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Journals: November, 1805

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Meriwether Lewis, William Clark
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November 1
Clark: A verry Cool morning wind hard from the N. E. The Indians who arrived last evining took their Canoes on ther Sholders and Carried them below the Great Shute,

we Set about takeing our Small Canoe and all the baggage by land 940 yards of bad Slippery and rockey way The Indians we discoverd took ther loading the whole length of the portage 2½ miles, to avoid a Second Shute which appears verry bad to pass, and thro' which they passed with their empty canoes.

Great numbers of Sea Otters, they are So cautious that I with dificuelty got a Shot at one to day, which I must have killed, but could not get him as he Sunk

we got all our baggage over the Portage of 940 yards, after which we got the 4 large Canoes over by Slipping them over the rocks on poles placed across from one rock to another, and at Some places along partial Streams of the river. in passing those canoes over the rocks. three of them recived injuries which obliged us to delay to have them repared.

Several Indian Canoes arrived at the head of the portage, Some of the men accompanied by those from the village came down to Smoke with us, they appear to Speak the Same language with a little different axcent

I visited the Indian Village found that the Construction of the houses Similar to those abov described, with this difference only that they are larger Say from 35 to 50 feet by 30 feet, raised about 5 feet above the earth, and nearly as much below The Dores in the Same form and Size cut in the wide post which Supports one end of the ridge pole and which is carved and painted with different figures & Hieroglyphics Those people gave me to eate nuts berries & a little dried fish, and Sold me a hat of ther own taste without a brim, and baskets in which they hold their water—

Their beads are raised about 4 ½ feet, under which they Store away their dried fish, between the part on which they lie and the back wall they Store away their roots burries nuts and valuable articles on mats, which are Spread also around the fire place which is Sunk about one foot lower than the bottom flore of the house, this fire place is about 8 feet long and Six feet wide Secured with a fraim those houses are calculated for 4, 5 & 6 families, each familey haveing a nice painted ladder to assend up to their beads.

I Saw in those houses Several wooden Images all cut in imitation of men, but differently fasioned and placed in the most conspicious parts of the houses, probably as an orniment

I cannot lern certainly as to the traffick those Inds. carry on below, if white people or the indians who trade with the Whites who are either Settled or visit the mouth of this river. I believe mostly with the latter as their knowledge of the white people appears to be verry imperfect, and the articles which they appear to trade mostly i e' Pounded fish, Beargrass, and roots; cannot be an object of comerce with furin merchants— however they git in return for those articles Blue and white beeds copper Tea Kittles, brass arm bands, some Scarlet and blue robes and a fiew articles of old clothes,

they prefer beeds to any thing and will part with the last mouthfull or articles of clothing they have for a fiew of those beeds, those beeds the trafick with Indians Still higher up this river for roabs, Skins, cha-pel-el bread, beargrass. who in their turn trafick with those under the rockey mountains for Beargrass, Pashico roots & robes.

The nativs of the waters of the Columbia appear helthy, Some have tumers on different parts of their bodies, and Sore and weak Eyes are common, maney have lost their Sight entirely great numbers with one eye out and frequently the other verry weak; This misfortune I must again asscribe to the water. They have bad teeth, which is not common with indians, maney have worn their teeth down and Some quite into their gums,

this I cannot Satisfactorily account for it, do ascribe it in some measure to their method of eateing, their food, roots pertiularly, which they make use of as they are taken out of the earth frequently nearly covered with Sand, I have not Seen any of their long roots offered for Sale clear of Sand.

They are rether below the Common Size high cheeks womin Small and homely, and have Swelled legs and thighs, and their knees remarkably large which I ascribe to the method in which they Sit on their hams—go nearly necked wareing only a piece of leather tied about their breast which falls down nearly as low as the waste, a Small roabe about 3 feet Square, and a piece of leather tied about their breach, They have all flat heads in this quarter They are tirty in the extream, both in their person and cooking, ware their hare loose hanging in every direction. They asc high prices for what they Sell and Say that the white people below give great prices for every thing.

The noses are all pierced and when they are dressed they have a long tapered piece of white shell or wampum put through the nose. Those Shells are about 2 inches in length. I observed in maney of the villeages which I have passed, the heads of the female children in the press for the purpose of compressing their heads in their infancy into a certain form, between two boards

Lewis & Clark Map: 10/16/05 Skamania County, Washington Native Americans USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

November 2
Clark: Examined the rapid below us more pertcelarly the danger appearing too great to Hazzard our Canoes loaded, dispatched all the men who could not Swim with loads to the end of the portage below, I also walked to the end of the portage with the carriers where I delayed untill everry articles was brought over and canoes arrived Safe. here we brackfast and took a Meridn. altitude 59° 45' 45"

about the time we were Setting out 7 Squars came over loaded with Dried fish, and bear grass neetly bundled up, Soon after 4 Indian men came down over the rapid in a large canoe.

passed a rapid at 2 miles & 1 at 4 miles opposite the lower point of a high Island on the Lard Side, and a little below 4 Houses on the Stard. Bank, a Small Creek on the Lard Side opposit Straw berry Island, which heads below the last rapid, opposit the lower point of this Island passed three Islands covered with tall timber opposit the Beacon rock Those Islands are nearest the Starboard Side,

imediately below on the Stard. Side passed a village of nine houses, which is Situated between 2 Small Creeks, and are of the Same construction of those above;

here the river widens to near a mile, and the bottoms are more extensive and thickly timbered, as also the high mountains on each Side, with Pine, Spruce pine, Cotton wood, a Species of ash, and alder.

at 17 miles passed a rock near the middle of the river, about 100 feet high and 80 feet Diamuter, proceed on down a Smoth gentle Stream of about 2 miles wide, in which the tide has its effect as high as the Beacon rock or the Last rapids at Strawberry Island,—

Saw great numbers of waterfowl of Different kinds, Such as Swan, Geese, white & grey brants, ducks of various kinds, Guls, & Pleaver. Labeach killed 14 brant Joseph Fields 3 & Collins one.

we encamped under a high projecting rock on the Lard. Side, here the mountains leave the river on each Side, which from the great Shute to this place is high and rugid; thickly Covered with timber principalley of the Pine Species. The bottoms below appear extensive and thickly Covered with wood. river here about 2½ miles wide.

Seven Indians in a Canoe on their way down to trade with the nativs below, encamp with us, those we left at the portage passed us this evening and proceeded on down The ebb tide rose here about 9 Inches, the flood tide must rise here much higher— we made 29 miles to day from the Great Shute

Lewis & Clark Map: 10/16/05 Multnomah County, Washington Native Americans USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

November 3
Clark: The Fog So thick this morning that we could not See a man 50 Steps off, this fog detained us untill 10 oClock at which time we Set out, accompanied by our Indian friends who are from a village near the great falls,

previous to our Setting out Collins killed a large Buck, and Labiech killed 3 Geese flying.

I walked on the Sand beech Lard. Side, opposit the canoes as they passed allong. The under groth rushes, vines. in the bottoms too thick to pass through, at 3 miles I arrived at the enterance of a river which appeared to Scatter over a Sand bar, the bottom of which I could See quite across and did not appear to be 4 Inches deep in any part; I attempted to wade this Stream and to my astonishment found the bottom a quick Sand, and impassable— I called to the Canoes to put to Shore, I got into the Canoe and landed below the mouth,

Capt Lewis and my Self walked up this river about 1½ miles to examine this river The Quick Sand river appears to pass through the low countrey at the foot of those high range of mountains in a Southerly direction,— The large Creeks which fall into the Columbia on the Stard. Side rise in the Same range of mountains to the N. N. E. and pass through Some ridgey land—

A Mountain which we Suppose to be Mt. Hood is S. 85° E about 47 miles distant from the mouth of quick sand river This mtn. is Covered with Snow and in the range of mountains which we have passed through and is of a Conical form but rugid—

after takeing dinner at the mouth of this river we proceeded on Some rugid rocks in the middle of the Stream Center of a large Island in the middle of the river which we call Dimond Isld. from its appearance, here we met 15 Indn men in 2 canoes from below, they informed us they Saw 3 vestles below.. we landed on the North Side of this Dimond Island and Encamped,

Capt. L walked out with his gun on the Island, Sent out hunters & fowlers— below quick Sand River the Countrey is low rich and thickly timbered on each Side of the river, the Islands open & Some ponds river wide and emence numbers of fowls flying in every direction Such as Swan, geese, Brants, Cranes, Storks] white guls, comerants & plevers. also great numbers of Sea Otter in the river—

a Canoe arrived from the village below the last rapid with a man his wife and 3 children, and a woman whome had been taken prisoner from the Snake Inds. I Sent the Interpreters wife who is a So So ne or Snake Indian of the Missouri, to Speake to this Squar, they Could not understand each other Sufficiently to Converse.

This familey and the Inds. we met from below continued with us Capt Lewis borrowed a Small Canoe of those Indians & 4 men took her across to a Small lake in the Isld. Capt. L.. and 3 men Set out after night in this Canoe in Serch of the Swans, Brants Ducks.. which appeared in great numbers in the Lake, he Killed a Swan and Several Ducks which made our number of fowls this evening 3 Swan, 8 brant and 5 Ducks, on which we made a Sumptious Supper.

We gave the Indian—who lent the Canoe a brant, and Some meat to the others. one of those Indians, the man from the village near the lower Rapids has a gun with a brass barrel & Cock of which he prises highly—

note the mountain we Saw from near the forks proves to be Mt. Hood

Lewis & Clark Map: 10/16/05 Government Island Native Americans USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

November 4
Clark: A cloudy cool morning wind from the West we Set out at ½ past 8 oClock,

one man Shannon Set out early to walk on the Island to kill Something, he joined us at the lower point with a Buck.

This island is 6 miles long and near 3 miles wide thinly timbered (Tide rose last night 18 inches perpndicular at Camp) near the lower point of this diamond Island is The head of a large Island Seperated from a Small one by a narrow chanel, and both Situated nearest the Lard Side, those Islands as also the bottoms are thickly Covered with Pine. river wide, Country low on both Sides;

on the Main Lard Shore a Short distance below the last Island we landed at a village of 25 Houses: 24 of those houses were thached with Straw, and covered with bark, the other house is built of boards in the form of those above, except that it is above ground and about 50 feet in length and covered with broad Split boards This village contains about 200 men of the Skil-loot nation I counted 52 canoes on the bank in front of this village maney of them verry large and raised in bow.

[The village was within present Portland, Oregon, and was probably destroyed by the construction of the city's airport.]

we recognised the man who over took us last night, he invited us to a lodge in which he had Some part and gave us a roundish roots about the Size of a Small Irish potato which they roasted in the embers until they became Soft, This root they call Wap-pa-to which the Bulb of the Chinese cultivate in great quantities called the Sa-git ti folia or common arrow head—.it has an agreeable taste and answers verry well in place of bread. we purchased about 4 bushels of this root and divided it to our party,

at 7 miles below this village passed the upper point of a large Island nearest the Lard Side, a Small Prarie in which there is a pond opposit on the Stard.

[Present-day Vancouver Lake, Clark County, Washington.]

here I landed and walked on Shore, about 3 miles a fine open Prarie for about 1 mile, back of which the countrey rises gradually and wood land comencies Such as white oake, pine of different kinds, wild crabs with the taste and flavour of the common crab and Several Species of undergroth of which I am not acquainted, a few Cottonwood trees & the Ash of this countrey grow Scattered on the river bank, Saw Some Elk and Deer Sign and joined Capt. Lewis at a place he had landed with the party for Diner.

Soon after Several Canoes of Indians from the village above came down dressed for the purpose as I Supposed of Paying us a friendly visit, they had Scarlet & blue blankets Salors jackets, overalls, Shirts and Hats independant of their Usial dress; the most of them had either war axes Spears or Bows Sprung with quivers of arrows, Muskets or pistols, and tin flasks to hold their powder; Those fellows we found assumeing and disagreeable, however we Smoked with them and treated them with every attention & friendship.

dureing the time we were at dinner those fellows Stold my pipe Tomahawk which They were Smoking with, I imediately Serched every man and the canoes, but Could find nothing of my Tomahawk, while Serching for the Tomahawk one of those Scoundals Stole a Cappoe [coat] of one of our interpreters, which was found Stufed under the root of a treer, near the place they Sat, we became much displeased with those fellows, which they discovered and moved off on their return home to their village, except 2 canoes which had passed on down—

we proceeded on met a large & a Small Canoe from below, with 12 men the large Canoe was ornimented with Images carved in wood the figures of man & a Bear in front & a man in Stern, Painted & fixed verry netely on the bow & Stern of the Canoe, rising to near the hight of a man two Indians verry finely Dressed & with hats on was in this canoe

passed the lower point of the Island which is nine miles in length haveing passed 2 Islands on the Stard Side of this large Island, three Small Islands at its lower point. the Indians make Signs that a village is Situated back of those Islands on the Lard. Side

passed a village of four large houseson The Lard. Side, near which we had a full view of Mt. Helien which is perhaps the highest pinical in America from their base it bears N. 25° E about 90 miles— Covered with Snow, it rises Something in the form of a Sugar lofe—

about a mile lower passed a Single house on the Lard. Side, and one on the Stard. Side, passed a village on each Side and Camped near a house on the Stard. Side we proceeded on untill one hour after dark with a view to get clear of the nativs who was constantly about us, and troublesom, finding that we could not get Shut of those people for one night, we landed and Encamped on the Stard. Side Soon after 2 canoes Came to us loaded with Indians, we purchased a fiew roots of them.

This evening we Saw vines much resembling the raspberry which is verry thick in the bottoms. A range of high hills at about 5 miles on the Lard Side which runs S. E. & N W. Covered with tall timber the bottoms below in this range of hills and the river is rich and leavel, Saw White geese with a part of their wings black. The river here is 1½ miles wide, and current jentle. opposite to our camp on a Small Sandy Island the brant & geese make Such a noise that it will be impossible for me to Sleap. we made 29 miles to day

Killed a Deer and Several brant and ducks. I Saw a Brarow tamed at the 1st village to day The Indians which we have passd to day of the Scil-loot nation in their language from those near & about the long narrows of the Che-luc-it-te-quar or E-chee-lute, their dress differ but little, except they have more of the articles precured from the white traders, they all have flatened heads both men and women, live principally on fish and Wap pa toe roots, they also kill Some fiew Elk and Deer, dureing the Short time I remained in their village they brought in three Deer which they had killed with their Bow & arrows. They are thievishly inclinded as we have experienced.

Lewis & Clark Map: 10/16/05 Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge Native Americans USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

November 5
Clark: Rained all the after part of last night, rain continues this morning, I slept but verry little last night for the noise Kept dureing the whole of the night by the Swans, Geese, white & Grey Brant Ducks. on a Small Sand Island close under the Lard. Side; they were emensely noumerous, and their noise horid—

we Set out at about Sun rise early

here the river is not more than ¾ of a mile in width, passed a Small Prarie on the Stard. Side passed 2 houses about ½ a mile from each other on the Lard. Side a Canoe came from the upper house, with 3 men in its mearly to view us, passed an Isld. Covered with tall trees & green briers Seperated from the Stard. Shore by a narrow Chanel at 9 miles

I observed on the Chanel which passes on the Stard Side of this Island a Short distance above its lower point is Situated a large village, the front of which occupies nearly ¼ of a mile fronting the Chanel, and closely Connected, I counted 14 houses in front here the river widens to about 1½ miles.

Seven canoes of Indians came out from this large village to view and trade with us, they appeared orderly and well disposed, they accompanied us a fiew miles and returned back. about 1½ miles below this village on the Lard Side behind a rockey Sharp point, we passed a Chanel ¼ of a mile wide, which I take to be the one the Indian Canoe entered yesterday from the lower point of Immage Canoe Island

Some low clifts of rocks below this Chanel, a large Island Close under the Stard Side opposit, and 2 Small Islands, below, here we met 2 canoes from below,—

below those Islands a range of high hills form the Stard. Bank of the river, the Shore bold and rockey, Covered with a thick groth of Pine an extensive low Island, Seperated from the Lard side by a narrow Chanel, on this Island we Stoped to Dine I walked out found it open & covered with Small grass interspersed with Small ponds, in which was great numbr. of foul, the remains of an old village on the lower part of this Island, I saw Several deer

our hunters killed on this Island a Swan, 4 white 6 Grey brant & 2 Ducks

below the lower point of this Island a range of high hills which runs S. E. forms the Lard. bank of the river the Shores bold and rockey & hills Covered with pine, The high hills leave the river on the Stard. Side a high bottom between the hill & river.

We met 4 Canoes of Indians from below, in which there is 26 Indians, one of those Canoes is large, and ornimented with Images on the bow & Stern. That in the Bow the likeness of a Bear, and in Stern the picture of a man—

we landed on the Lard. Side & camped a little below the mouth of a creek on the Stard. Side a little below the mouth of which is an Old Village which is now abandaned—;

here the river is about one and a half miles wide. and deep, The high Hills which run in a N W. & S E. derection form both banks of the river the Shore boald and rockey, the hills rise gradually & are Covered with a thick groth of pine. The valley which is from above the mouth of Quick Sand River to this place may be computed at 60 miles wide on a Derect line, & extends a great Distanc to the right & left rich thickly Covered with tall timber, with a fiew Small Praries bordering on the river and on the Islands; Some fiew Standing Ponds & Several Small Streams of running water on either Side of the river; This is certainly a fertill and a handsom valley, at this time Crouded with Indians.

The day proved Cloudy with rain the greater part of it, we are all wet cold and disagreeable— I saw but little appearance of frost in this valley which we call Wap-pa-too Columbia from the root or plants growing Spontaniously in this valley only

In my walk of to Day I saw 17 Striped Snakes I killed a grouse which was verry fat, and larger than Common.

This is the first night which we have been entirely clear of Indians Since our arrival on the waters of the Columbia River. We made 32 miles to day by estimation—

Lewis & Clark Map: 10/16/05 Native Americans USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

November 6
Clark: A cool wet raney morning

we Set out early at 4 miles pass 2 Lodges of Indians in a Small bottom on the Lard Side I believe those Indians to be travelers.

opposit is the head of a long narrow Island close under the Starboard Side, back of this Island two Creeks fall in about 6 miles apart, 150 yds wide— 9 miles lower a large creek Same Side and appear to head in the high hilley countrey to the N. E. opposit this long Island is 2 others one Small and about the middle of the river the other larger and nearly opposit its lower point, and opposit a high clift of Black rocks on the Lard. Side at 14 miles

here the Indians of the 2 Lodges we passed to day came in their canoes with Sundery articles to Sell, we purchased of them Wap-pa-too roots, Salmon trout, and I purchased 2 beaver Skins for which I gave 5 Small fish hooks.

here the hills leave the river on the Lard. Side, a butifull open and extensive bottom in which there is an old Village, one also on the Stard. Side a little above both of which are abandened by all their inhabitents except Two Small dogs nearly Starved, and an unreasonable portion of flees—

The Hills and mountains are covered with Sever kinds of Pine—Arber Vitea or white Cedar, red Loril, alder and Several Species of under groth, the bottoms have common rushes, nettles, & grass the Slashey parts have Bull rushes & flags— Some willow on the waters edge,

we over took two Canoes of Indians going down to trade one of the Indians Spoke a fiew words of english and Said that the principal man who traded with them was Mr. Haley, and that he had a woman in his Canoe who Mr. Haley was fond of. he Showed us a Bow of Iron and Several other things which he Said Mr. Haley gave him.

we came too to Dine on the long narrow Island found the woods So thick with under groth that the hunters could not get any distance into the Isld. the red wood, and Green bryors interwoven, and mixed with pine, alder, a Specis of Beech, ash. we killed nothing to day

The Indians leave us in the evening, river about one mile wide hills high and Steep on the Std. no place for several Miles suffcently large and leavil for our camp we at length Landed at a place which by moveing the Stones we made a place Sufficently large for the party to lie leavil on the Smaller Stones Clear of the Tide

Cloudy with rain all day we are all wet and disagreeable, had large fires made on the Stone and dried our bedding and Kill the flees, which collected in our blankets at every old village we encamped near

I had like to have forgotten a verry remarkable Knob riseing from the edge of the water to about 80 feet high, and about 200 paces around at its Base and Situated on the long narrow Island above and nearly opposit to the 2 Lodges we passed to day, it is Some distance from the high land & in a low part of the Island

Lewis & Clark Map: 10/16/05 Native Americans USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

November 7
Clark: A cloudy foggey morning Some rain.

we Set out early proceeded under the Stard Shore under a high rugid hills with Steep assent the Shore boalt and rockey, the fog So thick we could not See across the river, two Canos of Indians met and returned with us to their village which is Situated on the Stard Side behind a cluster of Marshey Islands, on a narrow chanl. of the river through which we passed to the Village of 4 Houses, they gave us to eate Some fish, and Sold us, fish. Wap pa to roots three dogs and 2 otter Skins for which we gave fish hooks principally of which they were verry fond.

Those people call themselves War-ci-â-cum and Speake a language different from the nativs above with whome they trade for the Wapato roots of which they make great use of as food.

[These people were the Wahkiakums, a Chinookan group who lived along the Columbia River in Wahkiakum County, from Grays Bay upsteam to the vicinity of Oak Point. Their name comes from Chinookan wáqaiqam or qáiqamix, "region downriver. Clark observed that the langage of the Wahkiakums was different from that of the Chinookan peoples upriver. The Wahkiakums, and the neighboring Cathlamets across the river, spoke a dialect known as Kathlamet. Kathlamet is similar to the dialects spoken by other Chinookan peoples farther upriver, and all of these dialects are commonly grouped together as the Upper Chinook language. Clark's observation, however, is in accord with the recently proposed idea that Kathlamet had sufficiently different pronunciation, grammar, and lexical items for it to be considered a third language, standing between Lower and Upper Chinook, for which the name Middle Chinook has been suggested.]

their houses differently built, raised entirely above ground eaves about 5 feet from the ground Supported and covered in the same way of those above, dores about the Same size but in the Side of the house in one Corner, one fire place and that near the opposit end; around which they have their beads raised about 4 feet from the flore which is of earth, under their beads they Store away baskets of dried fish Berries & wappato, over the fire they hang the flesh as they take them and which they do not make immediate use. Their Canoes are of the Same form of those above. The Dress of the men differ verry little from those above, The womin altogether different, their robes are Smaller only Covering their Sholders & falling down to near the hip— and Sometimes when it is Cold a piec of fur curiously plated and connected So as to meet around the body from the arms to the hips—

Their peticoats are of the bark of the white Cedar "The garment which occupies the waist and thence as low as the knee before and mid leg behind, cannot properly be called a petticoat, in the common acception of the word; it is a Tissue formed of white Cedar bark bruised or broken into Small Strans, which are interwoven in their center by means of Several cords of the Same materials which Serves as well for a girdle as to hold in place the Strans of bark which forms the tissue, and which Strans, Confined in the middle, hand with their ends pendulous from the waiste, the whole being of Suffcent thickness when the female Stands erect to conceal those parts useally covered from familiar view, but when she stoops or places herself in any other attitudes this battery of Venus is not altogether impervious to the penetrating eye of the amorite. This tissue is Sometims formed of little Strings of the Silk grass twisted and knoted at their ends".

Those Indians are low and ill Shaped all flat heads

after delaying at this village one hour and a half we Set out piloted by an Indian dressed in a Salors dress, to the main Chanel of the river, the tide being in we Should have found much dificuelty in passing into the main Chanel from behind those islands, without a pilot,

a large marshey Island near the middle of the river near which Several Canoes Came allong Side with Skins, roots fish. to Sell, and had a temporey residence on this Island, here we See great numbers of water fowls about those marshey Islands; here the high mountanious Countrey approaches the river on the Lard Side, a high mountn. to the S W. about 20 miles, the high mountans. Countrey Continue on the Stard Side, about 14 miles below the last village and 18 miles of this day we landed at a village of the Same nation.

This village is at the foot of the high hills on the Stard Side back of 2 Small Islands it contains 7 indifferent houses built in the Same form of those above, here we purchased a Dog Some fish, wappato roots and I purchased 2 beaver Skins for the purpose of makeing me a roab, as the robe I have is rotten and good for nothing.

opposit to this Village the high mountaneous Countrey leave the river on the Lard Side below which the river widens into a kind of Bay & is Crouded with low Islands Subject to be Covered by the tides—

we proceeded on about 12 miles below the Village under a high mountaneous Countrey on the Stard. Side. Shore boald and rockey and Encamped under a high hill on the Stard. Side opposit to a rock Situated half a mile from the Shore, about 50 feet high and 20 feet Diamieter,

[They were opposite Pillar Rock, between Brookfield and Dahlia and west of Jim Crow Point in Wahkiakum County. Its height varies with the tide but may have risen seventy to one hundred feet above the water before the top was removed in later years for the installation of light and navigational aids.]

we with dificuelty found a place Clear of the tide and Sufficiently large to lie on and the only place we could get was on round Stones on which we lay our mats

rain Continud. moderately all day & Two Indians accompanied us from the last village, they we detected in Stealing a knife and returned,

our Small Canoe which got Seperated in the fog this morning joined us this evening from a large Island Situated nearest the Lard Side below the high hills on that Side, the river being too wide to See either the form Shape or Size of the Islands on the Lard Side.

Great joy in camp we are in View of the Ocian this great Pacific Octean which we been So long anxious to See. and the roreing or noise made by the waves brakeing on the rockey Shores (as I Suppose) may be heard distictly

[Clark is in error. They were actually looking at the Columbia estuary just upstream of Pillar Rock, still more than 20 miles away from the ocean.]

we made 34 miles to day as Computed

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Native Americans Wahkiakum County USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska History Link

November 8
Clark: A Cloudy morning Some rain, we did not Set out untill 9 oClock, haveing Changed our Clothing—

proceeded on Close under the Stard. Side, the hills high with Steep assent, Shore boald and rockey Several low Islands in a Deep bend or Bay to the Lard Side, river about 5 or 7 miles wide.

[Cathlamet Bay, in Clatsop County, Oregon, east of Tongue Point.]

three Indians in a Canoe overtook us, with Salmon to Sell, passed 2 old villages on the Stard. Side and at 3 miles entered a nitch of about 6 miles wide and 5 miles deep with Several Creeks makeing into the Stard Hills, this nitch we found verry Shallow water and Call it the Shallow

[Grays Bay, in Pacific and Wahkiakum counties, WA. Named after Robert Gray, first known Euro-American to enter the Columbia estuary in 1792. A concentration of Wahkiakum villages occurred along the shores of Grays Bay, with other settlements extending up Grays River and Deep River into the interior. Work at an archaeological site on Grays River recovered evidence of occupation dated between 2,000 and 2,700 year ago]

we came too at the remains of an old village at the bottom of this nitch and dined, here we Saw great numbers of fowl, Sent out 2 men and they killed a Goose and two Canves back Ducks here we found great numbers of flees which we treated with the greatest caution and distance;

after Diner the Indians left us and we took the advantage of a returning tide and proceeded on to the Second point on the Std. here we found the Swells or waves So high that we thought it imprudent to proceed; we landed unloaded and drew up our Canoes. Some rain all day at intervales; we are all wet and disagreeable,

as we have been for Several days past, and our present Situation a verry disagreeable one in as much; as we have not leavel land Sufficient for an encampment and for our baggage to lie Cleare of the tide, the High hills jutting in So Close and Steep that we cannot retreat back, and the water of the river too Salt to be used, added to this the waves are increasing to Such a hight that we cannot move from this place, in this Situation we are compelled to form our Camp between the hite of the Ebb and flood tides, and rase our baggage on logs—

We are not certain as yet if the whites people who trade with those people or from whome they precure ther goods are Stationary at the mouth, or visit this quarter at Stated times for the purpose of trafick & I believe the latter to be the most probable conjucture—

[Trading vessels visited the area fairly often after Gray's entry in 1792, but not permanent trading station seems to have been established until the Astorians arrived in 1811]

The Seas roled and tossed the Canoes in Such a manner this evening that Several of our party were Sea Sick.

we made 34 miles to day as Computed

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Wahkiakum County USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

November 9
Clark: The tide of last night did not rise Sufficintly high to come into our camp, but the Canoes which was exposed to the mercy of the waves. which accompanied the returning tide, they all filled, and with great attention we Saved them untill the tide left them dry—

wind Hard from the South and rained hard all the fore part of the day, at 2 oClock P M the flood tide came in accompanied with emence waves and heavy winds, floated the trees and Drift which was on the point on which we Camped and tosed them about in Such a manner as to endanger the Canoes verry much, with every exertion and the Strictest attention by every individual of the party was Scercely Sufficient to Save our Canoes from being crushed by those monsterous trees maney of them nearly 200 feet long and from 4 to 7 feet through. our camp entirely under water dureing the hight of the tide, every man as wet as water could make them all the last night and to day all day as the rain Continued all day,

at 4 oClock P M the wind Shifted about to the S. W. and blew with great violence imediately from the Ocian for about two hours, notwithstanding the disagreeable Situation of our party all wet and Cold (and one which they have experienced for Several days past) they are chearfull and anxious to See further into the Ocian, The water of the river being too Salt to use we are obliged to make use of rain water— Some of the party not accustomed to Salt water has made too free a use of it on them it acts as pergitive. at this dismal point we must Spend another night as the wind & waves are too high to proceed.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Native Americans Wahkiakum County USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

November 10
Clark: Rained verry hard the greater part of last night and continues this morning. the wind has luled and the waves are not high;

we loaded our canoes and proceeded on passed Several Small and deep nitch on the Stard. Side, we proceeded on about 10 miles Saw great numbers of Sea Guls, the wind rose from the N. W. and the waves became So high that we were compelled to return about 2 miles to a place we Could unload our Canoes, which we did in a Small nitch at the mouth of a Small run on a pile of drift logs where we Continued untill low water,

when the river appeared calm we loaded and Set out; but was obliged to return finding the waves too high for our Canoes to ride, we again unloaded the Canoes, and Stoed the loading on a rock above the tide water, and formed a camp on the Drift Logs which appeared to be the only Situation we could find to lie, the hills being either a perpendicular Clift, or Steep assent, riseing to about 500 feet—

our Canoes we Secured as well as we could— we are all wet the rain haveing continued all day, our beding and maney other articles, employ our Selves drying our blankets—

nothing to eate but dried fish pounded which we brought from the falls. we made 10 miles today—

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Pacific County USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

November 11
Clark: A hard rain all the last night, dureing the last tide the logs on which we lay was all on float

Sent out Jo Fields to hunt, he Soon returned and informed us that the hills was So high & Steep, & thick with undergroth and fallen Timber that he could not get out any distance;

about 12 oClock 5 Indians came down in a canoe, the wind verry high from the S. W. with most tremendious waves brakeing with great violence against the Shores, rain falling in torrents, we are all wet as usial and our Situation is truly a disagreeable one; the great quantites of rain which has loosened the Stones on the hill Sides, and the Small Stones fall down upon us, our canoes at one place at the mercy of the waves, our baggage in another and our Selves and party Scattered on floating logs and Such dry Spots as can be found on the hill Sides, and Crivices of the rocks.

we purchased of the Indians 13 red charr which we found to be an excellent fish we have Seen those Indians above and are of a nation who reside above and on the opposit Side who call themselves Calt-har-mama]

The Cathlamets, or Kathlamets, lived across the Columbia River from the Wahkiakums and both peoples spoke the Kathlamet language. The Cathlamets occupied settlements along the south shore of the Columbia River from the vicinity of Tongue Point upstream to the neighborhood of Puget Island in Clatsop County, Oregon. Some investigators extend Cathlamet territory farther upstream to Oak Point and beyond, but it is unclear if these writers are referring to the local group named the Cathlamets or to the distribution of the Kathlamet linguistic dialect. The village for which these people were named, galámat in the Upper Chinook language, was located on Aldrich Point (formerly called Cathlamet Head). About 1810 the Cathlamets moved across the Columbia and joined the Wahkiakums in a village at the present site of Cathlamet.

they are badly clad & illy made, Small and Speak a language much resembling the last nation, one of those men had on a Salors Jacket and Pantiloons and made Signs that he got those Clothes from the white people who lived below the point. those people left us and Crossed the river (which is about 5 miles wide at this place) through the highest waves I ever Saw a Small vestles ride. Those Indians are Certainly the best Canoe navigaters I ever Saw.

rained all day

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Pacific County USGS Native Americans The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

November 12
Clark: A hard rain all the last night, dureing the last tide the logs on which we lay was all on float

A Tremendious wind from the S. W. about 3 oClock this morning with Lightineng and hard claps of Thunder, and Hail which Continued untill 6 oClock a. m. when it became light for a Short time, then the heavens became Sudenly darkened by a black Cloud from the S. W. and rained with great violence untill 12 oClock, the waves tremendious brakeing with great fury against the rocks and trees on which we were encamped. our Situation is dangerous.

we took the advantage of a low tide and moved our camp around a point to a Small wet bottom at the mouth of a Brook, which we had not observed when we Came to this cove; from it being verry thick and obscured by drift trees and thick bushes

It would be distressing to See our Situation, all wet and Colde our bedding also wet, (and the robes of the party which Compose half the bedding is rotten and we are not in a Situation to supply their places) in a wet bottom Scercely large enough to contain us, with our baggage half a mile from us and Canoes at the mercy of the waves, altho Secured as well as possible, Sunk with emence parcels of Stone to wate them down to prevent their dashing to pieces against the rocks; one got loose last night and was left on a rock a Short distance below, without rciving more dammage than a Split in her bottom—

Fortunately for us our men are healthy. 3 men Gibson Bratten & Willard attempted to go aroud the point below in our Indian Canoe, much Such a canoe as the Indians visited us in yesterday, they proceeded to the point from which they were oblige to return, the waves tossing them about at will

I walked up the branch and giged 3 Salmon trout. the party killed 13 Salmon to day in a branch about 2 miles above. rain Continued

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Pacific County USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

November 13
Clark: Some intervales of fair weather last night, rain continue this morning.

I walked up the Brook & assended the first Spur of the mountain with much fatigue, the distance about 3 miles, through an intolerable thickets of Small pine, a groth much resembling arrow wood on the Stem of which there is thorns; this groth about 12 or 15 feet high inter lockd into each other and Scattered over the high fern & fallen timber, added to this the hills were So Steep that I was compelled to draw my Self up by the assistance of those bushes—

The Timber on those hills are of the pine Species large and tall maney of them more than 200 feet high & from 8 to 10 feet through at the Stump those hills & as far back as I could See, I Saw Some Elk Sign, on the Spur of the mountain tho' not fresh. I killed a Salmon trout on my return. The Hail which fell 2 nights past is yet to be Seen on the mountains;

I Saw in my ramble to day a red berry resembling Solomons Seal berry which the nativs call Sol-me and use it to eate. my principal object in assending this mountain was to view the countrey below, the rain continuing and weather proved So Cloudy that I could not See any distance on my return

we dispatched 3 men Colter, Willard and Shannon in the Indian canoe to get around the point if possible and examine the river, and the Bay below for a god harber for our Canoes to lie in Safty. The tide at every floot tide Came with great swells brakeing against the rocks & Drift trees with great fury The rain Continue all day. nothing to eate but pounded fish which we Keep as a reserve and use in Situations of this kind.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Pacific County USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

November 14
Clark: rained all the last night without intermition, and this morning. wind blows verry hard but our Situation is Such that we Cannot tell from what point it comes—

one of our Canoes is much broken by the waves dashing it against the rocks—

5 Indians Came up in a Canoe, thro' the waves, which is verry high and role with great fury— They made Signs to us that they Saw the 3 men we Sent down yesterday. only 3 of those Indians landed, the other 2 which was women played off in the waves, which induced me to Suspect that they had taken Something from our men below,

at this time one of the men Colter returnd by land and informed us that those Indians had taken his Gigg & basket, I called to the Squars to land and give back the gigg, which they would not doe untill a man run with a gun, as if he intended to Shute them when they landed, and Colter got his gig & basket

I then ordered those fellows off, and they verry readily Cleared out they are of the War-ci-a-cum N.

Colter informed us that "it was but a Short distance from where we lay around the point to a butifull Sand beech, which continud for a long ways, that he had found a good harber in the mouth of a creek near 2 Indian Lodges—that he had proceeded in the Canoe as far as he could for the waves, the other two men Willard & Shannon had proceeded on down

Capt Lewis concluded to proceed on by land & find if possible the white people the Indians Say is below and examine if a Bay is Situated near the mouth of this river as laid down by Vancouver in which we expect, if there is white traders to find them.

at 3 oClock he Set out with 4 men Drewyer Jos. & Reu. Fields & R. Frasure, in one of our large canoes and 5 men to Set them around the point on the Sand beech. this canoe returned nearly filled with water at Dark which it receved by the waves dashing into it on its return, haveing landed Capt Lewis & his party Safe on the Sand beech.

The rain Continues all day all wet. The rain. which has continued without a longer intermition than 2 hours at a time for ten days past had distroyd. the robes and rotted a great maney nearly one half of the fiew Clothes the party has, perticularley the leather Clothes,— fortunately for us we have no very Cold weather as yet and if we have Cold weather before we Can kill & Dress Skins for Clothing the bulk of the party will Suffer verry much.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Pacific County Native Americans USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

November 15
Clark: Rained all the last night, this morning it became Calm and fair, I preposed Setting out, and ordered the Canoes Repared and loaded; before we could load our canoes the wind Sudenly Sprung up from the S. E and blew with Such violence, that we could not proceed in Safty with the loading. I proceeded to the point in an empty Canoe, and found that the waves dashed against the rocks with Such violence that I thought it unsave to Set out with the loaded Canoes—

The Sun Shown untill 1 oClock P M which afford us time to Dry our bedding and examine the baggage which I found nearly all wet, Some of our pounded fish Spoiled in the wet; I examined the amunition and Caused all the arms to be put in order.

About 3 oClock the wind luled, and the river became calm, I had the canoes loaded in great haste and Set Out, from this dismal nitich where we have been confined for 6 days passed, without the possibility of proceeding on, returning to a better Situation, or get out to hunt, Scerce of Provisions, and torents of rain poreing on us all the time—

proceeded on passed the blustering point below which I found a butifull Sand beech thro which runs a Small river from the hills below the mouth of this Stream is a village of 36 houses uninhabited by anything except flees,

here I met G. Shannon and 5 Indians. Shannon informed me that he met Capn Lewis at an Indian Hut about 10 miles below who had Sent him back to meet me, he also told me the Indians were thievish, as the night before they had Stolen both his and Willards rifles from under their heads, that they Set out on their return and had not proceeded far up the beech before they met Capt Lewis, whose arival was at a timely moment and alarmed the Indians So that they instantly produced the Guns—

I told those Indians who accompanied Shannon that they Should not Come near us, and if any one of their nation Stold anything from us, I would have him Shot, which they understoot verry well.

as the tide was Comeing and the Seas became verry high imediately from the Ocian I landed and formed a camp on the highest Spot I could find

between the hight of the tides, and the Slashers in a Small bottom this I could plainly See would be the extent of our journey by water, as the waves were too high at any Stage for our Canoes to proceed any further down. in full view of the Ocian from Point adams to Cape Disappointment, I could not See any Island in the mouth of this river as laid down by Vancouver

The Bay which he laies down in the mouth is imediately below me. This Bay we call Haleys bay from a favourate Trader with the Indians which they Say comes into this Bay and trades with them Course to Point adams is S. 35° W. about 8 miles To Cape Disappointment is S. 86° W. about 14 miles

4 Indians of the War-ki a cum nation Came down to See. The Indians who accompanied Shannon from the village below Speake a Different language from those above, and reside to the north of this place The Call themselves Chin nooks

[The Chinooks, or Chinooks proper, occupied the north bank of the Columbia River from Cape Disappointment at the mouth and upstream at least as far as Megler and probably as far upstream as the vicinity of Grays Bay in Pacific County. Their territory extended north along the Washington coast to Willapa (formerly Shoalwater) Bay.

The Chinooks proper practiced a biseasonal settlement pattern, occupying villages along the Columbia River during the summer fishing season, moving to villages on Willapa Bay for the winter. This accounts for Lewis and Clark having seen very few Indians along the river in November. One of their principal settlements was the summer village of inúk (a Salish Chehalis term) on Baker Bay, from which both the name of this group and the name of the linguistically related peoples upstream along the Columbia River was derived.

I told those people that they had attempted to Steal 2 guns. that if any one of their nation stole any thing that the Sentinl. whome they Saw near our baggage with his gun would most certainly Shute them, they all promised not to tuch a thing, and if any of their womin or bad boys took any thing to return it imediately and Chastise them for it. I treated those people with great distance. our men all Comfortable in their Camps which they have made of boards from the old Village above. we made 3 miles to day.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Pacific County Chinook Indians USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska HistoryLink

November 16
Clark: Cool the latter part of the last night this morning Clear and butifull;

I had all our articles of every discription examined and put out to Dry.

The 5 Chin nooks left us

I took a meridenal altitude with the Sextn. 50° 36' 15 which gave for Lattitude 46° 19' 11 1/10" North.

I Sent out Several hunters and fowlers in pursute Elk, Deer, or fowls of any kind.

wind hard from the S W The Waves high & look dismal indeed breaking with great fury on our beech

an Indian canoe pass down to day loaded with Wap-pa-toe roots; Several Indians came up to day from below, I gave them Smoke but allowed them no kind of privilage whatever in the camp, they with the 4 which came down yesterday encamped a Short distance from us.

The evening proved Cloudy and I could not take any Luner observations— One man Sick with a violent cold, Caught by laying in his wet leather Clothes for maney nights past.

The Countrey on the Stard Side above Haley Bay is high broken and thickley timbered on the Lard Side from Point Adams the Contrey appears low for 15 or 20 miles back to the mountains, a pinical of which now is Covered with Snow or hail, as the opposit is too far distant to be distinguished well, I Shall not attempt to describe any thing on that Side at present.

Our hunters and fowlers killed 2 Deer 1 Crain & 2 Ducks, and my man York killed 2 geese and 8 Brant, 3 of them white with a part of their wings black and much larger than the Grey brant which is a Sise larger than a Duck. Ocian 4142 Miles from the Mouth of Missouri R.

Gass: This was a clear morning and the wind pretty high. We could see the waves, like small mountains, rolling out in the ocean, and pretty bad in the bay.

We are now at the end of our voyage, which has been completely accomplished according to the intention of the expedition, the object of which was to discover a passage by the way of the Missouri and Columbia rivers to the Pacific ocean; notwithstanding the difficulties, privations and dangers, which we had to encounter, endure and surmount.

The day being clear we got all our baggage dried, and in good order; and quietly rested until Capt Lewis and his party should return.

Whitehouse: A clear cool morning. several Indians staid near our Camp last night. several of our party went out a hunting; We put out our baggage to dry.—

The hunters all returned but one, to our Camp. they had killed 4 deer, & a number of Ducks, Geese & brants.

A Number of Indians staid with us all day.

We are now in plain view of the Pacific Ocean. the waves rolling, & the surf roaring very loud. on the opposite shore to us we discovered, the Tops of trees which we supposed to be on an Island laying a very great distance in the Ocean.

We are now of opinion that we cannot go any further with our Canoes, & think that we are at an end of our Voyage to the Pacific Ocean, and as soon as discoveries necessary are made, that we shall return a short distance up the River & provide our Selves with Winter Quarters, & We suppose that we shall find a considerable Quantity of Game low down on the River.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Pacific County Chinook Indians USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

November 17
Clark: a fair cool morning wind from the East. The tide rises at this place 8 feet 6 inches and comes in with great waves brakeing on the Sand beech on which we lay with great fury Six hunters out this morning in serch of Deer & fowl.

At half past 1 oClock Capt Lewis returned haveing travesed Haleys Bay to Cape Disappointment and the Sea Coast to the North for Some distance. Several Chinnook Indians followed Capt L— and a Canoe came up with roots mats. to Sell.

those Chinnooks made us a present of a rute boiled much resembling the common liquorice in taste and Size: in return for this root we gave more than double the value to Satisfy their craveing dispostn. It is a bad practice to receive a present from those Indians as they are never Satisfied for that they reive in return if ten time the value of the articles they gave.

This Chin nook Nation is about 400 Souls inhabid the Countrey on the Small rivrs which run into the bay below us and on the Ponds to the N W of us, live principally on fish and roots, they are well armed with fusees and Sometimes kill Elk Deer and fowl.

our hunters killed to day 3 Deer, 4 brant and 2 Ducks, and inform me they Saw Some Elk Sign. I directed all the men who wished to See more of the main Ocian to prepare themselves to Set out with me early on tomorrow morning.

The principal Chief of the Chinnooks & his familey came up to See us this evening—

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Pacific County Chinook Indians USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

November 18
Clark: A little cloudy this morning I Set out with 10 men and my man York to the Ocian by land. i. e. Serjt. Ordway & Pryor, Jos. & Ru. Fields, Go. Shannon, W. Brattin, J. Colter, P. Wiser, W. Labieche & P. Shabono one of our interpreters & York. I Set out at Day light and proceeded on a Sandy beech

N. 80° W. 1 Mile to a point of rocks about 40 feet high, from the top of which the hill Side is open and assend with a Steep assent to the tops of the Mountains, a Deep nitch and two Small Streams above this point,

then my course was N. W. 7 Mile to the enterance of a creek at a lodge or cabin of Chinnooks passing on a wide Sand bar the bay to my left and Sev- eral Small ponds Containing great numbers of water fowls to my right; with a narrow bottom of alder & Small balsam between the Ponds and the Mountn.

at the Cabin I saw 4 womin and Some Children one of the women in a desper- ate Situation, covered with Sores Scabs & ulsers no doubt the effects of veneral disorder which Several of this nation which I have Seen appears to have.

This Creek appears to be nothing more than the conveyance of Several Small dreans from the high hills and the ponds on each Side near its mouth. here we were Set across all in one Canoe by 2 Squars to each I gav a Small hook

S. 79° W. 5 Miles to the mouth of Chin nook river, passed a low bluff of a small hite at 2 miles below which is the remains of huts near which place is also the remains of a whale on the Sand, the countrey low open and Slashey, with elivated lands inter- spersed covered with pine & thick under groth This river is 40 yards wide at low tide—

here we made a fire and dined on 4 brant and 48 Pliver which was killed by Labiech on the coast as we came on.

Rubin Fields Killed a Buzzard of the large Kind near the meat of the whale we Saw: W. 25 lb. measured from the tips of the wings across 9½ feet, from the point of the Bill to the end of the tail 3 feet 10¼ inches, middle toe 5½ inches, toe nale 1 inch & 3½ lines, wing feather 2½ feet long & 1 inch 5 lines diami- ter tale feathers 14½ inches, and the head is 6½ inches in- cluding the beak.

after dineing we crossed the river in an old canoe which I found on the Sand near Som old houses & proceeded on—

S. 20° W. 4 Miles to a Small rock island in a deep nitch passed a nitch at 2 miles in which there is a dreen from Some ponds back, the land low opposite this nitch a bluff of yellow Clay and Soft Stone from the river to the Comencement of this nitch be- low the Country rises to high hills of about 80 or 90 feet above the water—

at 3 miles passed a nitch— this rock Island is Small and at the South of a deep bend in which the nativs in- form us the Ships anchor, and from whence they receive their goods in return for their peltries and Elk Skins. this ap- pears to be a very good harber for large Ships.

here I found Capt Lewis name on a tree. I also engraved my name & by land the day of the month and year, as also Several of the men.

S. 46° E. 2 Miles to the inner extremity of Cape Disappointment this Cape is an ellivated Circlier point Covered with thick timber on the iner Side and open grassey exposur next to the Sea and rises with a Steep assent to the hight of about 150 or 160 feet above the leavel of the water—>

this cape as also the Shore both on the Bay & Sea coast is a dark brown rock. I crossed the neck of Land low and ½ of a mile wide to the main Ocian, at the foot of a high open hill project- ing into the ocian, and about one mile in Sicumfrance. I as- sended this hill which is covered with high corse grass. de- cended to the N. of it and camped. I picked up a flounder on the beech this evening.— Miles 19

I suped on brant this evening with a little pounded fish.

Some rain in the after part of the night.

men appear much Satisfied with their trip beholding with estonishment the high waves dashing against the rocks & this emence ocian.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Pacific County Chinook Indians USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

November 19
Clark: I arose early this morning from under a wet blanket caused by a Shower of rain which fell in the latter part of the last night

Sent two men on a head with directions to proceed on near the Sea Coast and Kill Something for brackfast and that I Should follow my Self in about half an hour. after drying our blankets a little I Set out with a view to proceed near the Coast the direction of which induced me to conclude that at the distance of 8 or 10 miles, the Bay was at no great distance across.

I overtook the hunters at about 3 miles, they had killed a Small Deer on which we brackfast it comened raining and Continued moderately untill 11 oClock A M.

after takeing a Sumptious brackfast of venison which was rosted on Stiks exposed to the fire, I proceeded on through ruged Country of high hills and Steep hollers to the Commencement of a Sandy Coast— at the commencement of this Sand beech the high lands leave the Sea coast in a Direction to Chinnook river, and does not touch the Sea Coast again untill below point leaveing a low pondey countrey, maney places open with small ponds in which there is great numbr. of fowl

I am informed that the Chinnook Nation inhabit this low countrey and live in large wood houses on a river which passes through this bottom Parrilal to the Sea coast and falls into the Bay

I proceeded on the Sandy Coast 4 miles, and marked my name on a Small pine, the Day of the month & year,. and returned to the foot of the hill, from which place I intended to Strike across to The Bay, I saw a Sturgeon which had been thrown on Shore and left by the tide 10 feet in length, and Several joints of the back bone of a whale which must have foundered on this part of the Coast. after Dineing on the remains of our Small Deer I proceeded through over a land S E with Some Ponds to the bay distance about 2 miles, thence up to the mouth of Chinnook river 2 miles, crossed this little river in the Canoe we left at its mouth and Encamped on the upper Side in an open Sandy bottom— The hills next to the bay Cape disapointment to a Short distance up the Chinnook river is not verry high thickly Coverd. with different Species of pine. maney of which are large, I observed in maney places pine of 3 or 4 feet through growing on the bodies of large trees which had fallen down, and covered with moss and yet part Sound. The Deer of this Coast differ materially from our Common deer in a much as they are much darker deeper bodied Shorter ledged horns equally branched from the beem the top of the tail black from the rute to the end Eyes larger and do not lope but jump.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Pacific County Chinook Indians USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

November 20
Clark: Some rain last night dispatched Labiech to kill Some fowl for our brackfast he returned in about 2 hours with 8 large Ducks on which we brackfast

I proceeded on to the enterance of a Creek near a cabin no person being at this cabin and 2 Canoes laying on the opposit Shore from us, I deturmined to have a raft made and Send a man over for a canoe, a Small raft was Soon made, and Reuben Fields Crossed and brought over a Canoe—

This Creek which is the outlet of a number of ponds, is at this time (high tide) 300 yds wide—

I proceeded on up the Beech and was overtaken by three Indians one of them gave me Some dried Sturgeon and a fiew wappato roots, I employd Those Indians to take up one of our Canoes which had been left by the first party that Came down, for which Service I gave them each a fishing hook of a large Size—

on my way up I met Several parties of Chinnooks which I had not before Seen they were on their return from our Camp. all those people appeard to know my deturmonation of keeping every individual of their nation at a proper distance, as they were guarded and resurved in my presence.

found maney of the Chin nooks with Capt. Lewis of whome there was 2 Cheifs Com com mo ly & Chil-lar-la-wi to whome we gave Medals and to one a flag. one of the Indians had on a roab made of 2 Sea Otter Skins the fur of them were more butifull than any fur I had ever Seen

both Capt. Lewis & my Self endeavored to purchase the roab with differant articles at length we precured it for a belt of blue beeds which the Squar—wife of our interpreter Shabono wore around her waste. in my absence the hunters had killed Several Deer and fowl of different kinds—

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Pacific County Chinook Indians USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

November 21
Clark: a cloudy morning most of the Chinnooks leave our Camp and return home, great numbers of the dark brant passing to the South, the white Brant have not yet commenced their flight.

The wind blew hard from the S. E. which with the addition of the flood tide raised verry high waves which broke with great violence against the Shore throwing water into our Camp—

the fore part of this day Cloudy at 12 oClock it began to rain and Continued all day moderately,

Several Indians Visit us to day of different nations or Bands Some of the Chiltz Nation who reside on the Sea Coast near Point Lewis, Several of the Clotsops who reside on the opposit Side of the Columbia imediately opposit to us, and a Chief from the Grand rapid to whome we gave a Medal.

An old woman & wife to a Cheif of the Chinnooks came and made a Camp near ours She brought with her 6 young Squars I believe for the purpose of gratifying the passions of the men of our party and receving for those indulgiences Such Small as She (the old woman) thought proper to accept of, Those people appear to view Sensuality as a Necessary evel, and do not appear to abhor it as a Crime in the unmarried State—

The young females are fond of the attention of our men and appear to meet the sincere approbation of their friends and connections, for thus obtaining their favours; the womin of the Chinnook Nation have handsom faces low and badly made with large legs & thighs which are generally Swelled from a Stopage of the circulation in the feet (which are Small) by maney Strands of Beeds or curious Strings which are drawn tight around the leg above the anckle, their leges are also picked with different figures,

I Saw on the left arm of a Squar the following letters J. Bowmon, all those are Considered by the natives of this quarter as handsom deckerations, and a woman without those deckorations is Considered as among the lower Class

they ware their hair lose hanging over their back and Sholders maney have blue beeds threaded & hung from different parts of their ears and about their neck and around their wrists, their dress other wise is prosisely like that of the Nation of Wa ci a cum as already discribed. a Short roab, and tissue or kind of peticoat of the bark of Cedar which fall down in Strings as low as the knee behind and not So low before maney of the men have blankets of red blue or Spotted Cloth or the common three & 2½ point blankets, and Salors old clothes which they appear to prise highly,

[A 2½ point blanket would be 5 feet 4 inches by 4 feet 3 inches]

they also have robes of Sea Otter, Beaver, Elk, Deer, fox and Cat common to this countrey, which I have never Seen in the U States. They also precure a roabe from the nativs above, which is made of the Skins of a Small animal about the Size of a Cat, which is light and dureable and highly prized by those people—

the greater numbers of the men of the Chinnooks have Guns and powder and Ball—

The Men are low homely and badly made, Small Crooked legs large feet, and all of both Sects have flattened heads—

The food of this nation is principally fish & roots the fish they precure from the river by the means of nets and gigs, and the Salmon which run up the Small branches together with what they collect drifted up on the Shores of the Sea coast near to where they live—

The roots which they use are Several different kinds, the Wappato which they precure from the nativs above, a black root which they call Shaw-na tâh que & the wild licquorish is the most Common, they also kill a fiew Elk Deer & fowl— maney of the Chinnooks appear to have venerious and pustelus disorders. one woman whome I saw at the beech appeared all over in Scabs and ulsers.

we gave to the men each a pece of ribin We purchased Cramberies Mats verry netely made of flags and rushes, Some roots, Salmon and I purchased a hat made of Splits & Strong grass, which is made in the fashion which was common in the U States two years ago also Small baskets to hold Water made of Split and Straw, for those articles we gave high prices—.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Pacific County Chinook Indians USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

November 22
Clark: We set out at 6:15 this morning. The current that greeted us was rapid and difficult.

We again saw some heath hens on the side of the river. One of my men went on shore and killed one. This made some great soup for our Captain Clark who has been indisposed since the 16th.

We reached a Spanish settlement, where we were informed by a Mr. Findley, the owner, that there were 15 families here.

We overtook two keels from Louisville owned by Mr. Bullet of Louisville , headed to Kaskaskias, loaded with dry goods and whiskey. Later we met two keeled boats loaded with furs that were headed for New Orleans.

The land here does not appear to be overflowed because of the poplar and white oak timber. This is the first poplar and white oak that I have seen. Sand and scrubbing Rush on the banks, seem to grow thicker and at a greater heights from the bottoms of the river than any where else. I have been told that it is good food for cattle and horses in the winter.

The soil here is of an inferior quality being a stiff white clay. There is a quarry of white freestone on the eastern bank. The stones near the river are hard and formed of the sand of the river. The river also petrifies plant and animal alike. I have also observed petrified wood.

For the night we stayed on a slate beach. One of me men, Nathaniel Pryor, went hunting and has not returned although we have sounded the horn. I saw some wood that seemed to be in a coal-state, but when it
burned it emitted a sulfurous smell.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Pacific County Chinook Indians USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

November 23
Clark: A calm Cloudy morning, a moderate rain the greater part of the last night,

Capt Lewis Branded a tree with his name Date. I marked my name the Day & year on a Alder tree, the party all Cut the first letters of their names on different trees in the bottom. our hunters killed 3 Bucks, 4 Brant & 3 Ducks to day.

in the evening Seven indians of the Clot Sop Nation Came over in a Canoe, they brought with them 2 Sea otter Skins for which they asked blue beads. and Such high pricies that we were unable to purchase them without reducing our Small Stock of merchendize, on which we depended for Subcistance on our return up this river—

mearly to try the Indian who had one of those Skins, I offered him my Watch, handerchief a bunch of red beads and a dollar of the American Coin, all of which he refused and demanded "ti-â, co-mo-shack which is Chief beads and the most common blue beads, but fiew of which we happen to have at this time

This nation is the remains of a large nation destroyed by the Small pox or Some other which those people were not aquainted with, they Speak the Same language of the Chinnooks and resemble them in every respect except that of Stealing, which we have not Cought them at as yet.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Pacific County Clatsop Indians USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

November 24
Clark: A fair morning Sent out 6 hunters

a Chief and Several men of the Chin nook nation Came to Smoke with us this evening one of the men brought a Small Sea otter Skin for which we gave Some blue beads

— this day proved fair which gave us an oppertunity of drying our wet articles, bedding.. nothing killed to day except one Brant.

being now determined to go into Winter quarters as Soon as possible, as a convenient Situation to precure the Wild animals of the forest which must be our dependance for Subsisting this Winter, we have every reason to believe that the nativs have not provisions Suffient for our Consumption, and if they had, their price's are So high that it would take ten times as much to purchase their roots & Dried fish as we have in our possesion, encluding our Small remains of merchindz and Clothes. This Certinly enduces every individual of the party to make diligient enquiries of the naivs the part of the Countrey in which the wild Animals are most plenty. They generaly agree that the most Elk is on the opposit Shore, and that the greatest numbers of Deer is up the river at Some distance above—

The Elk being an animal much larger than Deer, easier to kiled better meat (in the winter when pore) and Skins better for the Clothes of our party: added to—, a convenient Situation to the Sea coast where we Could make Salt, and a probibility of vessels Comeing into the mouth of Columbia ("which the Indians inform us would return to trade with them in 3 months["]) from whome we might precure a fresh Supply of Indian trinkets to purchase provisions on our return home: together with the Solicitations of every individual, except one of our party induced us Conclude to Cross the river and examine the opposit Side, and if a Sufficent quantity of Elk could probebly be precured to fix on a Situation as convenient to the Elk & Sea Coast as we Could find

— added to the above advantagies in being near the Sea Coast one most Strikeing one ocurs to me i'e, the Climate which must be from every appearance must be much milder than that above the 1st range of Mountains, The Indians are Slighly Clothed and give an account of but little Snow, and the weather which we have experiened Since we arrived in the neighbourhood of the Sea Coast has been verry warm, and maney of the fiew days past disagreeably So. if this Should be the Case it will most Certainly be the best Situation of our naked party dressed as they are altogether in leather.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Pacific County Clatsop Indians USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

November 25
Clark: The Wind being high rendered it impossible for us to Cross the river from our Camp, we deturmind to proceed on up where it was narrow, we Set out early accompanied by 7 Clât Sops for a fiew miles, they left us and Crossed the river through emence high waves;

we Dined in the Shallow Bay on Dried pounded fish, after which we proceeded on near the North Side of the Columbia, and encamp a little after night near our Encampment of the 7th instant near a rock at Some distance in the river. evening Cloudy the Winds of to day is generally E. S. E which was a verry favourable point for us as the highlands kept it from us

Mt. St. Hilians Can be Seen from the mouth of this river.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Wahkiakum County Clatsop Indians USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

November 26
Clark: Cloudy and Some rain this morning from 6 oClock. wind from the E. N. E, we Set out out early and crossed a Short distance above the rock out in the river, & between Some low marshey Islands to the South Side of the Columbia at a low bottom about 3 miles below proceeded near the South Side leaveing the Seal Islands to our right and a marshey bottom to the left

[Today this area is the Lewis and Clark National Wildlife Refuge.]

After going along the shore for five miles, we entered a channel two hundred yards in width, which separates from the main land a large, but low island. On this channel, and at the foot of some highlands, is a village, where we landed

[Near today's town of Knappa, Oregon]

It consists of nine large wooden houses, inhabited by a tribe called Cathlamahs, who seem to differ neither in dress, language, nor manners, from the Chinnooks and Wahkiacums: like whom they live chiefly on fish and wappatoo roots. We found, however, as we hoped, some elk meat: after dining on some fresh fish and roots, which we purchased from them at an immoderate price, we coasted along a deep bend of the river towards the south

[Entering Cathlamet Bay, today part of the Lewis and Clark National Wildlife Refuge]

and at night encamped under a high hill

[In the area of today's Twilight Eagle Sanctuary]

all the way from the village the land is high, and has a thick growth of pine balsam, and other timber; but as it was still raining very hard, it was with difficulty we procured wood enough to make fires. Soon after we landed, three Indians from the Cathlawah village came down with wappatoo roots, some of which we purchased with fish-hooks.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Native Americans USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

November 27
Clark: Rained all the last night and this morning it Continues moderately

— at day light 3 Canoes and 11 Indians Came from the Village with roots mats, Skins. to Sell, they asked Such high prices that we were unable to purchase any thing of them, as we were about to Set out missed one of our axes which was found under an Indians roab I shamed this fellow verry much and told them they should not proceed with us—

we proceded on between maney Small Islands passing a Small river and around a verry remarkable point which projects about 1½ Miles directly towards the Shallow bay the isthmus which joins it to the main land is not exceding 50 yards and about 4 Miles around. we call this Point William

below this point the waves became So high we were Compelled to land unload and traw up the Canoes, here we formed a Camp on the neck of Land which joins Point William to the main at an old indian hut.

The rain Continued hard all day we are all Wet and disagreeable. one Canoe Split before we Got her out of the Water 2 feet— The water at our Camp Salt that above the isthmus fresh and fine—

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Native Americans USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

November 28
Clark: Wind Shifted about to the S. W. and blew hard accompanied with hard rain. rained all the last night we are all wet our bedding and stores are also wet, we haveing nothing which is Sufficient to keep ourselves bedding or Stores dry

Several men in the point hunting deer without Suckcess, the Swan and brant which are abundant Cannot be approached Sufficently near to be killed, and the wind and waves too high to proceed on to the place we expect to find Elk, & we have nothing to eate except pounded fish which we brought from the Great falls,

this is our present Situation; truly disagreeable. about 12 oClock the wind Shifted around to the N W. and blew with Such violence that I expected every moment to See trees taken up by the roots, maney were blown down. This wind and rain Continued with Short intervales all the latter part of the night. O! how disagreeable is our Situation dureing this dreadful weather.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Native Americans USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

November 29
Lewis: the wind being so high the party were unable to proceed with the perogues. I determined therefore to proceed down the river on it's larboard side in surch of an eligible place for our winters residence and accordingly set out early this morning in the small canoe accompanyed by 5 men. drewyer R. Fields, Shannon, Colter & labiesh. proceeded along the coast. send out the hunters they killed 4 deer 2 brant a goos and seven ducks, it rained upon us by showers all day. left three of these deer and took with us one

encamped at an old Indian hunting lodge which afforded us a tolerable shelter from the rain, which continued by intervales throughout the night.—

[On the shores of Youngs Bay, in Clatsop County, probably within the present bounds of Astoria]

Clark: The wind and rain Continued all the last night, this morning much more moderate. the waves Still high and rain Continues.

Capt Lewis and 5 hunters Set out in our Indian Canoe (which is Calculated to ride wave) dow to the place we expected to find Elk from the Inds. information, they pointed to a Small Bay which is yet below us—

I Sent out 2 men to hunt Deer which I expected might be on the open hill Sides below, another to hunt fowl in the deep bend above the point, all the others engaged drying their leather before the fire, and prepareing it for use—they haveing but fiew other Species of Clothing to ware at this time

The winds are from Such points that we cannot form our Camp So as to provent the Smoke which is emencely disagreeable, and painfull to the eyes—

The Shore below the point at our Camp is formed of butifull pebble of various colours. I observe but fiew birds of the Small kind, great numbers of wild fowls of Various kinds, the large Buzzard with white wings, grey and bald eagle's, large red tailed Hawks, ravens & Crows in abundance, the blue Magpie, a Small brown bird which frequents logs & about the roots of trees—

Snakes, Lizards, Small bugs, worms, Spiders, flyes & insects of different kinds are to be Seen in abundance at this time.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Native Americans USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

November 30
Clark: Some rain and hail with intervales of fair weather for the Space of one or two hours at a time dureing the night untill 9 oClock this morning, at which time it Cleared away and the Sun Shewn for ____ hours,

Several men out hunting I Send 5 men in the bend above to hunt fowl. in a Canoe, employ all the others in drying our wet articles by the fire Several men Complain of a looseness and gripeing which I contribute to the diet, pounded fish mixed with Salt water, I derect that in future that the party mix the pounded fish with fresh water—

The Squar gave me a piece of bread made of flour which She had reserved for her child and carefully Kept untill this time, which has unfortunately got wet, and a little Sour— this bread I eate with great Satisfaction, it being the only mouthfull I had tasted for Several months past

my hunters killed three Hawks, which we found fat and delicious, they Saw 3 Elk but Could not get a Shot at them. The fowlers killed 3 black Ducks with Sharp White beeks keep in large flocks & feed on Grass, they have no Craw and their toes are Seperate, Common in the U. States

The Chinnooks in this neighbourhood bury their dead in their Canoes. for this purpose 4 pieces of Split timber are Set erect on end, and sunk a fiew feet in the ground, each brace having their flat Sides opposit to each other and Sufficiently far assunder to admit the width of the Canoe in which the dead are to be deposited; through each of those perpindicular posts, at the hight of 6 feet a mortice is Cut, through which two bars of wood are incerted; on those Cross bars a Small Canoe is placed, in which the body is laid after beaing Carefully roled in a robe of Some dressed Skins; a paddle is also deposited with them; a larger Canoe is now reversed, overlaying and imbracing the Small one, and resting with its gunnals on the Cross bars; one or more large mats of flags or rushes are then rold. around the Canoe and the whole Securely lashed with a long Cord usially made of the bark of the arbar vita or white Cedar. on the Cross bars which Support the Canoes is frequently hung or laid various articles of Clothing Culinary utensils. we cannot understand them Sufficiently to make any enquiries relitive to their religious opinions, from their depositing Various articles with their dead, beleve in a State of future ixistance.

I walked on the point and observed rose bushes different Species of pine, a Spcies of ash, alder, a Species of wild Crab Loral and Several Species of under Broth Common to this lower part of the Columbia river- The hills on this Coast rise high and are thickly covered with lofty pine maney of which are 10 & 12 feet through and more than 200 feet high. hills have a Steep assent.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Native Americans USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

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This guide last edited 12/17/2005
This guide last revised 11/26/2007
This guide created 10/24/2005