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Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery

Journals: October, 1805

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Meriwether Lewis, William Clark
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October 1
Clark: a cool morning wind from the East had Examined and dried all our clothes and other articles and laid out a Small assortment of Such articles as those Indians were fond of to trade with them for Some provisions (they are remarkably fond of Beeds) nothin to eate except a little dried fish which they men complain of as working of them as as much as a dost of salts. Capt Lewis getting much better. Several Indians visit us from the different tribes below Some from the main South fork our hunters killed nothing to day worm evening

Lewis & Clark Map: 08/18/05 Clearwater County Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

October 2
Clark: Despatched 2 men Frasure & S. Guterich back to the village with 1 Indian & 6 horses to purchase dried fish, roots &c. we have nothing to eate but roots, which give the men violent pains in their bowels after eating much of them. To the Indians who visited us yesterday I gave divided my Handkerchief between 5 of them, with a Small piece of tobacco & a pece of riebin & to the principal men each a ring & brooch. I walked out with my gun on the hills which is verry Steep & high could kill nothing. day hot wind N. Hunters killed nothing excep a Small Prarie wolf. Provisions all out, which Compells us to kill one of our horses to eate and make Suep for the Sick men.

Lewis & Clark Map: 08/18/05 Clearwater County Health Care The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

October 3
Clark: fine morning cool wind East all our men getting better in helth, and at work at the Canoes &. The Indians who visited us from below Set out on their return early. Several others Came from different directions—.

Whitehouse: This morning was very pleasant. The Men employed working on the Canoes went on, with much better spirit than they had done for several days past, being refreshed by the Horse meat that they had eat.— The Canoes are now in great forwardness, & will be in readiness to receive their loading on board in a few days— Our Men that had been sick for some time past recovered fast, & we are in hopes that they will be fully recovered by the time we are ready to proceed on down the River—

Lewis & Clark Map: 08/18/05 Clearwater County Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

October 4
Clark: a Cool wind from off the Eastern mountains

I displeased an Indian by refuseing him a pice of Tobacco which he tooke the liberty to take out of our Sack Three Indians visit us from the Grat River South of us.

The two men Frasure and Guterich return late from the Vllage with Fish roots &c. which they purchased as our horse is eaten we have nothing to eate except dried fish & roots which disagree with us verry much.

The after part of this day verry warm. Capt Lewis Still Sick but able to walk about a little.

Whitehouse: A fair morning, Two of our hunters were sent out a hunting, the party continued working on the Canoes; some of them are ready to be finished off. Our hunters went out this day & returned without having killed any thing.—

Some of our party killed a fat dog, which they had got from the Indians at the last Village that we passed through.

They roasted & eat it in the Evining—

Lewis & Clark Map: 08/18/05 Clearwater County Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

October 5
Clark: Wind Easterly and Cool,

had all our horses 38 in number Collected and branded Cut off their fore top and delivered them to the 2 brothers and one Son of one of the Chiefs who intends to accompany us down the river to each of those men I gave a Knife & Some Small articles &c. they promised to be attentive to our horses untill we Should return.—

[Lewis's branding iron bore the legend "U.S. Capt. M. Lewis." Now in the possession of the Oregon Historical Society, it is one of the few authenticated articles associated with the expedition known to have survived. Files of the society are inexact and sources disagree on the item's provenance. It was found in 1892, 1893, or 1894, by Lineaus Winans of Hood River, Oregon, near present The Dalles, Oregon, on or below one of the Memaloose Islands before Columbia River dams inundated the area.]

Nothing to eate except dried fish & roots. Capt Lewis & myself eate a Supper of roots boiled, which Swelled us in Such a manner that we were Scercely able to breath for Several hours—

finished and launched 2 of our Canoes this evening which proved to be verry good

our hunters with every diligence Could kill nothing. The hills high and ruged and woods too dry to hunt the deer which is the only game in our neighbourhood.

Several Squars Came with Fish and roots which we purchased of them for Beeds, which they were fond of—

Capt Lewis not So well to day as yesterday

Ordway: a clear cool morning a little white frost. the two men returnd from the villages late last evening with their horses loaded with commass roots and Some more in loaves and a considerable quantity of dryed Sammon &C. Several dressed Elk Skins and otter &C

we continued dressing off the canoes. got up all our horses 38 in number. we branded them on the near fore Shoulder with a Stirrup Iron, and cropped their fore mane So as we may know them at our return.

the old chief [Twisted Hair (Walamottinin) of the Nez Perce] who we leave the care of our horses with has engaged to go on with us past his nation and leave the horses in the care of his two sons our officers gave them Some Small presents &C. another Chief [Tetoharsky of the Nez Perce] engaged to go with us also. towards evening we put two of the canoes which was finished in to the water.—

Lewis & Clark Map: 08/18/05 Clearwater County Native Americans USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

October 6
Clark: A Col Easterley wind which Spring up in the latter part of the night and Continues untill about 7 or 8 oClock A. M.

had all our Saddles Collected a whole dug and in the night buried them, also a Canister of powder and a bag of Balls at the place the Canoe which Shields made was cut from the body of the tree—

The Saddles were buried on the Side of a bend about ½ a mile below—

all the Canoes finished this evening ready to be put into the water.

I am taken verry unwell with a paine in the bowels & Stomach, which is certainly the effects of my diet—

The winds blow cold from a little before day untill the Suns gets to Some hight from the Mountans East as they did from the mountans at the time we lay at the falls of Missouri from the West The river below this forks is Clear rapid with Shoals or Swift places—

The open Countrey Commences a fiew miles below This on each side of the river, on the Lard Side below the 1st Creek. with a few trees Scattered near the river.

Whitehouse: A clear pleasant morning, we continued the party working on the Canoes, and dug a Cashe or hole to bury our pack Saddles in, & made oars & poles for our Canoes. Towards evening, we got the other Canoes ready to put in the Water & prepar'd some Gig poles &ca

We saw a raft floating down the River which had several Indians on it.

One of our party went out with his Rifle & killed 2 Ducks which he brought to our Camp.

We finished digging the Cashe or hole, & deposited our pack saddles & some Ammunition in it.—

Our Men that had been sick for some time past, had nearly all got their healths, & are fit to do their duty again We are all in high spirits expecting we shall be able to descend the River tomorrow. This place we named Canoe Camp

Lewis & Clark Map: 08/18/05 Clearwater County Native Americans USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

October 7
Clark: I continu verry unwell but obliged to attend every thing all the Canoes put into the water and loaded, fixed our Canoes as well as possible and Set out as we were about to Set out we missd. both of the Chiefs who promised to accompany us; I also missed my Pipe Tomahawk which Could not be found.

The after part of the day Cloudy proceded on passed 10 rapids which wer danjerous the Canoe in which I was Struck a rock and Sprung a leak in the 3rd rapid, we proceeded on 20 miles and Encamped on a Stard point oppost a run. passed a Creek Small on the Lard. Side at 9 miles, a Short distanc from the river at 2 feet 4 Inches N. of a dead toped pine Treee had burid 2 Lead Canisters of Powder

Had the Canoes unloaded examined and mended a Small leake which we discovered in a thin place in her Side

passed Several old Camps of Indians to day

our Course and distance Shall be given after I get to the forks. &c.— which the Indians Say is the last of the bad water untill we get to the great falls 10 day below, where the white people live &c.

The Lodges are of Sticks set in a form of roof of a house & covered with mats and Straw

Whitehouse: This morning we had clear pleasant weather, all our party that were able were employed in getting the other three new Canoes into the River, which they effected. they got every thing in readiness on board of them and got them loaded. About 3 oClock P. M. we set out on our way to descend the River, & the 2 Indians of the Snake Nation, that came to Pilot us across the Mountains, agreed to continue with us.

We also had a chief & one Indian from the last Town we came through who also agreed to accompany us.— These two last Indians, set off down the River by land to go some distance, & intend to join our party again.

We then proceeded on our Voyage, and crossed a number of bad rapids, where our Canoes got fast, & obliged us to get out in the Water (that was cold) and hawl them off. we found the Water in some places deep, & the current running gentle for some distance.

The Rapids were very frequent & Shoal, the bottom of the River rockey, and the hills making close in to the River on both sides of it. There is some Clifts of rocks, lying along the Shore & a few scattering pine trees, growing on some of the hills which are mostly broken & covered with grass. We saw some few cotton wood Trees, growing on each side of the River along the Shore, We also found, that in some of the Rapids where we had plenty of water for our Canoes to pass, that the Waves ran so high that our Canoes took in a great deal of water, & we struck several Rocks, in passing over them, but the Rapidity of the stream forced us over them.—

We came about 27 Miles this day, and encamped on the North side of the River. The Canoe that our Officers went in, leaked so bad, that they were forced to unload it, & put their baggage into another Canoe, for fear of getting their Mathematical Instruments & baggage wet.

We passed this afternoon some old Indian Camps & saw a Canoe lying on the Shore. The Evening proved cloudy. One of our party was taken ill, this evening of a Cholic occasioned by being so much in the water.

Lewis & Clark Map: 08/18/05 Clearwater County Native Americans USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

October 8
Clark: A Cloudy morning loaded our Canoes which was unloaded last night and Set out at 9 oClock

passed 15 rapids four Islands and a Creek on the Stard Side at 16 miles just below which one canoe in which Serjt. Gass was Stearing and was nearle turning over, She Sprung a leak or Split open on one Side and Bottom filled with water & Sunk on the rapid, the men, Several of which Could not Swim hung on to the Canoe, I had one of the other Canoes unloaded & with the assistance of our Small canoe and one Indians Canoe took out every thing & toed the empty Canoe on Shore, one man Tompson a little hurt,

every thing wet perticularly the greater part of our Small Stock of merchindize, had every thing opened, and two Sentinals put over them to keep off the Indians, who are enclined to theave haveing Stole Several Small articles those people appeared disposed to give us every assistance in their power dureing our distress—

We passed Several Encampments of Indians on the Islands and those near the rapids in which places they took the Salmon, at one of Those Camps we found our two Chiefs who had promised to accompany us, we took them on board after the Serimony of Smokeing

Ordway: a fair morning.

we delayed here Sometime changing the officers canoes &C. hid a canister of Powder by a broken top tree. about 9 oClock we Set out and proceeded on

Saw Some Indians horses on the Side of the hills on Stard. Side. passed over Several bad rapids took in Some water by the waves. passed Some clifts of rocks and barron hills on each Side.

about 12 OClock we halted at Some Indian Camps about 6 lodges of well looking Savages who had Several Small canoes and catch considerable of Sammon. we bought some from them. 2 dogs also.

we proceeded on a Short distance and halted at Some more Camps at the foot of an Isld. and rapids where we bought Some more Sammon and Some white roots &C. then proceed on

escended a rockey rapid at the foot of an Island where was Several Indian Camps. one of the canoes Struck a rock in the middle of the rapid and Swang round and Struck an other rock and cracked hir So that it filled with water. the waves roared over the rocks and Some of the men could not Swim. their they Stayed in this doleful Situation untill we unloaded one of the other canoes and went and released them. 2 Indians went in a canoe to their assistance also. we got the men and the most of the baggage Safe to Shore. a fiew articles lost one tommahawk and a fiew light things.

we put the baggage out and Camped on the Stard. Side at high plains. a number of Savages visited us this evening— had Come about 18 miles to day

Lewis & Clark Map: 08/18/05 Clearwater County Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

October 9
Clark: The morning Cool as usial the greater part of the day proved to be Cloudy, which was unfavourable for drying our things &c. which got wet yesterday.

In examoning our canoe found that by putting Knees & Strong peces pines to her Sides and bottom &c. She Could be made fit for Service in by the time the goods dried, Set 4 men to work at her, Serjt. Pryor & Gass, Jo Fields & Gibson, others to Collect rosin,

at 1 oClock She was finished Stronger than ever The wet articles not Sufficiently dried to pack up obliged us to delay another night dureing the time one man was tradeing for fish for our voyage,

at Dark we were informed that our old guide & his Son had left us and had been Seen running up the river Several miles above, we Could not account for the Cause of his leaveing us at this time, without receiving his pay for the Services he had rendered us, or letting us know anything of his intention.

we requested the Chief to Send a horseman after our old guide to come back and recive his pay &c. which he advised us not to do as his nation would take his things from him before he passed their camps—.

The Indians and our party were very mery this after noon

Capt Lewis recovring fast.

Ordway: a fair morning.

a fair morning, and warm.

we delayed to Repair the canoe and dry the baggage &C. the natives brought fresh Sammon and trade with us.

the River hills Still continue high and broken on each Side. Some Scatering pine timber &C.

the natives are very troublesome to us two Sentinels placed to keep them from Stealing from us. as the baggage was exposed. we got the canoe repaired

in the evening we bought a considerable quantity of Sammon, a little commass roots. in the evening Some of our party fiddled and danced, which pleased the natives verry much.

one of their women was taken with fit by one of our fires. She began Singing Indian and to giving all around hir Some commass roots, and brasslets which hung about hir one of our party refused to take them from hir. She then appeared angry threw them in the fire. took a Sharp flint from hir husband and cut both of hir arms in Sundry places So that the blood gushed out. She Scraped the blood in hir hand and Eat it, and So continued in this way about half an hour then fainted or went in to a fit Some time then came too by their puting water on hir and Seemed to take great care of hir

Lewis & Clark Map: 08/18/05 Clearwater County Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

October 10
Clark: a find Morning loaded and Set out at 7 oClock at 2½ miles passed a run on the Stard. Side haveing passed 2 Islands and two bad rapids at 3 miles lower passed a Creek on the Lard. with wide Cotton willow bottoms

haveing passed an Island and a rapid an Indian Camp of three Lodgs below the Creek at 8½ miles lower we arrived at the heade of a verry bad riffle at which place we landed near 8 Lodges of Indians on the Lard Side to view the riffle, haveing passed two Islands & six rapids Several of them verry bad—

after view'g this riffle two Canoes were taken over verry well; the third Stuck on a rock which took us an hour to get her off which was effected without her receving a greater injurey than a Small Split in her Side which was repared in a Short time, we purchased fish & dogs of those people, dined and proceeded on—

here we met with an Indian from the falls at which place he Sais he Saw white people, and expressd an inclination to accompany us,

we passd a fiew miles above this riffle 2 Lodges and an Indian batheing in a hot bath made by hot Stones thrown into a pon of water...... at this I can observe at a distance on the lower Stard. Side a high ridge of Thinly timbered Countrey the water of the South fork is a greenish blue, the north as clear as cristial Imediately in the point is an Indian Cabin & in the South fork a Small Island, we came to on the Stard. Side

The Indians Came down all the Couses of this river on each Side on horses to view us as we were desending,— The man whome we saw at the ruged rapid and expressed an inclination to accompany us to the great rapids, came up with his Son in a Small Canoe and procisted in his intentions—

worthey of remark that not one Stick of timber on the river near the frks and but a fiew trees for a great distance up the River we decended

[They had arrived at the junction of the Clearwater and Snake rivers, on the Washington-Idaho boundary, between Lewiston, Nez Perce County, Idaho, and Clarkston, Asotin County, Washington. The captains first called the Snake the Kimooenem, then called it Lewis's River, considering it the continuation of the Lemhi and Salmon river, to which they had given this name]

a miss understanding took place between Shabono one of our interpreters, and Jo. & R Fields which appears to have originated in just—

our diet extremely bad haveing nothing but roots and dried fish to eate, all the Party have greatly the advantage of me, in as much as they all relish the flesh of the dogs, Several of which we purchased of the nativs for to add to our Store of fish and roots &c. &c.—

The Cho-pun-nish or Pierced nose Indians are Stout likeley men, handsom women, and verry dressey in their way, the dress of the men are a white Buffalow robe or Elk Skin dressed with Beeds which are generally white, Sea Shells—i e the Mother of Pirl hung to ther hair & on a pice of otter Skin about their necks hair Cewed in two parsels hanging forward over their Sholders, feathers, and different Coloured Paints which they find in their Countrey Generally white, Green & light Blue. Some fiew were a Shirt of Dressed Skins and long legins, & Mockersons Painted, which appears to be their winters dress, with a plat of twisted grass about their necks

The women dress in a Shirt of Ibex, or Goat Skins which reach quite down to their anckles without a girdle, their heads heads are not ornemented, their Shirts are ornemented with quilled Brass, Small peces of Brass Cut into different forms, Beeds, Shells & curios bones &c. The men expose those parts which are generally kept from few by other nations but the women are more perticular than any other nation which I have passed in Screting the parts

Their amusements appear but fiew as their Situation requires the utmost exertion to prcure food they are generally employed in that pursute, all the Summer & fall fishing for the Salmon, the winter hunting the deer on Snow Shoes in the plains and takeing care of ther emence numbers of horses, & in the Spring cross the mountains to the Missouri to get Buffalow robes and meet &c. at which time they frequent meet with their enemies & lose their horses & maney of ther people

Ther disorders are but fiew. they make great use of Swetting. The hot and cold baethes, They are verry Selfish and Stingey of what they have to eate or ware, and they expect in return Something for everything give as presents or the Survices which they doe let it be however Small, and fail to make those returns on their part.

Lewis & Clark Map: 10/10/05 Whitman County Native Americans USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

October 11
Clark: a cloudy morning wind from the East

We Set out early and proceeded on passed a rapid at two miles, at 6 miles we came too at Some Indian lodges and took brackfast, we purchased all the fish we could and Seven dogs of those people for Stores of Provisions down the river.

at this place I saw a curious Swet house under ground, with a Small whole at top to pass in or throw in the hot Stones, which those in threw on as much water as to create the temporature of heat they wished—

at 9 mile passed a rapid at 15 miles halted at an Indian Lodge, to purchase provisions of which we precred some of the Pash-he-quar roots five dogs and a few fish dried, after takeing Some dinner of dog &c we proceeded on.

Came to and encamped at 2 Indian Lodges at a great place of fishing here we met an Indian of a nation near the mouth of this river. we purchased three dogs and a fiew fish of those Indians,

we Passed today nine rapids all of them great fishing places, at different places on the river saw Indian houses and Slabs & Spilt timber raised from the ground being the different parts of the houses of the natives when they reside on this river for the purpose of fishing at this time they are out in the Plain on each side of the river hunting the antilope as we are informed by our Chiefs, near each of those houses we observe Grave yards picketed, or pieces of wood stuck in permiscuesly over the grave or body which is Covered with earth,

The Country on either Side is an open plain leavel & fertile after assending a Steep assent of about 200 feet not a tree of any kind to be Seen on the river The after part of the day the wind from the S. W. and hard. The day worm.

Gass: We set out early in a fine morning; proceeded on about 6 miles, and halted at some lodges of the natives, where we got fish and several dogs. We continued here about an hour and then went on. No accident happened to day though we passed some bad rapids.

In the evening we stopped at some Indian camps and remained all night, having come 30 miles. Here we got more fish and dogs. Most of our people having been accustomed to meat, do not relish the fish, but prefer dog meat; which, when well cooked, tastes very well.

Here we met an Indian of another nation, who informed us we could get to the falls in 4 days: which I presume are not very high as the salmon come above them in abundance.

The country on both sides is high dry prairie plains without a stick of timber. There is no wood of any kind to be seen except a few small willows along the shore; so that it is with difficulty we can get enough to cook with. The hills on the river are not very high, but rocky; the rocks of a dark colour. The bed and shores of the river are very stony; and the stones of a round smooth kind.

Whitehouse: We saw among these Indians some pieces of a fishing Seine, which we supposed must have come from some Civilized nation. We also saw among them a Copper Teakettle.

We continued on our way, & saw a number of fishing Camps, where the Natives come to fish in the Spring of the Year. We also saw Stones piled up in Rows, so that when the River is high the Salmon lies along side the Rocks, at which place the Natives kill them with a Gig.—

Lewis & Clark Map: 10/10/05 Whitman County Native Americans USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

October 12
Clark: A fair Cool morning wind from the East.

after purchaseing every Speces of the provisions those Indians could Spare we Set out and proceeded on at three miles passed four Islands Swift water and a bad rapid opposit to those Islands on the Lard. Side.

at 14½ miles passed the mouth of a large Creek on the Lard Side opposit a Small Island here the Countrey assends with a gentle assent to the high plains, and the River is 400 yards wide about 1 mile below the Creek on the Same Side took meridian altitude which gave 72° 30' 00" Latitude North

in the afternoon the wind Shifted to the S. W. and blew hard

we passed to day rapids Several of them very bad and came to at the head of one (at 30 miles) on the Stard. Side to view it before we attemptd. to dsend through it. The Indians had told us was verry bad— we found long and dangerous about 2 miles in length, and maney turns necessary to Stear Clare of the rocks, which appeared to be in every direction. The Indians went through & our Small Canoe followed them,

as it was late we deturmined to camp above untill the morning.

we passed Several Stoney Islands today Country as yesterday open plains, no timber of any kind a fiew Hack berry bushes & willows excepted, and but few drift trees to be found So that fire wood is verry Scerce— The hills or assents from the water is faced with a dark ruged Stone. The wind blew hard this evening.—

Lewis & Clark Map: 10/10/05 Whitman County Native Americans USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

October 13
Clark: rained a little before day, and all the morning, a hard wind from the S West untill 9 oClock, the rained Seased
& wind luled, and Capt Lewis with two Canoes Set out & passed down the rapid The others Soon followed and we passed over this bad rapid Safe. We Should make more portages if the Season was not So far advanced and time precious with us

This must be a verry bad place in high water, here is great fishing place, the timbers of Several houses piled up, and
a number of wholes of fish, and the bottom appears to have been made use of as a place of deposit for their fish for ages past,

here two Indians from the upper foks over took us and continued on down on horse back, two others were at this mouth of the Creek— we passed a rapid about 9 mile lower.

at dusk came to on the Std. Side & Encamped The two Inds. on horse back Stayed with us. The wife of Shabono our interpetr we find reconsiles all the Indians, as to our friendly intentions a woman with a party of men is a token of peace

The Countery Thro' which we passed to day is Simlar to that of yesterday open plain no timber passed Several houses evacuated at established fishing places, wind hard from The S. W. in the evening and not very cold

Lewis & Clark Map: 10/10/05 Franklin County Native Americans USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

October 14
Clark: a Verry Cold morning wind from the West and Cool untill about 12 oClock When it Shifted to the S. W.

at 2 ½ miles passed a remarkable rock verry large and resembling the hill [hull] of a Ship Situated on a Lard point at Some distance from the assending Countrey

passed rapids at 6 and 9 miles. at 12 miles we Came too at the head of a rapid which the Indians told me was verry bad, we viewed the rapid found it bad in decending three Stern Canoes Stuk fast for Some time on the head of the rapid and one Struk a rock in the worst part, fortunately all landed Safe below the rapid which was nearly 3 miles in length.

here we dined, and for the first time for three weeks past I had a good dinner of Blue wing Teel,

after dinner we Set out and had not proceded on two miles before our Stern Canoe in passing thro a Short rapid opposit the head of an Island, run on a Smoth rock and turned broad Side, the men got out on the [rock] all except one of our Indian Chiefs who Swam on Shore, The Canoe filed and Sunk a number of articles floated out, Such as the mens bedding clothes & Skins, the Lodge &c. &c. the greater part of which were cought by 2 of the Canoes, whilst a 3rd was unloading & Steming the Swift Current to the relief of the men on the rock who could with much dificuelty hold the Canoe. however in about an hour we got the men an Canoe to Shore with the Loss of Some bedding Tomahaws Shot pouches Skins Clothes &c. &c.

all wet we had every articles exposed to the Sun to dry on the Island, our loss in provisions is verry Considerable all our roots was in the Canoe that Sunk, and Cannot be dried Sufficint to Save, our loose powder was also in the Canoe and is all wett —

In this Island we found some Split timber the parts of a house which the Indians had verry Securely covered with Stone, we also observed a place where the Indians had buried there fish, we have made it a point at all times not to take any thing belonging to the Indians even their wood. but at this time we are Compelled to violate that rule and take a part of the Split timber we find here bured for fire wood, as no other is to be found in any direction. our Small canoe which was a head returned at night with 2 ores which they found floating below.

The wind this after noon from the S. W. as usial and hard

Ordway: a clear cold morning. the wind high N W.

we Set out as usal and proceeded on the current rapid. about noon we came to a bad rockey rapid where 2 canoes ran fast on a rock but we got off without Injury. a Small Island on the Lard. Side of the rapids we halted jist below to dine. then proceeded on about 8 miles then came to another bad rapid at the head of an Island.

the canoe I had charge of ran fast on a rock in the middle of the river and turned across the rock. we attempeted to git hir off but the waves dashed over hir So that She filled with water. we held hir untill one of the other canoes was unloaded and came to our assistance considerable of the baggage washed overboard, but the most of it was taken up below when the canoe got lightned

She went off of a sudden & left myself and three more Standing on the rock half leg deep in the rapid water untill a canoe came to our assistance. we got the most of the baggage to Shore two mens bedding lost one tommahawk, and some other Small articles a Small copper kittle &C.

we Camped on an Island Stard. Side at an old fishery where the natives had dryed Sammon burryed their wood covred over it. we took Some for our use &C. one of the men killed 8 ducks the country continues barron and broken in places &C—

Lewis & Clark Map: 10/10/05 Franklin County Native Americans USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

October 15
Clark: a far morning

Sent out hunters to hunt in the plains, about 10 oClock they returned and informed that they could not See any Signs of game of any kind

Capt Lewis walked on the plains and informs that he could plainly See a rainge of mountains which bore S. E. & N. W. the nearest point south about 60 miles, and becoms high toward the N. W. The plaines on each Side is wavering.

Labiesh killed 2 gees & 2 Ducks of the large kind. at two oClock we loaded & Set out,

our Powder & Provisions of roots not Sufficently dry. we Shall put them out at the forks or mouth of this river which is at no great distance, and at which place we Shall delay to make Some Selestial observations &c. passed Eleven Island and Seven rapids to day. Several of the rapids verry bad and dificuelt to pass. The Islands of different Sizes and all of round Stone and Sand, no timber of any kind in Sight of the river, a fiew Small willows excepted; in the evening the countrey becomes lower not exceding 90 or 100 feet above the water and back is a wavering Plain on each Side, passed thro: narrows for 3 miles where the Clifts of rocks juted to the river on each Side compressing the water of the river through a narrow chanel; below which it widens into a kind of bason nearly round without any proceptiable current, at the lower part of this bason is a bad dificuelt and dangerous rapid to pass,

at the upper part of this rapid we over took the three Indians who had Polited us thro the rapids from the forks. those people with our 2 Chiefs had proceeded on to this place where they thought proper to delay for us to warn us of the difficulties of this rapid.

we landed at a parcel of Split timber, the timber of a house of Indians out hunting the Antilope in the plains; and raised on Scaffolds to Save them from the Spring floods. here we were obliged for the first time to take the property of the Indians without the consent or approbation of the owner. the night was cold & we made use of a part of those boards and Split logs for fire wood.

Killed two teel this evening.

Examined the rapids which we found more dificuelt to pass than we expected from the Indians information. a Suckcession of Sholes, appears to reach from bank to bank for 3 miles which was also intersepted with large rocks Sticking up in every direction, and the chanel through which we must pass crooked and narrow. we only made 20 miles today, owing to he detention in passing rapids &c.

Lewis & Clark Map: 10/10/05 Franklin County Native Americans USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

October 16
Clark: A cool morning deturmined to run the rapids, put our Indian guide in front our Small Canoe next and the other four following each other, the canoes all passed over Safe except the rear Canoe which run fast on a rock at the lower part of the Rapids, with the early assistance of the other Canoes & the Indians, who was extreamly ellert every thing was taken out and the Canoe got off without any enjorie further than the articles which it was loaded all wet.

at 14 miles passed a bad rapid at which place we unloaded and made a portage of ¾ of a mile,

haveing passd. 4 Smaller rapids, three Islands and the parts of a house above, I Saw Indians & Horses on the South Side below. five Indians came up the river in great haste, we Smoked with them and gave them a piece of tobacco to Smoke with their people and Sent them back, they Set out in a run & continued to go as fast as They Could run as far as we Could See them.

after getting Safely over the rapid and haveing taken Diner Set out and proceeded on Seven miles to the junction of this river and the Columbia which joins from the N. W. passd. a rapid two Islands and a graveley bare, and imediately in the mouth a rapid above an Island. In every direction from the junction of those rivers the

Countrey is one Continued plain low and rises from the water gradually, except a range of high Countrey which runs from S. W & N E and is on the opposit Side about 2 miles distant from the Collumbia and keeping its derection S W untill it joins a S W. range of mountains.

We halted to Smoke with the Indians who had collected there in great numbers to view us, here we met our 2 Chiefs who left us two days ago and proceeded on to this place to inform those bands of our approach and friendly intentions towards all nations &c. we also met the 2 men who had passed us Several days ago on hors back, one of them we observed was a man of great influence with those Indians, harranged them;

after Smokeing with the Indians who had collected to view us we formed a camp at the point near which place I Saw a fiew pieces of Drift wood

after we had our camp fixed and fires made, a Chief came from their Camp which was about ¼ of a mile up the Columbia river at the head of about 200 men Singing and beeting on their drums Stick and keeping time to the musik, they formed a half circle around us and Sung for Some time, we gave them all Smoke, and Spoke to their Chiefs as well as we could by Signs informing them of our friendly disposition to all nations, and our joy in Seeing those of our Children around us,

Gave the principal chief a large Medal Shirt and Handkf. a 2nd Chief a Meadel of Small Size, and to the Cheif who came down from the upper villages a Small Medal & Handkerchief. The Chiefs then returned with the men to their camp;

Soon after we purchased for our Provisions Seven Dogs, Some fiew of those people made us presents of fish and Several returned and delayed with us untill bedtime— The 2 old Chiefs who accompanied us from the head of the river precured us Some fuil wood Such as woods the Stalks of weed or plant and willow bushes— one man made me a present of a about 20 lb. of verry fat Dried horse meat. Great quantities of a kind of prickley pares, much worst than any I have before Seen of a tapering form and attach themselves by bunches

Lewis & Clark Map: 10/16/05 Franklin County Native Americans USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

October 17
Clark: A fair morning

the principal Chief came down with Several of his principal men and Smoked with us. Several men and woman offered Dogs and fish to Sell, we purchased all the dogs we could, the fish being out of Season and dieing in great numbers in the river, we did not think prper to use them,

[Clark was seeing the end of the annual salmon migration up the rivers from the sea; the fish were dying after having laid and fertilized their eggs. They were probably either coho (silver) salmon.]

Send out Hunters to Shute the Prarie Cock a large fowl which I have only Seen on this river; Several of which I have killed, they are the Size of a Small turkey, of the pheasant kind, one I killed on the water edge to day measured from the Beek to the end of the toe 2 feet 6 & ¾ Inches; from the extremities of its wings 3 feet 6 inches; the tale feathers is 13 inches long: they feed on grasshoppers and the Seed of the wild plant which is also peculiar to this river and the upper parts of the Missoury somewhat resembling the whins—.

Capt. Lewis took a vocabelary of the Language of those people who call themselves So kulk, and also one of the language of a nation resideing on a Westerly fork of the Columbia which mouthes a fiew miles above this place who Call themselves Chim nâ pum Some fiew of this nation reside with the So kulks nation, Their language differ but little from either the Sokulks or the Chô-pun-nish (or pierced nose) nation which inhabit the Koskoskia river below.

I took two men in a Small Canoe and assended the Columbia river 10 miles to an Island near the Stard. Shore on which two large Mat Lodges of Indians were drying Salmon, (as they informed me by Signs for the purpose of food and fuel, & I do not think at all improbable that those people make use of Dried fish as fuel,

The number of dead Salmon on the Shores & floating in the river is incrediable to Say and at this Season they have only to collect the fish Split them open and dry them on their Scaffolds on which they have great numbers,

how far they have to raft their timber they make their Scaffolds of I could not lern; but there is no timber of any Sort except Small willow bushes in Sight in any direction—

from this Island the natives showed me the enterance of a large Westerly fork which they Call Tâpetêtt at about 8 miles distant, the evening being late I deturmined to return to the forks, at which place I reached at Dark. on the Lard Side opposite to this rapid is a fishing place 3 Mat Lodges, and great quants. of Salmon on Scaffolds drying. Saw great numbers of Dead Salmon on the Shores and floating in the water, great numbers of Indians on the banks viewing me and 18 canoes accompanied me from the point—

The Waters of this river is Clear, and a Salmon may be Seen at the deabth of 15 or 20 feet. West 4 miles to the lower point of a large island near the Stard. Side at 2 Lodges, passed three large lodges on the Stard Side near which great number of Salmon was drying on Scaffolds one of those Mat lodges I entered found it crouded with men women and children and near the enterance of those houses I saw maney Squars engaged Splitting and drying Salmon.

I was furnished with a mat to Sit on, and one man Set about prepareing me Something to eate, first he brought in a piece of a Drift log of pine and with a wedge of the elks horn, and a malet of Stone curioesly Carved he Split the log into Small pieces and lay'd it open on the fire on which he put round Stones, a woman handed him a basket of water and a large Salmon about half Dried, when the Stones were hot he put them into the basket of water with the fish which was Soon Suficently boiled for use. it was then taken out put on a platter of rushes neetly made, and Set before me they boiled a Salmon for each of the men with me, dureing those preperations, I Smoked with those about me who Chose to Smoke which was but fiew, this being a custom those people are but little accustomed to and only Smok thro form.

after eateing the boiled fish which was delicious, I Set out & halted or came too on the Island at the two Lodges. Several fish was given to me, in return for Which I gave Small pieces of ribbond from those Lodges the natives Showed me the mouth of Tap teel River about 8 miles above on the west Side this western fork appears to beare nearly West, The main Columbia river N W.— a range of high land to the S W and parralal to the river and at the distance of 2 miles on the Lard. Side, the countrey low on the Stard. Side, and all Coverd. with a weed or plant about 2 & three feet high and resembles the whins. I can proceive a range of mountains to the East which appears to bare N. & South distant about 50 or 60 miles. no wood to be Seen in any derection—

On my return I was followd. by 3 canoes in which there was 20 Indians I shot a large Prairie Cock Several Grouse, Ducks and fish. on my return found Great Numbr. of the nativs with Capt. Lewis, men all employd in dressing ther Skins mending their clothes and putting ther arms in the best order the latter being always a matter of attention with us.

The Dress of those natives differ but little, except the women who dress verry different in as much as those above ware long leather Shirts which highly ornimented with beeds Sheels &c. &c. and those on the main Columbia river only ware a truss or pece of leather tied around them at their hips and drawn tite between ther legs and fastened before So as barly to hide those parts which are So Sacredly hid & Scured by our women. Those women are more inclined to Copulency than any we have yet Seen, with low Stature broad faces, heads flatened and the forward compressed so as to form a Streight line from the nose to the Crown of the head, their eyes are of a Duskey black, their hair of a corse black without orniments of any kind braded as above.

[Here was their first encounter with a custom and its results which for whites were among the most striking cultural traits of the Columbia and Northwest Coast peoples. These lower Columbia tribes placed infants in a special cradleboard with an angled board compressing the forehead; in some cases a tight headband was apparently used instead. Later, Clark sketched the headboard apparatus and examples of the results. The eventual effect on the soft skull of the child was the shape noted by Clark, the head becoming decidedly pointed. Many whites applied the term "flathead" to those who practiced head deformation, although the Indians themselves apparently reserved the term for tribes in the interior who left their heads naturally "flat" on top. The deformed head shape was considered a mark of distinction, beauty, and superior status. Slaves were not allowed to deform the heads of their children. ]

The orniments of each Sect are Similar, Such as large blue & white beeds, either pendant from their ears or encircling their necks, or wrists & arms. They also ware bracelets Of Brass, Copper & horn, and trinkets of Shells, fish bones and curious feathers. Their garments Conists of a short Shirt of leather and a roabe of the Skins of Deer or the Antilope but fiew of them ware Shirts all have Short robes.

Those people appears to live in a State of comparitive happiness: they take a greater Share labor of the woman, than in common among Savage tribes, and as I am informd. Content with one wife (as also those on the Ki moo e nim river) Those people respect the aged with veneration, I observed an old woman in one of the Lodges which I entered She was entirely blind as I was informed by Signs, had lived more than 100 winters, She occupied the best position in the house, and when She Spoke great attention was paid to what She Said—.

Those people as also those of the flat heads which we had passed on the Koskoske and Lewis's rivers are Subject to Sore eyes, and maney are blind of one and Some of both eyes. this misfortune must be owing to the reflections of the Sun &c. on the waters in which they are continually fishing during the Spring Summer & fall, & the Snows dureing the, winter Seasons, in this open countrey where the eye has no rest. I have observed amongst those, as well in all other tribes which I have passed on these waters who live on fish maney of different Sectes who have lost their teeth about middle age, Some have their teeth worn to the gums, perticelar hose of the upper jaws, and the tribes generally have bad teeth the cause of it I cannot account sand attachd. to the roots &c the method they have of useing the dri'd Salmon, which is mearly worming it and eating the rine & Scales with the flesh of the fish, no doubt contributes to it

The House or Lodges of the tribes of the main Columbia river is of large mats made of rushes, Those houses are from 15 to 60 feet in length generally of an Oblong Squar form, Suported by poles on forks in the iner Side, Six feet high, the top is covered also with mats leaveing a Seperation in the whole length of about 12 or 15 inches wide, left for the purpose of admitting light and for the Smok of the fire to pass which is made in the middle of the house.— The roughfs are nearly flat, which proves to me that rains are not common in this open Countrey

Those people appeare of a mild disposition and friendly disposed— They have in their huts independant of their nets gigs & fishing tackling each bows & large quivers of arrows on which they use flint Spikes. Theire ammusements are Similar to those of the Missouri. they are not beggerley and receive what is given them with much joy.

I saw but fiew horses they appeared make but little use of those animals principally useing Canoes for their uses of procureing food &c.

Lewis & Clark Map: 10/16/05 Franklin County Native Americans USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

October 18
Clark: This morning Cool and fare wind from the S. E. Six of the large Prarie cock killed this morning.

Several canoes of Indians Came down and joined those with us, we had a council with those in which we informed of our friendly intentions towards them and all other of our red children; of our wish to make a piece between all of our red Children in this quarter &c. &c. this was conveyed by Signs thro: our 2 Chiefs who accompanied us, and was understood, we made a 2d Chief and gave Strings of wompom to them all in remembrance of what we Said— f

ur men in a Canoe came up from a large encampment on an Island in the River about 8 miles below, they delayed but a fiew minits and returned, without Speaking a word to us.

The Great Chief and one of the Chim-nâ pum nation drew me a Sketch of the Columbia above and the tribes of his nation, living on the bank, and its waters, and the Tâpe têtt river which falls in 18 miles above on the westerly side

We thought it necessary to lay in a Store of Provisions for our voyage, and the fish being out of Season, we purchased forty dogs for which we gave articles of little value, Such as bells, thimbles, knitting pins, brass wire & a few beeds all of which they appeared well Satisfied and pleased.

every thing being arranged we took in our Two Chiefs, and Set out on the great Columbia river, haveing left our guide and the two young men two of them enclined not to proceed on any further, and the 3rd could be of no Service to us as he did not know the river below

Took our leave of the Chiefs and all those about us and proceeded on down the great Columbia river passed a large Island at 8 miles about 3 miles in length, a Island on the Stard. Side the upper point of which is opposit the center of the last mentioned Island and reaches 3½ miles below the 1st. Island and opposit to this near the middle of the river nine Lodges are Situated on the upper point at a rapid which is between the lower point of the 1st Island and upper point of this;

great numbers of Indians appeared to be on this Island, and emence quantites of fish Scaffold we landed a few minits to view a rapid which Commenced at the lower point, passd this rapid which was verry bad between 2 Small Islands

on the Stard. Side is 2 Lodges of Indians Drying fish, at 2½ miles lower and 14½ below the point passed an Island Close under the Stard. Side on which was 2 Lodges of Indians drying fish on Scaffolds as above at 16 miles

from the point the river passes into the range of high Countrey at which place the rocks project into the river from the high clifts the Countrey rises here about 200 feet above The water and is bordered wth black rugid rocks,

Saw a mountain bearing S. W. conocal form Covered with Snow.

[Probably Mt. Hood, in the Cascade Range in Hood River County, Oregon, named for the British admiral Sir Samuel Hood by Lieutenant William Robert Broughton of George Vancouer's exploring expedition in 1792.]

passed 4 Islands, at the upper point of the 3rd is a rapid, on this Island is two Lodges of Indians, drying fish, on the fourth Island Close under the Stard. Side is nine large Lodges of Indians Drying fish on Scaffolds as above at this place we were called to land, as it was near night and no appearance of wood, we proceeded on about 2 miles lower to Some willows, at which place we observed a drift log formed a Camp on the Lard Side under a high hill nearly opposit to five Lodges of Indians;

Soon after we landed, our old Chiefs informed us that the large camp above "was the Camp of the 1st Chief of all the tribes in this quarter, and that he had called to us to land and Stay all night with him, that he had plenty of wood for us &" This would have been agreeable to us if it had have been understood perticelarly as we were compelled to Use drid willows for fuel for the purpose of cooking, we requested the old Chiefs to walk up on the Side we had landed and call to the Chief to come down and Stay with us all night which they did;

late at night the Chief came down accompanied by 20 men, and formed a Camp a Short distance above, the chief brought with him a large basket of mashed berries which he left at our Lodge as a present. I saw on the main land opposit those Lodges a number of horses feeding, we made 21 miles to day.

Lewis & Clark Map: 10/16/05 Walla Walla County Native Americans USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

October 19
Clark: The great chief Yel-lep-pet two other chiefs, and a Chief of Band below presented themselves to us verry early this morning. we Smoked with them, enformed them as we had all others above as well as we Could by Signs of our friendly intentions towards our red children Perticular those who opened their ears to our Councils. we gave a Medal, a Handkercheif & a string of Wompom to Yelleppit and a String of wompom to each of the others.

Yelleppit is a bold handsom Indian, with a dignified countenance about 35 years of age, about 5 feet 8 inches high and well perpotiond. he requested us to delay untill the Middle of the day, that his people might Come down and See us, we excused our Selves and promised to Stay with him one or 2 days on our return which appeared to Satisfy him; great numbers of Indians Came down in Canoes to view us before we Set out which was not untill 9 oClock A M.

we proceeded on passed a Island, close under the Lard Side about Six miles in length opposit to the lower point of which two Isds. are situated on one of which five Lodges vacent & Saffolds drying fish at the upper point of this Island Swift water. a Short distance below passed two Islands; one near the middle of the river on which is Seven lodges of Indians drying fish, at our approach they hid themselves in their Lodges and not one was to be seen untill we passed, they then Came out in greater numbers than is common in Lodges of their Size, it is probable that, the inhabitants of the 5 Lodges above had in a fright left their lodges and decended to this place to defend them Selves if attackted there being a bad rapid opposit the Island thro which we had to pass prevented our landing on this Island and passifying those people,

about four miles below this fritened Island we arrived at the head of a verry bad rapid, we came too on the Lard Side to view the rapid before we would venter to run it, as the Chanel appeared to be close under the oppd. Shore, and it would be necessary to liten our canoe, I deturmined to walk down on the Lard Side, with the 2 Chiefs the interpreter & his woman, and derected the Small canoe to prcede down on the Lard Side to the foot of the rapid which was about 2 miles in length I Sent on the Indian Chiefs &c. down and I assended a high clift about 200 feet above the water from the top of which is a leavel plain extending up the river and off for a great extent, at this place

the Countrey becoms low on each Side of the river, and affords a prospect of the river and countrey below for great extent both to the right and left; from this place I descovered a high mountain of emence hight covered with Snow, this must be one of the mountains laid down by Vancouver, as Seen from the mouth of the Columbia River, from the Course which it bears which is West I take it to be Mt. St. Helens, destant 156 miles a range of mountains in the Derection crossing, a conacal mountain S. W. toped with Snow

[Probably not Mt. St. Helens, which would not be visible from their location, but Mt. Adams, east of the main cascade Range in Yakima County, Washington]

This rapid I observed as I passed opposit to it to be verry bad interseped with high rock and Small rockey Islands, here I observed banks of Muscle Shells banked up in the river in Several places, I Delayed at the foot of the rapid about 2 hours for the Canoes which I could See met with much dificuelty in passing down the rapid on the oposit Side maney places the men were obliged to get into the water and haul the canoes over Sholes— while Setting on a rock wateing for Capt Lewis

I Shot a Crain which was flying over of the common kind.

I observed a great number of Lodges on the opposit Side at Some distance below and Several Indians on the opposit bank passing up to where Capt Lewis was with the Canoes, others I Saw on a knob nearly opposit to me at which place they delayed but a Short time before they returned to their Lodges as fast as they could run, I was fearfull that those people might not be informed of us, I deturmined to take the little Canoe which was with me and proceed with the three men in it to the Lodges, on my aproach not one person was to be Seen except three men off in the plains, and they Sheared off as I aproached near the Shore,

I landed in front of five Lodges which was at no great distance from each other, Saw no person the enteranc or Dores of the Lodges wer Shut with the Same materials of which they were built a mat, I approached one with a pipe in my hand entered a lodge which was the nearest to me found 32 persons men, women and a few children Setting permiscuesly in the Lodg, in the greatest agutation, Some crying and ringing there hands, others hanging their heads. I gave my hand to them all and made Signs of my friendly dispotion and offered the men my pipe to Smok and distributed a fiew Small articles which I had in my pockets,—

this measure passified those distressed people verry much, I then Sent one man into each lodge and entered a Second myself the inhabitants of which I found more fritened than those of the first lodge I destributed Sundrey Small articles amongst them, and Smoked with the men, I then entered the third 4h & fifth Lodge which I found Somewhat passified, the three men Drewer Jo. & R. Fields, haveing useed everey means in their power to convince them of our friendly disposition to them, I then Set my Self on a rock and made Signs to the men to come and Smoke with me not one Come out untill the Canoes arrived

Some five Came out of each Lodge and Set by me and Smoked Capt Lewis at the 2 Chiefs, one of whom spoke aloud, and as was their Custom to all we had passed the Indians came out & Set by me and Smoked They said we came from the clouds &c &c and were not men &c. &c. this time Capt Lewis came down with the Canoes rear in which the Indians, as Soon as they Saw the Squar wife of the interperters they pointed to her and informed those who continued yet in the Same position I first found them, they imediately all came out and appeared to assume new life, the sight of This Indian woman, wife to one of our interprs. confirmed those people of our friendly intentions, as no woman ever accompanies a war party of Indians in this quarter—

Capt Lewis joined us and we Smoked with those people in the greatest friendship, dureing which time one of our Old Chiefs informed them who we were from whence we Came and where we were going giveing them a friendly account of us, those people do not Speak prosisely the Same language of those above but understand them,

I Saw Several Horses and persons on hors back in the plains many of the men womin and children Came up from the Lodges below; all of them appeared pleased to See us, we traded some fiew articles for fish and berries, Dined, and proceeded on passed a Small rapid and 15 Lodges below the five, and Encamped below an Island Close under the Lard Side, nearly opposit to 24 Lodges on an Island near the middle of the river, and the Main Stard Shor Soon after we landed which was at a fiew willow trees about 100 Indians Came from the different Lodges, and a number of them brought wood which they gave us, we Smoked with all of them, and two of our Party Peter Crusat & Gibson played on the violin which delighted them greatly,

we gave to the principal man a String of wompon treated them kindly for which they appeared greatfull, This Tribe can raise about 350 men their Dress are Similar to those at the fork except their robes are Smaller and do not reach lower than the waste and ¾ of them have Scercely any robes at all, the women have only a Small pece of a robe which Covers their Sholders neck and reaching down behind to their wastes, with a tite piece of leather about the waste, the brests are large and hang down verry low illy Shaped, high Creeks flattened heads, & have but fiew orniments, they are all employed in fishing and drying fish of which they have great quantites on their Scaffolds, their habits customs &c. I could not lern.

I killed a Duck that with the Crain afforded us a good Supper. the Indians continued all night at our fires

This day we made 36 miles

Lewis & Clark Map: 10/16/05 Morrow County Native Americans USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

October 20
Clark: A cool morning wind S. W. we concluded to delay untill after brackfast which we were obliged to make on the flesh of dog. after brackfast we gave all the Indian men Smoke, and we Set out leaveing about 200 of the nativs at our Encampment;

passd. three Indian Lodges on the Lard Side a little below our Camp which lodges I did not discover last evening, passed a rapid at Seven miles one at a Short distance below we passed a verry bad rapid, a chane or rocks makeing from the Stard. Side and nearly Chokeing the river up entirely with hugh black rocks, an Island below close under the Stard. Side on which was four Lodges of Indians drying fish,—

here I Saw a great number of pelicons on the wing, and black Comerants.

at one oClock we landed on the lower point of an Island at Some Indian Lodges, a large Island on the Stard Side nearly opposit and a Small one a little below on the Lard Side on those three Island I counted Seventeen Indian Lodges, those people are in every respect like those above, prepareing fish for theire winter consumption here we purchased a fiew indifferent Dried fish & a fiew berries on which we dined—

(On the upper part of this Island we discovered an Indian vault our curiosity induced us to examine the methot those nativs practicd in disposeing the dead, the Vaut was made by broad boards and pieces of Canoes leaning on a ridge pole which was Suported by 2 forks Set in the ground Six feet in hight in an easterly and westerly direction and about 60 feet in length, and 12 feet wide, in it I observed great numbers of humane bones of every description perticularly in a pile near the Center of the vault, on the East End 21 Scul bomes forming a circle on Mats—;

in the Westerly part of the Vault appeared to be appropriated for those of more resent death, as many of the bodies of the deceased raped up in leather robes lay on board covered with mats, &c [when bones & robes rot, they are gathered in a heap & sculls placed in a circle.]

we observed, independant of the canoes which Served as a Covering, fishing nets of various kinds, Baskets of different Sizes, wooden boles, robes Skins, trenchers, and various Kind of trinkets, in and Suspended on the ends of the pieces forming the vault; we also Saw the Skeletons of Several Horses at the vault & great number of bones about it, which Convinced me that those animals were Sacrefised as well as the above articles to the Deceased.)

after diner we proceeded on to a bad rapid at the lower point of a Small Island on which four Lodges of Indians were Situated drying fish; here the high countrey Commences again on the Stard. Side leaveing a vallie of 40 miles in width, from the mustle Shel rapid. examined and passed this rapid close to the Island at 8 miles lower this evening the Countrey on the Lard. Side rises to the hight of that on the Starboard Side, and is wavering—

we made 42 miles to day; the current much more uniform than yesterday or the day before. Killed 2 Speckle guls Severl. ducks of a delicious flavour.

Lewis & Clark Map: 10/16/05 Klickitat County Native Americans USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

October 21
Clark: A verry cool morning wind from the S. W. we Set out verry early and proceeded on,

last night we could not Collect more dry willows the only fuel, than was barely Suffient to cook Supper, and not a Sufficency to cook brackfast this morning, passd. a Small Island at 5½ miles a large one 8 miles in the middle of the river, Some rapid water at the head and Eight Lodges of nativs opposit its Lower point on the Stard. Side, we came too at those lodges, bought some wood and brackfast.

Those people recived us with great kindness, and examined us with much attention, their employments custom Dress and appearance Similar to those above; Speak the same language, here we Saw two Scarlet and a blue cloth blanket, also a Salors Jacket

the Dress of the men of this tribe only a Short robe of Deer or Goat Skins, and that of the womn is a Short piece of Dressd Skin which fall from the neck So as to Cover the front of the body as low as the waste, a Short robe, which is of one Deer or antilope Skin, and a flap, around their waste and Drawn tite between their legs as before described, their orniments are but fiew, and worn as those above.

we got from those people a fiew pounded rotes [NB: roots] fish and Acorns of the white oake, those Acorns they make use of as food, and inform us they precure them of the nativs who live near the falls below

at 2 miles lower passed a rapid, large rocks Stringing into the river of large Size, opposit to this rapid on the Stard. Shore is Situated two Lodges of the nativs drying fish here we halted a fiew minits to examine the rapid before we entered it which was our constant Custom, and at all that was verry dangerous put out all who could not Swim to walk around,

after passing this rapid we proceeded on passed anoothe rapid at 5 miles lower down, above this rapid on five Lodges of Indians fishing &c. above this rapid maney large rocks on each Side at Some distance from Shore, one mile passed an Island Close to the Stard. Side, below which is two Lodge of nativs,

a little below is a bad rapid which is bad crouded with hugh rocks Scattered in every Direction which renders the pasage verry Difficuelt a little above this rapid on the Lard. Side emence piles of rocks appears as if Sliped from the Clifts under which they lay passed great number of rocks in every direction Scattered in the river 5 Lodges a little below on the Stard. Side, and one lodge on an Island near the Stard. Shore opposit to which is a verry bad rapid, thro which we found much dificuelty in passing, the river is Crouded with rocks in every direction,

after Passing this dificult rapid to the mouth of a Small river on the Larboard Side 40 yards wide descharges but little water at this time, and appears to take its Sourse

[The John Day River, marking the boundary between Gilliam and Sherman counties, Oregon.]

in the Open plains to the S. E from this place I proceved Some fiew Small pines on the tops of the high hills and bushes in the hollars. imediately above & below this little river comences a rapid which is crouded with large rocks in every direction, the pasage both crooked and dificuelt, we halted at a Lodge to examine those noumerous islands of rock which apd. to extend maney miles below,—. great numbs. of Indians came in canoes to View us at this place, after passing this rapid which we accomplished without loss; we passed winding through between the hugh rocks for about 2 miles—.

(from this rapid the Conocil mountain is S. W. which the Indians inform me is not far to the left of the great falls; the mountain is high and the top is covered with Snow)

imediately below the last rapids there is four Lodges of Indians on the Stard. Side, proceeded on about two miles lower and landed and encamped near five Lodges of nativs, drying fish those are the relations of those at the great falls, they are pore and have but little wood which they bring up the river from the falls as they Say, we purchasd a little wood to cook our Dog meat and fish;

those people did not recive us at first with the same cordiality of those above, they appeare to be the Same nation Speak the Same language with a little curruption of maney words Dress and fish in the Same way, all of whome have pierced noses and the men when Dressed ware a long taper'd piece of Shell or beed put through the nose—

this part of the river is furnished with fine Springs which either rise high up the Sides of the hills or on the bottom near the river and run into the river. the hills are high and rugid a fiew scattering trees to be Seen on them either Small pine or Scrubey white oke.

The probable reason of the Indians residing on the Stard. Side of this River is their fear of the Snake Indians who reside, as they nativs Say on a great river to the South, and are at war with those tribes, one of the Old Chiefs who accompanies us pointed out a place on the lard. Side where they had a great battle, not maney years ago, in which maney were killed on both Sides—,

[These "Snakes" are probably Northern Paiutes]

one of our party J. Collins presented us with Some verry good beer made of the Pa-shi-co-quar-mash bread, which bread is the remains of what was laid in as Stores of Provisions, at the first flat heads or Cho-pun-nish Nation at the head of the Kosskoske river which by being frequently wet molded & Sowered &c.

we made 33 miles to day.

Lewis & Clark Map: 10/16/05 Klickitat County Native Americans USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

October 22
Clark: A fine morning calm and fare we Set out at 9 oClock passed a verry bad rapid at the head of an Island close under the Stard. Side, above this rapid on the Stard. Side is Six Lodges of nativs Drying fish,

at 9 mls. passed a bad rapid at the head of a large Island of high, uneaven [rocks], jutting over the water, a Small Island in a Stard. Bend opposit the upper point, on which I counted 20 parcels of dryed and pounded fish; on the main Stard Shore opposit to this Island five Lodges of Indians are Situated Several Indians in Canoes killing fish with gigs, and nets &c.

opposit the center of this Island of rocks which is about 4 miles long we discovered the enterence of a large river on the Lard. Side which appeared to Come from the S. E.— we landed at Some distance above the mouth of this river and Capt. Lewis and my Self Set out to view this river above its mouth, as our rout was intersepted by a deep narrow Chanel which runs out of this river into the Columbia a little below the place we landed, leaveing a high dry rich Island of about 400 yards wide and 800 yards long here we Seperated, I proceeded on to the river and Struck it at the foot of a verry Considerable rapid, here I beheld an emence body of water Compressd in a narrow Chanel of about 200 yds in width, fomeing over rocks maney of which presented their tops above the water, when at this place Capt. Lewis joined me haveing delayed on the way to examine a root of which the nativs had been digging great quantities in the bottoms of this River.

at about two miles above this River appears to be confined between two high hils below which it divided by numbers of large rocks, and Small Islands covered with a low groth of timber, and has a rapid as far as the narrows three Small Islands in the mouth of this River, this River haveing no Indian name that we could find out, except "the River on which the Snake Indians live," we think it best to leave the nameing of it untill our return.

we proceeded on pass the mouth of this river at which place it appears to discharge ¼ as much water as runs down the Columbia. at two miles below this River passed Eight Lodges on the Lower point of the Rock Island aforesaid at those Lodges we saw large logs of wood which must have been rafted down the To war-ne hi ooks River, below this Island on the main Stard Shore is 16 Lodges of nativs; here we landed a fiew minits to Smoke,

the lower point of one Island opposit which heads in the mouth of Towarnehiooks River which I did not observe untill after passing these lodges about ½ a mile lower passed 6 more Lodges on the Same Side and 6 miles below the upper mouth of Towarnehiooks River the comencement of the pitch of the Great falls, opposit on the Stard. Side is 17 Lodges of the nativs we landed and walked down accompanied by an old man to view the falls, and the best rout for to make a portage which we Soon discovered was much nearest on the Stard. Side, and the distance 1200 yards one third of the way on a rock,

about 200 yards over a loose Sand collected in a hollar blown by the winds from the bottoms below which was disagreeable to pass, as it was Steep and loose. at the lower part of those rapids we arrived at 5 Large Lodges of nativs drying and prepareing fish for market, they gave us Philburts, and berries to eate, we returned droped down to the head of the rapids and took every article except the Canoes across the portag where I had formed a camp on ellegable Situation for the protection of our Stores from Thieft, which we were more fearfull of, than their arrows.

we despatched two men to examine the river on the opposit Side, and reported that the Canoes could be taken down a narrow Chanel on the opposit Side after a Short portage at the head of the falls, at which place the Indians take over their Canoes. Indians assisted us over the portage with our heavy articles on their horses,

the waters is divided into Several narrow chanels which pass through a hard black rock forming Islands of rocks at this Stage of the water, on those Islands of rocks as well as at and about their Lodges I observe great numbers of Stacks of pounded Salmon neetly preserved in the following manner, i e after Suffiently Dried it is pounded between two Stones fine, and put into a speces of basket neetly made of grass and rushes of better than two feet long and one foot Diamiter, which basket is lined with the Skin of Salmon Stretched and dried for the purpose, in theis it is pressed down as hard as is possible, when full they Secure the open part with the fish Skins across which they fasten tho' the loops of the basket that part very Securely, and then on a Dry Situation they Set those baskets the Corded part up, their common Custom is to Set 7 as close as they can Stand and 5 on the top of them, and secure them with mats which is raped around them and made fast with cords and Covered also with mats, those 12 baskets of from 90 to 100 w. each basket form a Stack. thus preserved those fish may be kept Sound and Sweet Several years, as those people inform me, Great quantities as they inform us are Sold to the whites people who visit the mouth of this river as well as to the nativs below.

Lewis & Clark Map: 10/16/05 Klickitat County Native Americans USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

October 23
Clark: a fine morning, I with the greater part of the men Crossed in the Canoes to opposit Side above the falls and hauled them across the portage of 457 yards which is on the Lard. Side and certainly the best side to pass the canoes I then decended through a narrow chanel of about 150 yards wide forming a kind of half circle in it course of a mile to a pitch of 8 feet in which the chanel is divided by 2 large rocks at this place we were obliged to let the Canoes down by Strong ropes of Elk Skin which we had for the purpose,

one Canoe in passing this place got loose by the Cords breaking, and was cought by the Indians below. I accomplished this necessary business and landed Safe with all the Canoes at our Camp below the falls by 3 oClock P. M. nearly covered with flees which were So thick amongst the Straw and fish Skins at the upper part of the portage at which place the nativs had been Camped not long Since; that every man of the party was obliged to Strip naked dureing the time of takeing over the canoes, that they might have an oppertunity of brushing the flees of their legs and bodies—

Great numbers of Sea Otters in the river below the falls, I Shot one in the narrow chanel to day which I could not get. Great numbers of Indians visit us both from above and below—.

one of the old Chiefs who had accompanied us from the head of the river, informed us that he herd the Indians Say that the nation below intended to kill us, we examined all the arms &c. complete the amunition to 100 rounds. The nativs leave us earlyer this evening than usial, which gives a Shadow of Confirmation to the information of our Old Chief, as we are at all times & places on our guard, are under no greater apprehention than is common.

we purchased 8 Small fat dogs for the party to eate the nativs not being fond of Selling their good fish, compells us to make use of Dog meat for food, the flesh of which the most of the party have become fond of from the habits of useing it for Some time past. The Altitude of this day 66° 27' 30" gave for Latd. 45° 42' 57 3/10" N.

I observed on the beach near the Indian Lodges two Canoes butifull of different Shape & Size to what we had Seen above wide in the midde and tapering to each end, on the bow curious figures were Cut on the wood &c. Capt. Lewis went up to the Lodges to See those Canoes and exchanged our Smallest Canoe for one of them by giveing a Hatchet & few trinkets to the owner who informed that he purchased it of a white man below for a horse, these Canoes are neeter made than any I have ever Seen and Calculated to ride the waves, and carry emence burthens, they are dug thin and are supported by cross pieces of about 1 inch diamuter tied with Strong bark thro' holes in the Sides.

our two old Chiefs appeared verry uneasy this evening.

Lewis & Clark Map: 10/16/05 Klickitat County Native Americans USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

October 24
Clark: The morning fare after a beautifull night,

the nativs approached us this morning with great caution. our two old chiefs expressed a desire to return to their band from this place, Saying "that they Could be of no further Service to us, as their nation extended no further down the river than those falls, and as the nation below had expressed hostile intentions against us, would Certainly kill them; perticularly as They had been at war with each other;"

[The Short, or Little, Narrows, with the Long Narrows, constitute The Dalles of the Columbia, located above the present town of The Dalles, Wasco County, Oregon. Once major obstacles to navigation, they are now inundated by The Dalles Dam. Clark drew a detailed skech map of the area.

The Dalles area was a dividing point between Chinookan-language speakers downstream and Shahaptian-language speakers upstream. The two Nez Perce chiefs could no longer serve as interpreteres.]

we requested them to Stay with us two nights longer, and we would See the nation below and make a peace between them, they replied they "were anxious to return and See our horses" we insisted on their Staying with us two nights longer to which they agreed; our views were to detain those Chiefs with us untill we Should pass the next falls, which we were told was verry bad, and at no great distance below, that they might inform us of any designs of the nativs, and if possible to bring about a peace between them and the tribes below.

The first pitch of this falls is 20 feet perpendicular, then passing thro' a narrow Chanel for 1 mile to a rapid of about 18 feet fall below which the water had no perceptable fall but verry rapid It may be proper here to remark that from Some obstruction below, the cause of which we have not yet learned, the water in high fluds (which are in the Spring) rise below these falls nearly to a leavel with the water above the falls; the marks of which can be plainly trac'd around the falls. at that Stage of the water the Salmon must pass up which abounds in Such great numbers above—

below thos falls are Salmon trout and great numbers of the heads of a Species of trout Smaller than the Salmon. those fish they catch out of the Salmon Season, and are at this time in the act of burrying those which they had drid for winter food. the mode of buring those fish is in holes of various Sizes, lined with Straw on which they lay fish Skins in which they inclose the fish which is laid verry close, and then Covered with earth of about 12 or 15 inches thick.

Capt Lewis and three men crossed the river and on the opposit Side to view the falls which he had not yet taken a full view of—

At 9 oClock a. m. I Set out with the party and proceeded on down a rapid Stream of about 400 yards wide at 2½ miles the river widened ito a large bason to the Stard. Side on which there is five Lodges of Indians. here a tremendious black rock Presented itself high and Steep appearing to choke up the river nor could I See where the water passed further than the Current was drawn with great velocity to the Lard Side of this rock at which place I heard a great roreing. I landed at the Lodges and the natives went with me to the top of this rock which makes from the Stard. Side; from the top of which I could See the dificuelties we had to pass for Several miles below; at this place the water of this great river is compressed into a Chanel between two rocks not exceeding forty five yards wide and continues for a ¼ of a mile when it again widens to 200 yards and continues this width for about 2 miles when it is again intersepted by rocks. This obstruction in the river accounts for the water in high floods riseing to Such a hite at the last falls. The whole of the Current of this great river must at all Stages pass thro' this narrow chanel of 45 yards wide.

as the portage of our canoes over this high rock would be impossible with our Strength, and the only danger in passing thro those narrows was the whorls and Swills arriseing from the Compression of the water, and which I thought (as also our principal watermen Peter Crusat) by good Stearing we could pass down Safe, accordingly I deturmined to pass through this place notwithstanding the horrid appearance of this agitated gut Swelling, boiling & whorling in every direction (which from the top of the rock did not appear as bad as when I was in it;[)] however we passed Safe to the astonishment of all the Inds: of the last Lodges who viewed us from the top of the rock.

passed one Lodge below this rock and halted on the Stard. Side to view a verry bad place, the Current divided by 2 Islands of rocks the lower of them large and in the middle of the river, this place being verry bad I Sent by land all the men who could not Swim and Such articles as was most valuable to us Such as papers Guns & amunition, and proceeded down with the Canoes two at a time to a village of 20 wood housies in a Deep bend to the Stard. Side below which a rugid black rock about 20 feet hiter than the Common high fluds of the river with Several dry Chanels which appeared to Choke the river up quite across; this I took to be the 2d falls or the place the nativs above call timm,

The nativs of this village reived me verry kindly, one of whome envited me into his house, which I found to be large and comodious, and the first wooden houses in which Indians have lived Since we left those in the vicinity of the Illinois, they are scattered permiscuisly on a elivated Situation near a mound of about 30 feet above the Common leavel, which mound has Some remains of houses and has every appearance of being artificial— those houses are about the Same Shape Size and form 20 feet wide and 30 feet long with one Dore raised 18 Inches above ground, they are 29½ inches high & 14 wide, forming in a half Circle above those houses were Sunk into the earth Six feet, the roofs of them was Supported by a ridge pole resting on three Strong pieces of Split timber thro' one of which the dore was cut that and the walls the top of which was just above ground Suported a certain number of Spars which are Covered with the Bark of the white Ceadar, or Arber Vitea; and the whole attached and Secured by the fibers of the Cedar. the eaves at or near the earth, the gable ends and Side walls are Secured with Split boards which is Seported on iner Side with Strong pieces of timber under the eves &c. to keep those pieces errect & the earth from without pressing in the boards, Suported by Strong posts at the Corners to which those poles were attached to give aditional Strength, Small openings were left above the ground, for the purpose, as I conjectured, of deschargeing Their arrows at a besieging enimey; Light is admited Thro an opening at top which also Serves for the Smoke to pass through. one half of those houses is apropriated for the Storeing away Dried & pounded fish which is the principal food The other part next the dore is the part occupied by the nativs who have beds raised on either Side, with a fire place in the center of this Space each house appeared to be occupied by about three families; that part which is apropriated for fish was crouded with that article, and a fiew baskets of burries—

I dispatched a Sufficent number of the good Swimers back for the 2 canoes above the last rapid and with 2 men walked down three miles to examine the river Over a bed of rocks, which the water at verry high fluds passes over, on those rocks

I Saw Several large Scaffols on which the Indians dry fish; as this is out of Season the poles on which they dry those fish are tied up verry Securely in large bundles and put upon the Scaffolds, I counted 107 Stacks of dried pounded fish in different places on those rocks which must have contained 10,000 w. of neet fish,

The evening being late I could not examine the river to my Satisfaction, the Chanel is narrow and compressed for about 2 miles, when it widens into a deep bason to the Stard. Side, & again contracts into a narrow chanel divided by a rock I returned through a rockey open countrey infested with pole-cats to the village where I met with Capt Lewis the two old Chiefs who accompanied us & the party & canoes who had all arrived Safe; the Canoes haveing taken in Some water at the last rapids. here we formed a Camp near the Village,

The principal Chief from the nation below with Several of his men visited us, and afforded a favourable oppertunity of bringing about a Piece and good understanding between this chief and his people and the two Chiefs who accompanied us which we have the Satisfaction to Say we have accomplished, as we have every reason to believe and that those two bands or nations are and will be on the most friendly terms with each other. gave this Great Chief a Medal and Some other articles, of which he was much pleased, Peter Crusat played on the violin and the men danced which delighted the nativs, who Shew every civility towards us. we Smoked with those people untill late at night, when every one retired to rest.

Lewis & Clark Map: 10/16/05 Klickitat County Native Americans USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

October 25
Clark: a cool morning

Capt Lewis and my Self walked down to See the place the Indians pointed out as the worst place in passing through the gut, which we found difficuelt of passing without great danger, but as the portage was impractiable with our large Canoes, we Concluded to Make a portage of our most valuable articles and run the canoes thro accordingly

on our return divided the party Some to take over the Canoes, and others to take our Stores across a portage of a mile to a place on the Chanel below this bad whorl & Suck, with Some others I had fixed on the Chanel with roapes to throw out to any who Should unfortunately meet with difficuelty in passing through; great number of Indians viewing us from the high rocks under which we had to pass,

the 3 first Canoes passed thro very well, the 4th nearly filled with water, the last passed through by takeing in a little water, thus Safely below what I conceved to be the worst part of this Chanel, felt my Self extreamly gratified and pleased. we loaded the Canoes & Set out, and had not proceeded, more than two mile before the unfortunate Canoe which filled crossing the bad place above, run against a rock and was in great danger of being lost,

This Chanel is through a hard rough black rock, from 50–100 yards wide. Swelling and boiling in a most tremendious maner Several places on which the Indians inform me they take the Salmon as fast as they wish;

we passed through a deep bason to the stard Side of 1 mile below which the River narrows and divided by a rock The Curent we found quit jentle, here we met with our two old Chiefs who had been to a village below to Smoke a friendly pipe, and at this place they met the Cheif & party from the village above on his return from hunting all of whome were then crossing over their horses,

we landed to Smoke a pipe with this Chief whome we found to be a bold pleasing looking man of about 50 years of age dressd. in a war jacket a cap Legins & mockersons. he gave us Some meat of which he had but little and informed us he in his rout met with a war party of Snake Indians from the great river of the S. E. which falls in a few miles above and had a fight. we gave this Chief a Medal, &c. a parting Smoke with our two faithful friends the Chiefs who accompanied us from the head of the river, (who had purchased a horse each with 2 robes and intended to return on horse back)

we proceeded on down the water fine, rocks in every derection for a fiew miles when the river widens and becoms a butifull jentle Stream of about half a mile wide, Great numbers of the Sea Orter about those narrows and both below and above.

we Came too, under a high point of rocks on the Lard. Side below a creek of 20 yards wide and much water, as it was necessary to make Some Selestial observations we formed our Camp on the top of a high point of rocks, which forms a kind of fortification in the Point between the river & Creek, with a boat guard, this Situation we Concieve well Calculated for defence, and Conveniant to hunt under the foots of the mountain to the West & S. W. where timber of different kinds grows, and appears to be handsom Coverts for the Deer, in oke woods,

ent out hunters to examine for game G. D. Killed a Small Deer & other Saw much Sign, I killed a goose in the creek which was verry fat— one of the guard saw a Drum fish to day as he Conceved our Situation well Calculated to defend our Selves from any designs of the natives, Should They be enclined to attack us.

This litle Creek heads in the range of mountains which run S S W & N W for a long distance on which is Scattering pine white Oake &c. The Pinical of the round toped mountain which we Saw a Short distance below the forks of this river is S. 43° W. of us and abt 37 miles, it is at this time toped with Snow The face of the Countrey, on both Side of the river above and about the falls, is Steep ruged and rockey open and contain but a Small preportion of erbage, no timber a fiew bushes excepted,

The nativs at the upper falls raft their timber down Towarnehooks River & those at the narrows take theirs up the river to the lower part of the narrows from this Creek, and Carry it over land 3 miles to their houses &c. at the mouth of this creek Saw Some beaver Sign, and a Small wolf in a Snare Set in the willows

Lewis & Clark Map: 10/16/05 Rok Fort Native Americans USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

October 26
Clark: A fine morning

Sent Six men out to hunt Deer, and Collect rozin to pitch the Canoes which has become verry leakey, by frequently hauling them over rocks &c as well Striking rocks frequently in passing down. all our articles we have exposed to the Sun to Dry; and the Canoes drawn out and turned up— maney of our Stores entirely Spoiled by being repeetedly wet;

A number of Indians came to the Oposit Side of the river in the fore part of the day and Shew that they were anxious to Cross to us, we did not think proper to cross them in our Canoes and did not Send for them. in the evening two Chiefs and 15 men came over in a Small Canoe, those two Chiefs proved to be the two Principal chiefs of the tribes above at the falls, and above, who was out hunting at the time we passed their bands; one of those Chiefs made Capt Lewis and my Self each a Small present of Deer meat, and Small Cakes of white bread made of roots. we gave to each Chief a Meadel of the Small Size a red Silk handkerchief, arm band, Knife & a piece of Paint, and acknowledged them as chiefs;

as we thought it necessary at this time to treat those people verry friendly & ingratiate our Selves with them, to insure us a kind & friendly reception on our return, we gave Small presents to Several, and half a Deer to them to eate. we had also a fire made for those people to Sit around in the middle of our Camp, and Peter Crusat played on the violin, which pleased those nativs exceedingly.

the two Chiefs and several men deturmined to delay all night (yorked Danced for the Inds) with us all the others returned, leaving the horses for those who Staied on the opposit Side.

our hunters returned in the evening Killed five Deer, four verry large grey Squirels and a grouse. one of the guard at the river guiged a Salmon Trout, which we had fried in a little Bears Oil which the Chief we passed below the narrows gave us: this I thought one of the most delicious fish I have ever tasted

Great numbers of white Crain flying in different Directions verry high— The river rose 8 Inches to day from what cause I cannot Say certainly, as the tides cannot effect the river here as there is a falls below, I conjecture that the rise is owing to the winds which has Set up the river for 24 hours past.

our hunters inform that the countrey back is broken, Stoney and thinly timbered with pine and White Oake. They Saw Elk & Bear Sign in the mountains.

Dried all our wet articles and repared our Canoes to day, and the Party amused themselves at night danceing. The Flees which the party got on them at the upper & great falls, are very troublesom and dificuelt to get rid of, perticularly as the me[n] have not a Change of Clothes to put on, they Strip off their Clothes and kill the flees, dureing which time they remained neckid.

The nations in the vicinity of this place is at War with the Snake Indians who they Say are noumerous and live on the river we passed above the falls on the Same Side on which we have encamped, and the nearest town is about four days march they pointed neary S. E. and informed that they had a battle with those Inds. laterly, their loss I could not assertain

Lewis & Clark Map: 10/16/05 Rok Fort Native Americans USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

October 27
Clark: Wind hard from the west all the last night and this morning.

Some words with Shabono our interpreter about his duty.

Sent out Several hunters who brought in four Deer, one Grouse & a Squirel.

The two Chiefs & party was joined by Seven others from below in two canoes, we gave them to eate & Smoke Several of those from below returned down the river in a bad humer, haveing got into this pet by being prevented doeing as they wished with our articles which was then exposed to dry—

we took a Vocabelary of the Languages of those two chiefs which are verry different notwithstanding they are Situated within Six miles of each other, Those at the great falls Call themslves E-nee-shur and are understood on the river above: Those at the Great Narrows Call themseles E-che-lute and is understood below, maney words of those people are the Same, and Common to all the flat head Bands which we have passed on the river, all have the clucking tone anexed which is prodomonate above. all the Bands flatten the heads of the female Children, and maney of the male children also.

Those two Chief leave us this evening and returned to their bands

the wind verry high & from the West, day proved fair and Cool.

Lewis & Clark Map: 10/16/05 Rok Fort Native Americans USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

October 28
Clark: A cool windey morning we loaded our Canoes and Set out at 9 oClock, a. m. as we were about to Set out 3 canoes from above and 2 from below came to view us in one of those Canoes I observed an Indian with round hat Jacket & wore his hair cued

we proceeded on river inclosed on each Side in high Clifts of about 90 feet of loose dark coloured rocks at four miles we landed at a village of 8 houses on the Stard. Side under Some rugid rocks,

Those people call themselves Chil-luckit-te-quaw, live in houses Similar to those described, Speake Somewhat different language with maney words the Same & understand those in their neighbourhood Cap Lewis took a vocabilary of this Language

I entered one of the houses in which I Saw a British musket, a cutlass and Several brass Tea kittles of which they appeared verry fond Saw them boiling fish in baskets with Stones, I also Saw figures of animals & men Cut & painted on boards in one Side of the house which they appeared to prize, but for what purpose I will not venter to Say,—.

here we purchased five Small Dogs, Some dried buries, & white bread made of roots,

the wind rose and we were obliged to lie by all day at 1 mile below on the Lard. Side. we had not been long on Shore before a Canoe came up with a man woman & 2 children, who had a fiew roots to Sell, Soon after maney others joined them from above, The wind which is the cause of our delay, does not retard the motions of those people at all, as their canoes are calculated to ride the highest waves, they are built of white cedar or Pine verry light wide in the middle and tapers at each end, with aperns, and heads of animals carved on the bow, which is generally raised. Those people make great use of Canoes, both for transpotation and fishing, they also use of bowls & baskets made of Grass & bark Splits to hold water and boil their fish & meat. Maney of the nativs of the last Village Came down Set and Smoke with us,

wind blew hard accompanied with rain all the evening, our Situation not a verry good one for an encampment, but Such as it is we are obliged to put up with, the harbor is a Safe one, we encamped on the Sand wet and disagreeable one Deer killed this evening, and another wounded near our Camp.

Lewis & Clark Map: 10/16/05 Wasco County, Oregon Native Americans USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

October 29
Clark: A cloudy morning wind from the West but not hard, we Set out at day light, and proceeded on about five miles Came too on the Stard. Side at a village of 7 houses built in the Same form and materials of those above, here we found the Chief we had Seen at the long narrows

we entered his lodge and he gave us to eate Pounded fish, bread made of roots, Filberts nuts, & the berries of Sackecomme . we gave to each woman of the lodge a brace of Ribon of which they were much pleased.

each of those houses may be calculated to contain 8 men and 30 Soles, they are hospitable and good humered Speak the Same language of the inhabitants of the last village, we call this the friendly village.

I observed in the lodge of the Chief Sundery articles which must have been precured from the white people, Such a Scarlet & blue Cloth Sword Jacket & hat. I also observed two wide Split boards with images on them Cut and painted in emitation of a man; I pointed to this image and asked a man to what use he put them to, he Said Something the only word I understood was "good," and then Steped to the image and took out his Bow & quiver to Show me, and Some other of his war emplemints, from behind it.

The Chief then directed his wife to hand him his medison bag which he opened and Showed us 14 fingers which he Said was the fingers of his enemies which he had taken in war, and pointed to S. E. from which direction I concluded they were Snake Indians; his is the first Instance I ever knew of the Indians takeing any other trofea of their exploits off the dead bodies of their Enimies except the Scalp.—

The Chief painted those fingers with Several other articles which was in his bag red and Securely put them back, haveing first mad a Short harrang which I Suppose was bragging of what he had done in war.

we purchased 12 Dogs and 4 Sacks of fish, & Some fiew ascid berries,

after brackfast we proceeded on, the mountains are high on each Side, containing Scattering pine white oake & under groth, hill Sides Steep and rockey; at 4 miles lower we observed a Small river falling in with great rapidity on the Stard. Side below which is a village of 11 houses, here we landed to Smoke a pipe with the nativs and examine the mouth of the river, which I found to be 60 yards wide rapid and deep,

The inhabitants of the village are friendly and Chearfull; those people inform us also those at the last village that this little river is long and full of falls, no Salmon pass up it, it runs from N. N. E. that ten nations live on this river and its waters, on buries, and what game that Can kill with their Bow & arrows we purchased 4 dogs and Set out— (this village is the of the Same nation of the one we last passed) and proceeded on

The Countrey on each side begin to be thicker timbered with Pine and low white Oake; verry rockey and broken. passed three large rocks in The river the middle rock is large long and has Several Squar vaults on it. we call this rockey Island the Sepulchar— The last river we passed we Shall Call the Cataract River from the number of falls which the Indians say is on it—

passed 2 Lodges of Indians a Short distance below the Sepulchar Island on the Stard. Side river wide, at 4 mile passed 2 houses on the Stard. Side, Six miles lower passed 4 houses above the mouth of a Small river 40 yards wide on the Lard. Side a thick timbered bottom above & back of those houses; those are the first houses which we have Seen on the South Side of the Columbia River, (and the axess to those dificuelt) for fear of the approach of their common enemies the Snake Indians,

passed 14 houses on the Std. Side Scattered on the bank— from the mouth of this little river which we shall Call Labeasche River,

Mount Hood is South and the top is covered with Snow.

one mile below pass the mouth of a large rapid Stream on the Stard. Side, opposit to a large Sand bar, in this creek the Indians above take their fish, here we Saw Several canoes, which induced us to call this Canoe Creek it is 28 yards wide, about 4 miles lower and below the Sand bar is a butifull cascade falling over a rock of about 100 feet,

a Short distance lower passed 4 Indian houses on the Lard. Side in a timbered bottom, a fiew miles further we came too at 3 houses on Stard. Side, back of which is a pond in which I Saw Great numbers of Small Swan, Capt. Lewis and I went into the houses of those people who appeared Somewhat Surprised at first Their houses are built on the Same Construction of those above, Speak the Same language and Dress in the Same way, robes of the Skins of wolves Deer, Elk, wild cat, or Loucirvia & fox, also Saw a mountain Sheap Skin the wool of which is long, thick, & corse with long corse hare on the top of the neck and back Something resembling bristles of a goat, the skin was of white hare, those animals these people inform me by Signs live in the mountains among the rocks, their horns are Small and Streight, Orter Skins are highly prised among those people as well as those on the river above,

They Cue their hare which is divided on each Sholder, and also ware Small Strips about their necks with the tale hanging down in front.— Those people gave us, High bush cram berries, bread made of roots, and roots; we purchased three dogs for the party to eate; we Smoked with the men, all muche pleased with the violin—.

Here the mountains are high on each Side, those to the Lard. Side has Some Snow on them at this time, more timber than above and of greater variety.

Lewis & Clark Map: 10/16/05 Skamania County, Washington Native Americans USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

October 30
Clark: A cool morning, a moderate rain all the last night, after eating a partial brackfast of venison we Set out passed Several places where the rocks projected into the river & have the appearance of haveing Seperated from the mountains and fallen promiscuisly into the river, Small nitches are formed in the banks below those projecting rocks which is comon in this part of the river,

Saw 4 Cascades caused by Small Streams falling from the mountains on the Lard. Side, a remarkable circumstance in this part of the river is, the Stumps of pine trees are in maney places are at Some distance in the river, and gives every appearance of the rivers being damed up below from Some cause which I am not at this time acquainted with, the Current of the river is also verry jentle not exceeding 1½ mile pr. hour and about ¾ of a mile in width.

Some rain, we landed above the mouth of a Small river on the Stard. Side and Dined J. Shields Killed a Buck & Labiech 3 Ducks,

here the river widens to about one mile large Sand bar in the middle, a Great [rock] both in and out of the water, large Stones, or rocks are also permiscuisly Scattered about in the river, this day we Saw Some fiew of the large Buzzard Capt. Lewis Shot at one, those Buzzards are much larger than any other of ther Spece or the largest Eagle white under part of their wings &c.

The bottoms above the mouth of this little river is rich covered with grass & firn & is about ¾ of a mile wide rich and rises gradually, below the river (which is 60 yards wide above its mouth) the Countery rises with Steep assent. we call this little river New Timbered river from a Speces of Ash which grows on its banks of a verry large and different from any we had before Seen, and a timber resembling the beech in bark but different in its leaf which is Smaller and the tree smaller. passed maney large rocks in the river and a large creek on the Stard. Side in the mouth of which is an Island,

passed on the right of 3 Islands near the Stard. Side, and landed on an Island close under the Stard. Side at the head of the great Shute, and a little below a village of 8 large houses on a Deep bend on the Stard. Side, and opposit 2 Small Islands imediately in the head of the Shute, which Islands are covered with Pine, maney large rocks also, in the head of the Shute. Ponds back of the houses, and Countrey low for a Short distance.

The day proved Cloudy dark and disagreeable with Some rain all day which kept us wet. The Countary a high mountain on each Side thickly Covered with timber, Such as Spruc, Pine, Cedar, Oake Cotton &c. &c.

I took two men and walked down three miles to examine the Shute and river below proceeded along an old Indian path, passd. an old village at 1 mile on an ellevated Situation of this village contained verry large houses built in a different form from any I had Seen, and laterly abandoned, and the most of the boads put into a pond of water near the village, as I conceived to drown the flees, which was emencely noumerous about the houses—.

I found by examonation that we must make a portage of the greater perpotion of our Stores 2½ miles, and the Canoes we Could haul over the rocks,

I returned at Dark Capt Lewis and 5 men had just returned from the village, Cap L. informed me that he found the nativs kind, they gave him berries, nuts & fish to eate; but he could get nothing from them in the way of information. The greater part of the inhabitants of this village being absent down the river Some distance Colecting roots Capt. L. Saw one gun and Several articles which must have been precured from the white people. a wet

disagreeable evening, the only wood we could get to burn on this little Island on which we have encamped is the newly discovered Ash, which makes a tolerable fire. we made fifteen miles to daye.

Lewis & Clark Map: 10/16/05 Skamania County, Washington Native Americans USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

October 31
Clark: A Cloudy rainey disagreeable morning

I proceeded down the river to view with more attention the rapids we had to pass on the river below, the two men with me Jo. Fields & Peter Crusat proceeded down to examine the rapids the Great Shute which commenced at the Island on which we encamped Continud with great rapidity and force thro a narrow chanel much compressd. and interspersed with large rocks for ½ a mile, at a mile lower is a verry Considerable rapid at which place the waves are remarkably high, and proceeded on in a old Indian parth 2½ miles by land thro a thick wood & hill Side, to the river where the Indians make a portage, from this place

I dispatched Peter Crusat (our principal waterman) back to follow the river and examine the practibility of the Canoes passing, as the rapids appeared to continue down below as far as I could See,

I with Jo. Fields proceeded on, at ½ a mile below the end of the portage passed a house where there had been an old town for ages past as this house was old Decayed and a plac of flees I did not enter it,

about ½ a mile below this house in a verry thick part of the woods is 8 vaults which appeared Closely Covered and highly deckerated with orniments. Those vaults are all nearly the Same Sise and form 8 feet Square, 5 feet high, Slopes a little So as to convey off the rain made of Pine or Cedar boards Closely Connected & Scurely Covered with wide boards, with a Dore left in The East Side which is partially Stoped with wide boards curiously engraved. In Several of those vaults the dead bodies wre raped up verry Securely in Skins tied around with cords of grass & bark, laid on a mat, all east & west and Some of those vaults had as maney as 4 bodies laying on he Side of each other.

the other Vaults Containing bones only, Some contained bones for the debth of 4 feet. on the tops and on poles attached to those vaults hung Brass kittles & frying pans pearced thro their bottoms, baskets, bowls of wood, Sea Shels, Skins, bits of Cloth, Hair, bags of Trinkets & Small peices of bone &c and independant of the curious ingraveing and Paintings on the boards which formed the vaults

I observed Several wooden Images, cut in the figure of men and Set up on the Sides of the vaults all round. Some of those So old and worn by time, that they were nearly out of Shape, I also observed the remains of Vaults rotted entirely into the ground and covered with moss. This must bee the burrying place for maney ages for the inhabitants of those rapids, the vaults are of the most lasting timber Pine & Cedar—

I cannot Say certainly that those nativs worship those wooden idols as I have every reason to believe they do not; as they are Set up in the most conspicious parts of their houses, and treated more like orniments than objects of aderation.

at 2 miles lower & 5 below our Camp I passed a village of 4 large houses abandend by the nativs, with their dores bared up, I looked into those houses and observed as much property as is usial in the houses of those people which induced me to conclude that they wre at no great distance, either hunting or Colecting roots, to add to their winter Subsistance.

from a Short distance below the vaults the mountain which is but low on the Stard. Side leave the river, and a leavel Stoney open bottom Suckceeds on the Said Std. Side for a great Distance down, the mountains high and rugid on the Lard Side this open bottom is about 2 miles a Short distance below this village is a bad Stoney rapid and appears to be the last in view

I observed at this lower rapid the remains of a large and antient Village which I could plainly trace by the Sinks in which they had formed their houses, as also those in which they had buried their fish—

from this rapid to the lower end of the portage the river is Crouded with rocks of various Sizes between which the water passes with great velociety createing in many places large Waves, an Island which is Situated near the Lard. Side occupies about half the distance the lower point of which is at this rapid. immediately below this rapid the high water passes through a narrow Chanel through the Stard. Bottom forming an Island of 3 miles Long & one wide,

I walked through this Island which I found to be verry rich land, and had every appearance of haveing been at Some distant period Cultivated. at this time it is Covered with grass intersperced with Strawberry vines. I observed Several places on this Island where the nativs had dug for roots and from its lower point I observed 5 Indians in a Canoe below the upper point of an Island near the middle of the river Covered with tall timber, which indued me to believe that a village was at no great distanc below,

I could not See any rapids below in the extent of my view which was for a long distance down the river, which from the last rapids widened and had everry appearance of being effected by the tide,—

I deturmind to return to Camp 10 miles distant,

a remarkable high detached rock Stands in a bottom on the Stard Side near the lower point of this Island on the Stard. Side about 800 feet high and 400 paces around, we call the Beacon rock. a Brook falls into the narrow Chanel which forms the Strawberry Island, which at this time has no running water, but has every appearance of dischargeing emence torrents &c. &c. Jo. Fields Shot a Sand hill Crane.

I returned by the Same rout on an Indian parth passing up on the N W. Side of the river to our Camp at the Great Shute. found Several Indians from the village, I Smoked with them; Soon after my return two Canoes loaded with fish & Bear grass for the trade below, came down from the village at the mouth of the Catterack River, they unloaded and turned their Canoes up Side down on the beech, & camped under a Shelveing rock below our Camp

one of the men Shot a goose above this Great Shute, which was floating into the Shute when an Indian observed it, plunged into the water & Swam to the Goose and brought in on Shore, at the head of the Suck, as this Indian richly earned the goose I Suffered him to keep it which he about half picked and Spited it up with the guts in it to roste.

This Great Shute or falls is about ½ a mile with the water of this great river Compressed within the Space of 150 paces in which there is great numbers of both large and Small rocks, water passing with great velocity forming & boiling in a most horriable manner, with a fall of about 20 feet, below it widens to about 200 paces and current gentle for a Short distance. a Short distance above is three Small rockey Islands, and at the head of those falls, three Small rockey Islands are Situated Crosswise the river,

Several rocks above in the river & 4 large rocks in the head of the Shute; those obstructions together with the high Stones which are continually brakeing loose from the mountain on the Stard Side and roleing down into the Shute aded to those which brake loose from those Islands above and lodge in the Shute, must be the Cause of the rivers daming up to Such a distance above, where it Shows Such evidant marks of the Common current of the river being much lower than at the present day

Lewis & Clark Map: 10/16/05 Skamania County, Washington Native Americans USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

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This guide last edited 12/17/2005
This guide last revised 05/19/2008
This guide created 09/25/2005