M. passed the doome and lowest village of Barking Squirels. this is also the highest up the river where I observed the fox Squirel in the bottom above the doome on N. E Side I killed 2 fox Squirels. we Saw no game of any kind to day as the banks as usial. the Sun Shone with a number of flying Clouds. we encamped on he N. E. Side a little below our Encampment of the 5th of Septr. on no preserve Island haveing Come 70 Miles.

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This guide last edited 09/11/2006
This guide last revised 09/04/2008
This guide created 05/23/2006