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Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery

Journals: September, 1804

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Meriwether Lewis, William Clark
Members of the Expedition
Camp DuBois, Fort Clatsop National Memorial, The Lewis and Clark Trail
Keelboats, Maps, Scientific Discoveries
Lewis and Clark Bicentennial

1803 1805 1806

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Sep 1
Clark: Renewed our voyage. We set out with a small gentle breeze. Mr. Dorion left his kettle and had to sent back for it. We passed by the whitish to yellowish chalk along the sides of the river walls. The hills come close to the river; and are so near on both sides, as not to be more than two miles from each other. The sides of the river are about 170 feet high and the high lands approach the river from each side. It was cloudy all day and it began to rain. We saw a beaver house today but we could not find the opening. Drewyer killed an elk and a beaver after night and a number of catfish were caught.
Nebraska South Dakota Lewis & Clark Map: 09/01/04 Beaver Elk Fish The Lewis and Clark Trail
Sep 2
Clark: Today we got an early start and passed the island and landed under the yellowish Clay Bluff. The wind was very hard and it got cold and rainy. Fields and Howard killed four elk and we skinned the elk. As it cleared up it was cold and the high lands were uneven and leveled back. I noticed a few small streams traveling into the river above. I surveyed the ancient works on the walls and am told that these works are all along the country. About twelve the wind blew so hard down the river that we could not proceed.
Nebraska South Dakota Lewis & Clark Map: 09/01/04 Elk The Lewis and Clark Trail
Sep 3
Clark: A very cold morning at sun rise. This part of the creek is small and gradually widens with sand bars. There is no timber in this part of the country; but continued prairie on both sides of the river. A person by going on one of the hills may have a view as far as the eye can reach without obstruction and enjoy the most delightful prospects. We came to the edge of the plain and camped for the night. We saw signs of both Shannon and Colter. Here the grapes are many.
Nebraska South Dakota Lewis & Clark Map: 09/03/04 Wild Grapes The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska
Sep 7
Clark: A very cold morning wind SE. Set out at day light we landed after proceeding 5 ½ miles, near the foot of a round Mounting, which I saw yesterday, resembling a dome. Capt. Lewis and Myself walked up to the top which forms a Cone and is about 70 feet higher than the high lands around it, the Base is about 300 foot in descending this cupola. As we descended from this dome, we arrived at a spot, on the gradual descent of the hill, nearly four acres in extent, and covered with small holes: these are the residence of a little animal [prairie dog], called by the French petit chien (little dog), who sit erect near the mouth, and make a whistling noise, but when alarmed take refuge in their holes. In order to bring them out, we poured into one of the holes five barrels of water without filling it, but we dislodged and caught the owner. After digging down another of the holes for six feet, we found, on running a pole into it, that we had not yet dug half way to the bottom: we discovered, however, two frogs in the hole, and near it we killed a dark rattlesnake, which had swallowed a small prairie dog: we were also informed, though we never witnessed the fact, that a sort of lizard, and a snake, live habitually with these animals. The petit chien are justly named, as they resemble a small dog in some particulars, though they have also some points of similarity to the squirrel. The head resembles the squirrel in every respect, except that the ear is shorter, the tail like that of the ground-squirrel, the toe-nails are long, the fur is fine, and the long hair is gray. Killed one and caught one a live.
Nebraska Lewis & Clark Map: 09/07/04 Prairie Dogs The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska
Sep 8
Clark & Collective Entries: Proceeded early on our voyage, passed high bluffs on the south and burnt prairie on the north. After 3 ½ miles we past Jean Baptiste Truteau's house where he wintered in 1796 after the Sioux blocked his attempt to reach the Mandan villages further up the Missouri.

I went out a hunting this Morning and tried to find some more of the prairie dogs and goats. Capt. Lewis went out with Some of the party on the south shore in a grove of Timber & killed 2 Buffelow Shot at one of them Several times in the river he being wounded Swam a Shore again & they Shot him down at the edge of the water.— One of our hunters, joined with the horses had killed 2 Elk a faun Deer and caught 2 large beaver - The party came to on the lower point of an Island in the midlle of the river Called Boat Island and incamped. It was covered with timber; and having a number of buffaloe on it. I rejoined the party after dark, with the other hunters having kill'd 2 Buffalo, and One Deer. On the way I saw white wolves and buffalo.
Nebraska South Dakota Lewis & Clark Map: 09/01/04 Prairie Dogs Beaver Elk Deer Buffalo Wolves The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Sep 9
Clark from Collected Entries: Set out at Sunrise and proceeded on passed the head of the Island on which we Camped, passed three Sand & willow Islands, the Sand bars So noumerous, it is not worth mentioning them, the river Shoal or Shallow wind S E Came too and Camped on a Sand bar on the L. S. Capt Lewis went out to Kill a buffalow. I walked on Shore all this evening with a view to Kill a Goat or Some Prarie Dogs in the evening after the boat landed, I Derected my Servent York with me to kill a Buffalow near the boat from a numbr. then Scattered in the plains, I saw at one view near the river at least 500 Buffalow, those animals have been in view all day feeding in the Plains on the L. S. every Copse of timber appear to have Elk or Deer. D[rouillard]. Killed 3 Deer, I Kiled a Buffalow Y. [York] 2, R. Fields one.
South Dakota Lewis & Clark Map: 09/09/04 Prairie Dogs Elk Deer Buffalo
The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska
Sep 10
Clark from Collected Entries: It was a cloudy morning and we again set out in a gentle breeze. We passed two small islands. The river is shallow during this day's course, and is falling a little on a hill we found the back bone of a fish, 45 feet long tapering to the tale, some teeth, those joints were seperated and all peterfied, opposit this island 1/12 miles from the river is a large Salt Spring of remarkable Sale water. Three miles above Ceder Island passed a large Island on the south shore, no water on that Side (3) Several elk Swam to this Island passed a Small Island near the Center of the river, of a mile in length, and Camped on one aboav Seperated from the other by a narrow Chanel, Those Islands are Called Mud Islands—The river is falling a little, Elk & buffaloe are in great abundance. Today three buffalo, one elk and deer were killed today and the river is starting to fall.
South Dakota Lewis & Clark Map: 09/09/04 Elk Deer Buffalo Pleisosaur The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska
Sep 13
Clark: Today was also dark and drizzly. Last night one of the hunters caught four beaver. The winds from the northwest are very cold. The water is still very shallow. Made twelve miles today through a number of sandbars, which make it difficult to find the proper channel. At night the mosquitoes were verry troublesome.

Lewis: Killed a Porcupine; found it in a Cottonwood tree near the river. the leaves of the Cottonwood were much distroyed-as were those of the Cottonwood trees in it's neighbourhood. I therefore supposed that it fed on the folage of trees at this season. The flesh of this anamal is a pleasant and whoalsome food— the quills had not yet obtained their usual length— it has four long toes, before on each foot, and the same number behind with the addition of one short one on each hind foot on the inner side. the toes of the feet are armed with long black nails particularly the fore feet— they weigh from 15 to 20 lbs— they resemble the slowth very much in the form of their hands, or fore feet. their teeth and eyes are like the bever—
South Dakota Lewis & Clark Map: 09/13/04 Porcupine Cottonwood Tree Blue-winged Teal Beaver The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Sep 14
Clark: Set out early proceeded on passed Several Sand bars the river wide and Shallow 3 beaver Caught last night, Drizeley rain in the forepart of this day, cloudy and disagreeable, I walked on Shore with a view to find an old Vulcanio, Said to be in this neighbourhood by Mr. J. McKey of St. Charles. I walked on Shore the whole day without Seeing any appearance of the Villcanoe, in my walk I Killed a Buck Goat of this Countrey, about the hight of the Grown Deer, its body Shorter, the Horns which is not very hard and forks ? up one prong Short the other round & Sharp arched, and is imediately above its Eyes the Colour is a light gray with black behind its ears down its neck, and its Jaw white round its neck, its Sides and its rump round its tail which is Short & white verry actively made, has only a pair of hoofs to each foot. his brains on the back of his head, his Norstral large, his eyes like a Sheep— he is more like the Antilope or Gazella of Africa than any other Species of Goat. Shields Killed a Hare like the mountain hare of Europe, waighing 6¼ pounds (altho pore) his head narrow, its ears large i, e, 6 Inches long & 3 Inchs wide one half of each white, the other & out part a lead grey from the toe of the hind foot to toe of the for foot is 2 feet 11 Inches, the hith is 1 foot 1 Inche & ¾, his tail long thick & white.

The rain Continued the Greater part of the day in My ramble I observed, that all those parts of the hills which was Clear of Grass easily disolved and washed into the river and bottoms, and those hils under which the river run, Sliped into it and disolves and mixes with the water of the river, the bottoms of the river was covered with the water and mud frome the hills about three Inches deep— those bottoms under the hils which is Covered with Grass also [receves?] a great quantity of mud.

Passed 2 Small Creeks on the left shore and Camped below the third, (the place that Shannon the man who went a head lived on grapes) Some heavy Showers of rain all wet, had the Goat & rabit Stufed rained all night
South Dakota Lewis & Clark Map: 09/14/04 Volcano Beaver Pronghorn Smithsonian White-tailed Jack Rabbit Smithsonian
The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Sep 15
Clark: We set out early today and passed the mouth of the creek. The current is regular and swift with sand bars in it at different points. There is a much greater number of timber. I saw a number of rabbits and grapes. I killed a Buck Elk and a Deer this evening. It is very cold and there are a number of wolves howling in the strong wind
South Dakota Lewis & Clark Map: 09/13/04 Trees White-tailed Jack Rabbit Wild Grapes Elk Deer Wolves The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska
Lacy Tansyaster Smithsonian Tarragon Smithsonian Canadian milkvetch Smithsonian
Missouri milkvetch Smithsonian Prairie blazing star Smithsonian Desert Cottontail Smithsonian
Sep 16
Lewis: This morning set out at an early hour, and come too at 7:30 A. M. on the Lard. Shore 1¼ miles above the mouth of a small creek which we named Corvus, in consequence of having kiled a beatiful bird of that genus near it. We concluded to lie by at this place the ballance of this day and the next, in order to dry our baggage which was wet by the heavy showers of rain which had fallen within the last three days, and also to lighten the boat by transfering a part of her lading to the red perogue, which we now determined to take on with us to our winter residence wherever that might be.

While some of the men were imployed in this necessary labour others were dressing of skins washing and mending their cloaths &c. Capt. Clark and myself kiled each a buck immediately on landing near our encampment; the deer were very gentle and in great numbers on this bottom which had more timber on it than any part of the river we had seen for many days past, consisting of Cottonwood Elm, some indifferent ash and a considerable quanty of a small species of white oak which is loaded with acorns of an excellent flavor very little of the bitter roughness of the nuts of most species of oak, the leaf of this oak is small pale green and deeply indented, it seldom rises higher than thirty feet is much branched, the bark is rough and thick and of a light colour; the cup which contains the acorn is fringed on it's edges and imbraces the nut about one half; the acorns were now falling, and we concluded that the number of deer which we saw here had been induced thither by the acorns of which they are remarkably fond. almost every species of wild game is fond of the acorn, the Buffaloe Elk, deer, bear, turkies, ducks, pigegians and even the wolves feed on them;

We sent three hunters out who soon added eight deer and two Buffaloe to our strock of provisions; the Buffaloe were so pour that we took only the tongues, skins and marrow bones; the skins were particularly acceptable as we were in want of a covering for the large perogue to secure the baggage;

The clouds during this day and night prevented my making any observations.

Sergt. Gass and Reubin Fields whom we had sent out yesterday to explore the White river returnd at four oclock this day and reported that they had followed the meanders of that stream about 12 miles general course West, the present or principal channel 150 yards wide; the coulour of the water and rapidity and manner of runing resembled the Missouri presisely; the country broken on the border of the river about a mile, when the level planes commence and extend as far as the eye can reach on either side; as usual no timber appeared except such as from the steep declivities of hills, or their moist situations, were sheltered from the effects of the fire.

These extensive planes had been lately birnt and the grass had sprung up and was about three inches high. vast herds of Buffaloe deer Elk and Antilopes were seen feeding in every direction as far as the eye of the observer could reach.
South Dakota Map 091604 Lewis & Clark Map: 09/16/04 Weather Duck Turkey Buffalo Elk Deer Bear Wolves
The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Bur Oak Smithsonian Passenger Pigeon Smithsonian Black-billed magpie Smithsonian
Sep 17
Lewis: Having for many days past confined myself to the boat, I determined to devote this day to amuse myself on shore with my gun and view the interior of the country lying between the river and the Corvus Creek— accordingly before sunrise I set out with six of my best hunters, two of whom I dispatched to the lower side of Corvus creek, two with orders to hunt the bottoms and woodland on the river, while I retained two others to acompany me in the intermediate country.

One quarter of a mile in rear of our camp which was situated in a fine open grove of cotton wood passed a grove of plumb trees loaded with fruit and now ripe. observed but little difference between this fruit and that of a similar kind common to the Atlantic States. the trees are smaller and more thickly set. this forrest of plumb trees garnish a plain about 20 feet more lelivated than that on which we were encamped;

This plain extends back about a mile to the foot of the hills one mile distant and to which it is gradually ascending this plane extends with the same bredth from the creek below to the distance of near three miles above parrallel with the river, and is intirely occupyed by the burrows of the barking squril hertefore discribed; this anamal appears here in infinite numbers, and the shortness and virdue [verdure] of grass gave the plain the appearance throughout it's whole extent of beatifull bowlinggreen in fine order. it's aspect is S. E. a great number of wolves of the small kind, halks and some pole-cats [skunks] were to be seen. I presume that those anamals feed on this squirril.—

Found the country in every direction for about three miles intersected with deep revenes and steep irregular hills of 100 to 200 feet high; at the tops of these hills the country breakes of as usual into a fine leavel plain extending as far as the eye can reach. from this plane I had an extensive view of the river below, and the irregular hills which border the opposite sides of the river and creek. the surrounding country had been birnt about a month before and young grass had now sprung up to hight of 4 Inches presenting the live green of the spring. to the West a high range of hills, strech across the country from N. to S and appeared distant about 20 Miles; they are not very extensive as I could plainly observe their rise and termination no rock appeared on them and the sides were covered with virdue similar to that of the plains

This senery already rich pleasing and beatiful, was still farther hightened by immence herds of Buffaloe deer Elk and Antelopes which we saw in every direction feeding on the hills and plains. I do not think I exagerate when I estimate the number of Buffaloe which could be compreed at one view to amount to 3000.

My object was if possible to kill a female Antelope having already procured a male; I pursued my rout on this plain to the west flanked by my two hunters untill eight in the morning when I made the signal for them to come to me which they did shortly after. we rested our selves about half an hour, and regailed ourselves on half a bisquit each and some jirk of Elk which we had taken the precaution to put in our pouches in the morning before we set out, and drank of the water of a small pool which had collected on this plain from the rains which had fallen some days before. We had now after various windings in pursuit of several herds of antelopes which we had seen on our way made the distance of about eight miles from our camp. we found the Antelope extreemly shye and watchfull insomuch that we had been unable to get a shot at them; when at rest they generally seelect the most elivated point in the neighbourhood, and as they are watchfull and extreemly quick of sight and their sense of smelling very accute it is almost impossible to approach them within gunshot; in short they will frequently discover and flee from you at the distance of three miles. I had this day an opportunity of witnessing the agility and superior fleetness of this anamal which was to me really astonishing. I had pursued and twice surprised a small herd of seven, in the first instance they did not discover me distinctly and therefore did not run at full speed, tho' they took care before they rested to gain an elivated point where it was impossible to approach them under cover except in one direction and that happened to be in the direction from which the wind blew towards them; bad as the chance to approach them was, I made the best of my way towards them, frequently peeping over the ridge with which I took care to conceal myself from their view the male, of which there was but one, frequently incircled the summit of the hill on which the females stood in a group, as if to look out for the approach of danger. I got within about 200 paces of them when they smelt me and fled; I gained the top of the eminece on which they stood, as soon as possible from whence I had an extensive view of the country the antilopes which had disappeared in a steep revesne now appeared at the distance of about three miles on the side of a ridge which passed obliquely across me and extended about four miles. so soon had these antelopes gained the distance at which they had again appeared to my view I doubted at ferst that they were the same that I had just surprised, but my doubts soon vanished when I beheld the rapidity of their flight along the ridge before me it appeared reather the rappid flight of birds than the motion of quadrupeds. I think I can safely venture the asscertion that the speed of this anamal is equal if not superior to that of the finest blooded courser.—
South Dakota Map 091604 Lewis & Clark Map: 09/16/04 Wild Plum Pronghorn Skunk Buffalo Elk Deer Wolves
The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Mule deer, Black-tailed deer Smithsonian
Sep 20
Clark: A fair morning wind from the S E. Detached 2 men to the 1st. Creek abov the big bend with the horse to hunt and wait our arrival. Proceeded on passed the lower Island opposit which the Sand bars are verry thick & the water Shoal. I walked on Shore with a view of examining this bend Crossed at the narost part which is a high irregular hills of about 180 or 190 feet, this place the gorge of the Bend is 1 mile & a quarter (from river to river or) across, from this high land which is only in the Gouge, the bend is a Butifull Plain thro which I walked,

Saw numbrs of Buffalow & Goats, I saw a Hare & believe he run into a hole in the Side of a hill, he run up this hill which is Small & has Several holes on the Side & I could not See him after, I joined the boat in the evening— passed a Small Island on the Left Shore in the N. W. extremity of the bind Called Solitary Island, and Camped late on a Sand bar near the South Shore— R. Fields killed 1 Deer & 2 Goats one of them a feemale— She Differs from the mail as to Size being Smaller, with Small Horns, Stright with a Small prong without any black about the neck—None of those Goats has any Beard, they are all Keenly made, and is butifull

Lewis: From the goats we got lard. At the big bend we observed a cliff of black rock which resembled lava.

South Dakota Map Lewis & Clark Map: 09/20/04 Pronghorn Buffalo Rabbit The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Sep 21
Clark: At half past one oClock this morning the Sand bar on which we Camped began to under mind and give way which allarmed the Sergeant on Guard, the motion of the boat awakened me; I get up & by the light of the moon observed that the land had given away both above and below our Camp & was falling in fast. I ordered all hands on as quick as possible & pushed off, we had pushed off but a few minets before the bank under which the Boat & perogus lay give way, which would Certainly have Sunk both perogues, by the time we made the opsd. Shore our Camp fell in, we made a 2d Camp for the remainder of the night & at Daylight proceeded on to the Gouge of this Great bend and Brackfast,

We Sent a man to measure step off the Distance across the gouge, he made it 2000 yds. The distance arround is 30 mes. The hills extend thro: the gouge and is about 200 foot above the water— in the bend as also the opposite Sides both abov and below the bend is a butifull inclined Plain in which there is great numbers of Buffalow, Elk & Goats in view feeding & Scipping on those Plains Grouse, Larks & the Prarie bird is Common in those Plains. we proceeded on passed a (1) willow Island below the mouth of a Small river called Tylors R about 35 yds. wide which coms in on the L. S. 6 miles above the Gorge of the bend, at the mouth of this river the two hunters a head left a Deer & its Skin also the Skin of a white wolf—we observe an emence number of Plover of Different kind Collecting and takeing their flight Southerly, also Brants which appear to move in the same Direction.

The Cat fish is Small and not So plenty as below

(2) The Shore on each Side is lined with hard rough Gulley [grittey?] Stones of different Sises, which has roled from the hills & out of Small brooks, Ceder is comon here, This day is worm, the wind which is not hard blows from the S. E, we Camped at the lower point of the Mock Island on the S. S. this now Connected with the main land, it has the appearance of once being an Island detached from the main land Covered with tall Cotton wood— we Saw Some Camps and tracks of the Seaux which appears to be old three or four weeks ago— one frenchman I fear has got an abscess on his they [thigh], he complains verry much we are makeing every exertion to releiv him—

The Praries in this quarter Contains Great qts. of Prickley Pear. -lava

South Dakota Map Lewis & Clark Map: 09/20/04 The Sioux Pronghorn Buffalo Elk Deer Grouse Fish Cottonwood Tree Smithsonian The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Sep 22
Lewis: A thick fog this morning detained us untill 7 oClock passed a butifull inclined Prarie on both Sides in which we See great numbers of Buffalow feeding—took the Meridean altitude of the Suns upper Leimb. 92° 50' 00" the SexSecnt the Latd. produced from this Obsivation is 44° 11' 33" 3/10 North—

passed a Small Island on the left shore. imediately above passed a Island Situated nearest the left shore abt. 3 miles long, behind this Isd. on the L. S. a Creek Comes in about 15 yards wide, this Creek and Islands are Called the 3 Sisters a butifull Plain on both Sides of the river—

passed a Island Situated nearest the S. S. imedeately above the last Called Ceder Island this Island is about 1½ miles long & nearly as wide Covered with Ceder, on the South Side of this Island Mr. Louiselle a trader from St. Louis built a fort of Ceder & a good house to trate with the Seaux & wintered last winter; about this fort I observed a number of Indian Camps in a Conicel form,— they fed their horses on Cotton limbs as appears. here our hunters joined us havening killed 2 Deer & a Beaver, they Complain much of the Mineral Substances in the barren hills over which they passed distroying their mockersons.

We proceeded on and Camped late on the S. Side below a Small Island in the bend S. S. Called Goat Island. The large Stones which lay on the Sides of the banks in Several places lay Some distance in the river, under the water and is dangerous &. I walked out this evening and killed a fine Deer, the musquiters is verry troublesom in the bottoms

South Dakota Map Lewis & Clark Map: 09/20/04 Weather The Sioux Buffalo Deer Beaver Geology The Sun Mosquitos Cottonwood Tree
The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Sep 23
Clark: Set out under a gentle breeze from the S. E, passed a Small Island Situated in a bend to the L. S. Called Goat Island, a Short distance above the upper point a Creek of 12 yards wide coms in on the S. S. we observed a great Smoke to the S W.— I walked on Shore & observed Buffalow in great Herds at a Distance passed two Small willow Islands with large Sand bars makeing out from them, passed (3) Elk Island about 2½ miles long & ¾ mile wide Situated near the L. S. covered with Cotton wood the read Current Called by the French Gres de Butiff & grapes &c. &c. the river is nearly Streight for a great distance wide and Shoal. passed a Creek on the S. S. 16 yards wide we Call Reubens Creek, as R Fields found it Camped on the S. S. below the mouth of a Creek on the L. S. three Souex boys Came to us Swam the river and informd that the Band of Soauex called the Teton of 80 Lodges were Camped at the next Creek above, & 60 Lodges more a Short distance above, we gave those boys two Carrots of Tobacco to Carry to their Chiefs, with derections to tell them that we would Speek to them tomorrow

Capt Lewis walked on Shore this evening, R. F Killed a Doe Goat,—

South Dakota Map Lewis & Clark Map: 09/20/04 The Sioux Tobacco Carrot Buffalo Pronghorn Elk Cottonwood Tree
The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Sep 24
Clark: Set out early a fair day the wind from the E, pass the mouth of Creek on the L. S. called Creek on high water; passed a large Island on the L. S. about 2 miles & ½ long on which Colter had Camped & Killed 4 Elk, the wind fair from the S. E. we prepared Some Clothes and a few meadels for the Chiefs of the Teton's hand of Seaux which we expect to See to day at the next river, observe a Great Deel of Stone on the Sides of the hills on the S. S. we Saw one Hare to day, prepared all things for action in Case of necessity, our perogues went to the Island for the meet, Soon after the man on Shore run up the bank and reported that the Indians had Stolen the horse we Soon after met 5 Inds. and ankered out Some distance & Spoke to them informed them we were friends, & wished to Continue So but were not afraid of any Indians, Some of their young men had taken the horse Sent by their Great father for ther Chief and we would not Speek to them untill the horse was returned to us again.

passed a Island on the S. S. on which we Saw Several Elk, about 1½ miles long Called Good Humoured Islds. Came to about 1½ miles above off the mouth of a Small river about 70 yards wide Called by Mr. Evins the Little Mississou The Tribes of the Scouix Called the Teton, is Camped about 2 miles up on the N W Side and we Shall Call the River after that nation, Teton This river is 70 yards wide at the mouth of water, and has a considerable Current we anchored off the mouth—

the french Perogue Come up early in the day, the other did not get up untill in the evening Soon after we had Came too. I went & Smoked with the Chief who Came to See us here all well, we prepare to Speek with the Indians tomorrow at which time we are informed the Indians will be here, The French man who had for Some time been Sick, began to blead which allarmed him— ? of our party Camped on board The remainder with the Guard on Shore.

South Dakota Map Lewis & Clark Map: 09/24/04 The Sioux Horses Crime Geology Elk Rabbit Health Care The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Sep 27
Clark: I rose early aftr a bad nights Sleep found the Chief all up, and the bank as usial lined with Spectators we gave the 2 great Cheifs a Blanket a peace, or rethr they took off agreeable to their Custom the one they lay on and each one Peck of Corn after Brackfast Capt. Lewis & the Chiefs went on Shore, as a verry large part of their nation was Comeing in, the Disposition of whome I did not know one of us being Suffcent on Shore, I wrote a letter to Mr. P. Durion & prepared a meadel & Some Comsns. [Certificates] & Sent to Capt. Lewis at 2 oClock Capt. Lewis returned with 4 Chiefs & a Brave man named War cha pa or on his Guard. when the friends of those people die they run arrows through their flesh above and below their elbous as a testimony of their Greaf

after Staying about half an hour, I went with them on Shore, Those men left the boat with reluctience, I went first to the 2d Chiefs Lodge, where a Croud Came around after Speeking on various Subjects I went to a princpal mans lodge from there to the grand Chiefs lodge, after a fiew minits he invited me to a Lodge within the Circle in which I Stayed with all their principal men untill the Dance began, which was Similer to the one of last night performed by their womn which poles on which Scalps of their enemies were hung, Some with the Guns Spears & war empliments taken by their husbands in their hands

Capt. Lewis came on Shore and we Continued untill we were Sleepy & returned to our boat, the 2nd Chief & one principal man accompanid us, those two Indians accompanied me on board in the Small Perogue, Capt. Lewis with a guard Still on Shore, the man who Steered not being much acustomed to Steer, passed the bow of the boat & Perogue Came broad Side against the Cable & broke it which obliged me to order in a loud voice all hands all hands up & at their ores, my preempty order to the men and the bustle of their getting to their ores allarmd the Cheifs, togethr with the appearance of the men on Shore, as the boat turnd. The Cheif hollowered & allarmed the Camp or Town informing them that the Mahars was about attacting us. in about 10 minits the bank was lined with men armed the 1st Cheif at their head, about 200 men appeared and after about ½ hour returned all but about 60 men who Continued on the bank all night, the Cheifs Contd. all night with us— This allarm I as well as Capt. Lewis Considered as the Signal of their intentions (which was to Stop our proceeding on our journey and if Possible rob us) we were on our Guard all night, the misfortune of the loss of our Anchor obliged us to Lay under a falling bank much exposd. to the accomplishment of their hostile intentions P. C [Cruzatte]—our Bowman who Could Speak Mahar informed us in the night that the Maha Prisoners informed him we were to be Stoped— we Shew as little Sighns of a Knowledge of their intentions as possible all prepared on board for any thing which might hapen, we kept a Strong guard all night in the boat no Sleep

South Dakota Map Lewis & Clark Map: 09/24/04 The Sioux Keelboat Tobacco Carrot The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Sep 28
Clark: Made many attemps in different ways to find our Anchor but could not, the Sand had Covered it, from the misfortune of last night our boat was laying at Shore in a verry unfavourable Situation, after finding that the anchor Could not be found we deturmined to proceed on, with great difficuelty got the Chiefs out of our boat, and when we was about Setting out the Class Called the Soldiers took possession of the Cable the 1s Chief which was Still on board & intended to go a Short distance up with us, I told him the men of his nation Set on the Cable, he went out & told Capt Lewis who was at the bow the men who Set on the Roap was Soldiers and wanted Tobacco, Capt. L. Said would not agree to be forced into any thing, the 2d Chief Demanded a flag & Tobacco which we refusd. to Give Stateing proper reasons to them for it after much difucelty—which had nearly reduced us to hostility I threw a Carot of Tobacco to 1s Chief Spoke the Chief gives the Tobaco to his Soldiers & he jurked the rope from them and handed it to the bows man we then Set out under a Breeze from the S. E. about 2 miles up we observed the 3rd Chief on Shore beckining to us we took him on board he informed us the roap was held by the order of the 2d Chief who was a Double Spoken man, Soon after we Saw a man Comeing full Speed, thro: the plains left his horse & proceeded across a Sand bar near the Shore we took him on board & observed that he was the Son of the Chief we had on board we Sent by him a talk to the nation Stateent the Cause of our hoisting the red flag undr. the white, if they were for peace Stay at home & do as we had Derected them, if the were for war ore were Deturmined to Stop us we were ready to defend our Selves, we halted one houre & ½ on the S. S. & made a Substitute of Stones for a ancher, refreshed our men and proceeded on about 2 miles higher up & came too a verry Small Sand bar in the middle of the river & Stayed all night, I am Verry unwelle for want of Sleep Deturmined to Sleep to night if possible, the men Cooked & we rested well.

South Dakota Map Lewis & Clark Map: 09/24/04 The Sioux Keelboat Tobacco Carrot The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Sep 29
Clark: Set out early Some bad Sand bars, at 9 oClock we observed the 2d Chief with 2 men and Squars on Shore, they wished to go up with us as far as the other part of their band, which would meet us on the river above not far Distant we refused to let one more Come on board Stateing Suffient reasons, observd they would walk on Shore to the place we intended to Camp, and told them we Should not Speake to another teton except the one on board with us, who might go on Shore when ever he pleased, those Indians proceeded on untill later in the evening when the Chief requested that the Perogue might put him across the river which we agreed to— Saw numbers of Elk on the Sand bars today, passed an old Ricara Village at the mouth of a Creek without timber we Stayed all night on the Side of a sand bar ½ a Mile from the Shore.

South Dakota Map Lewis & Clark Map: 09/01/04 The Sioux Keelboat Elk The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Sep 30
Clark: Set out this morning early had not proceeded on far before we discovered an Indian running after us, he came up with us & requested to come on bord we refused to take any of that band on board if he chose to proceed on Shore it was verry well Soon after I discovered on the hills at a great distance great numbers of Indians which appeared to be makeing to the river above us, we proceeded on under a Double reafed Sail, & Some rain at 9 oClock observed a large band of Indians the Same which I had before Seen on the hills incamping on the bank of the Left Shoe. we cast the ancher opposit their Lodgs. at about 100 yards distand, we Sent to each Chief a Carrot of tobacco, told them we had stayed two days with the band below, and we Could not delay any time, & they were friendly. we appoligised & proceeded on, Sent the perogue to Shore above with the Tobacco & Delivered. it to a Soldier. of the Chief with us. we Saw great numbers of white guls this day is cloudy & rainey.

we Saw about 6 miles above 2 Indians who came to the bank and looked at us a about ½ an hour & went over the hills to the S W. we proceeded on under a verry Stiff Breeze from the S. E, the Stern of the boat got fast on a log and the boat turned & was verry near filling before we got her righted, the waves being verry high, The Chief on board was So fritined at the motion of the boat which in its rocking caused Several loose articles to fall on the Deck from the lockers, he ran off and hid himself, we landed he got his gun and informed us he wished to return, that all things were Cleare for us to go on we would not See any more Tetons. we repeated to him what had been Said before and advised him to keep his men away, gave him a blanket a Knife & Some Tobacco, Smokd a pipe & he Set out. we also Set Sale and Came to at a Sand bar, & Camped, a verrey Cold evening, all on our guard

South Dakota Map Lewis & Clark Map: 09/30/04 The Sioux Tobacco Carrot Keelboat The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

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This guide last edited 03/22/2007
This guide last revised 09/04/2008
This guide created 10/12/2004