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Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery

Journals: December, 1805

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Meriwether Lewis, William Clark
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December 1
Lewis: Cloudy morning wind from the S. E.

sent out the men to hunt and examin the country, they soon returned all except Drewyer and informed me that the wood was so thick it was almost impenetrable and that there was but little appearance of game; they had seen the track of one deer only and a few small grey squirrels.

— half after one oclock Drewyer not yet arrived. heard him shoot 5 times just above us and am in hopes he has fallen in with a gang of elk.

Clark: A cloudy windey morning wind from the East,

dispatched two hunters, I deturmined to take a Canoe & a fiew men and hunt the marshey Islands above Point William, the Wind rose So high that I could not proceed, and returned to partake the dried fish, which is our Standing friend,

began to rain hard at Sun Set and Continued. my hunters returned without any thing

haveing Seen 2 parcels of elk men all employed to day in mending their leather Clothes, Shoes &c. and Dressing leather.

The emence Seas and waves which breake on the rocks & Coasts to the S W. & N W roars like an emence fall at a distance, and this roaring has continued ever Since our arrival in the neighbourhood of the Sea Coast which has been 24 days

Since we arrived in Sight of the Great Western; (for I cannot Say Pacific) Ocian as I have not Seen one pacific day Since my arrival in its vicinity, and its waters are forming and perpetually breake with emence waves on the Sands and rockey Coasts, tempestous and horiable.

I have no account of Capt. Lewis Since he left me.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

December 2
Clark: Cloudy with Some rain this morning

I Send out three men to hunt & 2 & my man york in a Canoe up the Ke-ke-mar-que Creek in Serch of fish and fowl—

I feel verry unwell, and have entirely lost my appetite for the Dried pounded fish which is in fact the cause of my disorder at present—

The men are generally Complaining of a lax and gripeing— In the evening Joseph Field came in with the Marrow bones of a elk which he killed at 6 miles distant, this welcome news to us. I dispatched Six men in a empty Canoe with Jo: mediately for the elk which he Said was about 3 miles from the water this is the first Elk which has been killd. on this Side of the rockey mountains— Jo Fields givs me an account of a great deel of Elk Sign & Says he Saw 2 Gangs of those Animals in his rout, but it rained So hard that he could not Shoot them—

The party up the Creek returned without any thing and informs me they could not See any fish in the Creek to kill and the fowls were too wild to be killed, this must be owing to their being much hunted and pursued by the Indians in their Canoes.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Health Care USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

December 3
Clark: a fair windey morning wind from the East

the men returned with the Elk which revived the Spirits of my party verry much I am Still unwell and Can't eate even the flesh of the Elk.

an Indian Canoe of 8 Indians Came too, those Inds. are on their way down to the Clât Sops with Wap pa to to barter with that nation, I purchasd. a fiew of those roots for which I gave Small fish hooks, those roots I eate with a little Elks Soupe which I found gave me great relief I found the roots both nurishing and as a check to my disorder.

The Indians proceeded on down through emence high waves maney times their Canoe was entirely out of Sight before they were ˝ a mile distance.

Serjt. Pryor & Gibson who went hunting yesterday has not returned untill after night, they informed me that they had killed 6 Elk at a great distance which they left lying, haveing taken out their interals that they had been lost and in their ramble saw a great deel of Elk Sign.

after eateing the marrow out of two Shank bones of an Elk, the Squar choped the bones fine boiled them and extracted a pint of Grease, which is Superior to the tallow of the animal.

Some rain this evening

I marked my name on a large pine tree imediately on the isthmus William Clark December 3rd 1805. By Land from the U. States in 1804 & 1805.—

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Native-American Heritage Health Care USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

December 4
Clark: Some rain all the last night, this morning it increased with the wind from the S. E.

I Set out Sergiant Pryor and 6 men to the Elk he had killed with directions to Carry the meat to a bay which he informed me was below and as he believed at no great distance from the Elk, and I Should proceed on to that bay as Soon as the wind would lay a little and the tide went out in the evening

— the Smoke is exceedingly disagreeable and painfull to my eyes, my appetite has returned and I feel much better of my late complaint

— a Spring tide to day rose 2 feet higher than Common flood tides and high water at 11 oClock

— Hard wind from the South this evening, rained moderately all day and the waves too high for me to proceed in Safty to the bay as I intended, in Some part of which I expected would be convenient for us to make winter quarters, the reports of seven huntes agreeing that elke were in great abundance about the Bay below.

no account of Capt. Lewis. I fear Some accident has taken place in his craft or party

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

December 5
Clark: Some hard Showers of rain last night, this morning Cloudy and drisley at Some little distanc above the isthmus the rain is much harder. high water to day at 12 this tide is 2 inches higher than that of yesterday. all our Stores and bedding are again wet by the hard rain of last night.

Capt. Lewis's long delay below, has been the Sorce of no little uneasness on my part of his probable Situation and Safty,

the repeeted rains and hard winds which blows from the S, W. renders it impossible for me to move with loaded Canoes along an unknown Coast we are all wet & disagreeable; the party much better of indispositions—.

Capt. Lewis returned with 3 men in the Canoe and informs me that he thinks that a Sufficient number of Elk may be prcured Convenient to a Situation on a Small river which falls into a Small bay a Short distance below, that his party had Killed 6 Elk & 5 Deer in his rout, two men of his party left behind to Secure the Elk

this was verry Satisfactory information to all the party. we accordingly deturmined to proceed on to the Situation which Capt. Lewis had Viewed as Soon as the wind and weather Should permit and Comence building huts &c.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

December 6
Clark: The wind blew hard all the last night with a moderate rain, the waves verry high, the wind increased & from the S. W. and the rain Continued all day, about Dark the wind Shifted to the North cleared away and became fair weather.

The high tide of today is 13 inches higher than yesterday, and obliged us to move our Camp which was in a low Situation, on higher ground Smoke exceedingly disagreeable.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

December 7
Clark: Some rain from 10 to 12 last night, this morning fair,

have every thing put on board the Canoes and Set out to the place Capt Lewis had viewed and thought well Situated for winter quarters

— we proceeded on against the tide to a point where we met Sergt Pryor and his party returning to the Camp we had left without any meat, the waves verry verry high, as much as our Canoes Could bear rendered it impossible to land for the party, we proceeded on around the point into the bay and landed to take brackfast on 2 Deer which had been killed & hung up, one of which we found the other had been taken off by some wild animal probably Panthors or the Wild cat? of this Countrey

here all the party of Serjt Pryors joined us except my man york, who had Stoped to rite his load and missed his way,

Sergt Pryor informed us that he had found the Elk, which was much further from the bay than he expected, that they missed the way for one day and a half, & when he found the Elk they were mostly Spoiled, and they only brought the Skins of 4 of the Elk

after brakfast I delayed about half an hour before York Came up, and then proceeded around this Bay which I have taken the liberty of calling Meriwethers Bay the Cristian name of Capt. Lewis who no doubt was the 1st white man who ever Surveyed this Bay,

[In fact, the first white man to survey the bay was Broughton of Vancouver's expedition in 1792. He named it Young's (now Youngs) Bay, its present name, after Sir George Young of the British Navy.]

we assended a river which falls in on the South Side of this Bay 3 miles to the first point of high land on the West Side, the place Capt. Lewis had viewed and formed in a thick groth of pine about 200 yards from the river, this situation is on a rise about 30 feet higher than the high tides leavel and thickly Covered with lofty pine. this is certainly the most eligable Situation for our purposes of any in its neighbourhood.

Meriwethers Bay is about 4 miles across deep & receves 2 rivers the Kil how-â-nah-kle and the Ne tul and Several Small Creeks

— we had a hard wind from the N. E. and Some rain about 12 oClock to day which lasted 2 hours and Cleared away.

Clark's Plan for Fort Clatsop

[Plan for Fort Clatsop, drawn on the cover of Clark's elkskin-bound journal]

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska The History Channel

December 8
Clark: We haveing fixed on this Situation as the one best Calculated for our Winter quarters I deturmin'd to go as direct a Course as I could to the Sea Coast which we Could here roar and appeared to be at no great distance from us, my principal object is to look out a place to make Salt, blaze the road or rout that they men out hunting might find the direction to the fort if they Should get lost in cloudy weather—and See the probibillity of game in that direction, for the Support of the Men, we Shall Send to make Salt,

I took with me five men and Set out on a Course S 60 W proceeded on a dividing ridge through lofty piney land much falling timber. passed the heads of 2 brooks one of them had wide bottoms which was over flown & we waded to our knees crossed 2 Slashes [Swamps] and arrived at a Creek in a open ridgey prarie covered with Sackacomma this Creek we were obliged to raft, which is about 60 yards over and runs in a direction to Point adams,

we discovered a large gange of Elk in the open lands, and we prosued them through verry bad Slashes and Small ponds about 3 miles, Killed one and camped on a Spot Scercely large enough to lie Clear of the Water. it is almost incredeable to assurt the bogs which those animals Can pass through, I prosue'd this gang of Elk through bogs which the wate of a man would Shake for ˝ an Acre, and maney places I Sunk into the mud and water up to my hips without finding any bottom on the trale of those Elk.

Those bogs are Covered with a kind of moss among' which I observe an ebundance of Cramberries. in those Slashes Small Knobs are promisquisly Scattered about which are Steep and thickly Covered with pine Common to the Countrey & Lorel.

we made a Camp of the Elk Skin to keep off the rain which Continued to fall, the Small Knob on which we Camped did not afford a Sufficiency of dry wood for our fire, we collected what dry wood we Could and what Sticks we Could Cut down with the Tomahawks, which made us a tolerable fire.

Whitehouse: We had a hard white frost & cold, & windy morning.

Our officers sent off 12 of our party early, in order to bring the Meat which was left by the 6 Men to camp. They embark'd in two Canoes for that purpose. One of our Canoes was carried off by the tide, during last night.

Captain Clark & another party of our Men went across by land to the Ocean, in order to blaze a road, & to look out a convenient place for to make Salt.

Towards evening the party that went with the Canoes returned with them, loaded with Elk & deer meat.

The latter part of the day was cold & cloudy, & in the Evening we had a little Rain & high Wind from the North East—

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

December 9
Clark: rained all the last night we are all wet,

I directed 2 hunters Drewyer & Shannon to go in pursute of the Elk, with the other 3 men I deturmined to proceed on to the Ocian, & Set out on a Westerley direction

Crossed 3 Slashes Swamps and arived at a Creek which I could not Cross as it was deep and no wood to make a raft, I proceeded down this Creek a Short distance and found that I was in a fork of the Creek, I then returned to the raft on which we had Crossed the day before crossed and kept down about one mile and met 3 Indians loaded with fresh Salmon which they had Giged in the Creek I crossed yesterday in the hills,

those indians made Signs that they had a town on the Seacoast at no great distance, and envited me to go to their town which envitation I axcepted and accompand. them, they had a Canoe hid in the Creek which I had just before rafted which I had not observed, we crossed in this little Canoe just large enough to carry 3 men an their loads

after Crossing 2 of the Indians took the Canoe on theire Sholders and Carried it across to the other Creek about Ľ of a mile, we Crossed the 2d Creek and proceeded on to the mouth of the Creek which makes a great bend above the mouth of this Creek or to the S. is 3 houses and about 12 families of the Clat Sop Nation,

we cross to those houses, which were built on the S. exposur of the hill, Sunk into the ground about 4 feet the walls roof & gable ends are of Split pine boards, the dores Small with a ladder to decend to the iner part of the house, the fires are 2 in the middle of the house their beads ar all around raised about 2˝ feet from the bottom flore all covered with mats and under those beads was Stored their bags baskets and useless mats,

those people treated me with extrodeanary friendship, one man attached himself to me as Soon as I entered the hut, Spred down new mats for me to Set on, gave me fish berries rutes &c. on Small neet platteers of rushes to eate which was repeated, all the Men of the other houses Came and Smoked with me Those people appeared much neeter in their diat than Indians are Comonly, and frequently wash theer faces and hands—

in the eveng an old woman presented a bowl made of a light Coloured horn a kind of Surup made of Dried berries which is common to this Countrey which the natives Call Shele wele this Surup I though was pleasent, they Gave me Cockle Shells to eate a kind of Soup made of bread of the Shele well barries mixed with roots in which they presented in neet trenchers made of wood.

a flock of Brant lit in the Creek which was 70 yds wide I took up my Small rifle and Shot one which astonished those people verry much, they plunged into the Creek and brought the brant on Shore—

in the evening it began to rain and Continud accompanied with a Violent wind from the S. W. untill 10 oClock P. M.

those people have a Singular game which they are verry fond of and is performed with a piece of bone about the Size of a large bean which they pass from, one hand into the other with great dexterity dureing which time they Sing, and ocasionally, hold out their hands for those who Chuse to risque their property to guess which hand the been is in— the individual who has the been is a banker & opposed to all in the room. on this game they risque their beeds & others part of their most valuable effects— this amusement has occupied about 3 hours of this evening, Several of the lodge in which I am in have lost all the beeds which they had about them—

they have one other game which a man attempted to Show me, I do not properly understand it, they make use of maney peces about the Shape and size of Backgammon Pices which they role on the floor through between two pins Stuck up at certain distancies &c.—

when I was Disposed to go to Sleep the man who' had been most attentive named Cus-ka-lah produced 2 new mats and Spred them near the fire, and derected his wife to go to his bead which was the Signal for all to retire which they did emediately. I had not been long on my mats before I was attacked most violently by the flees and they kept up a close Siege dureing the night

Whitehouse: We had rain the greater part of last night, & it continued raining this morning.

Captain Clark & the men that went with him to the Ocean, did not return.

Captain Lewis sent a Serjeant & eight men after the remainder of the Meat, which was left by the party Yesterday. They embarked in two Canoes. In the Evening they returned & brought the meat and the Canoe which had been floated off by the rising of the tide with them.

Three of our party took our small Canoe and went after an Ax, which was left behind, at the place we last encamped at. They returned before night, & had found the Ax. Four Indians came in a Canoe with them & staid with us all night.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

December 10
Clark: a Cloudy rainey morning verry early I rose and walked on the Shore of the Sea coast and picked up Several Curious Shells. I Saw Indians walking up and down the beech which I did not at first understand the Cause of, one man came to where I was and told me that he was in Serch of fish which is frequently thrown up on Shore and left by the tide, and told me in English the "Sturgion was verry good" and that the water when it retired left fish which they eate

this was Conclusive evedance to me that this Small band depended in Some Measure for their winters Subsistance on the fish which is thrown on Shore and left by the tide—

after amuseing my Self for about an hour on the edge of the rageing Seas I returned to the houses, one of the Indians pointed to a flock of Brant Sitting in the creek at Short distance below and requested me to Shute one, I walked down with my Small rifle and killed two at about 40 yds distance, on my return to the houses two Small ducks Set at about 30 Steps from me the Indians pointed at the ducks they were near together, I Shot at the ducks and accidently Shot the head of one off,

this Duck and brant was Carried to the house and every man Came around examined the Duck looked at the gun the Size of the ball which was 100 to the pound and Said in their own language Clouch Musket, wake, com ma-tax Musket which is, a good Musket do not under Stand this kind of Musket &c.

I entered the Same house I Slept in, they imediately Set before me their best roots, fish and Surup—, I attempted to purchase a Small Sea otter Skin for read beeds which I had in my pockets, they would not trade for those beeds not priseing any other Colour than Blue or White, I purchased a little of the berry bread and a fiew of their roots for which I gave Small fish hooks, which they appeared fond of—

I then Set out on my return by the Same rout I had Come out accompanied by Cus-ka lah and his brother as far as the 3d Creek, for the purpose of Setting me across, from which place they returned, and I proceeded on through a heavy rain to the Camp at our intended fort, Saw a bears track & the tracks of 2 Elk in the thick woods—

found Capt Lewis with all the men out Cutting down trees for our huts &c. in my absence the Men brought in the Six Elk which was killed Several days ago—. 4 men Complaining of violent Coalds.

three Indians in a Canoe Came up from the Clat Sop Village yesterday and returned to day. The Sea Coast is about 7 miles distant Nearly West about 5 miles of the distance through a thick wood with reveens hills and Swamps the land, rich black moald 2 miles in a open wavering Sandy prarie, ridge runing parrelal to the river, Covered with Green Grass.

Whitehouse: Captain Clark and the party that went with him to the Ocean did not return this morning and the Indians that staid with us during the last night, left us this morning.

The party that was at Camp all turned out & were employed in cutting of Pickets & carrying them to the place where our Officers intend erecting a fort.

It rain'd the most part of this day.

Towards evening Captain Clark & three of the Men that went with him returned from the Ocean.— They informed us that they had blazed a Road, through the Woods, from the Ocean; which they supposed to be about 7 Miles.

They found 3 Indian huts, which lay on the Edge of the Ocean, which was Inhabited. The Indians who resided in these huts, informed Captain Clark & his party, that there was a considerable number of Indians; who resided further up along the Coast.

The party that were with Captain Clark had killed one Elk, and saw two Gangs of the same kind of animals.

The Indians at those huts, gave our Men plenty of pounded fish & Roots to eat, & behaved very friendly.

The land between this & the Ocean is cover'd with Pine Trees, & on the Coast, low flatt land considerable Priaries & some swamps, in which grows Cranberries, &ca.—

Our officers concluded on to build our huts of logs, & to picket them in from the Corners

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

December 11
Clark: rained all the last night moderately

we are all employed putting up huts or Cabins for our winters quarters. Sergeant Pryor unwell from a dislocation of his Sholder, Gibson with the disentary, Jo. Fields with biles on his legs, & Werner with a Strained Knee. The rained Continued moderately all day.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

December 12
Clark: All hands that are well employ'd in Cutting logs and raising our winter Cabins, detached two men to Split boards—

Some rain at intervales all last night and to day—

The flees were So troublesom last night that I made but a broken nights rest, we find great dificuelty in getting those trouble insects out of our robes and blankets—

in the evening two Canoes of Clât Sops Visit us they brought with them Wap pa to, a black Swet root they Call Sha-na toe qua, and a Small Sea Otter Skin, all of which we purchased for a fiew fishing hooks and a Small Sack of Indian tobacco which was given by the Snake Inds.

Those Indians appear well disposed we gave a Medal to the principal Chief named Con-ny-au or Com mo-wol and treated those with him with as much attention as we could— I can readily discover that they are Close deelers, & Stickle for a verry little, never close a bargin except they think they have the advantage Value Blue beeds highly, white they also prise but no other Colour do they Value in the least— the Wap pa to they Sell high, this root the purchase at a high price from the nativs above.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

December 13
Clark: The Clatsops leave us to day after a brackfast on Elk which they appeared to be very fond of

before they left us they Sold me two robes of the Skins of a Small animal about the Size of a Cat, and to Captain Lewis 2 Cat or Loucirva Skins for the purpose of makeing a Coat.

Drewyer & Shannon returned from hunting, haveing killed 18 Elk & left them boochered in the woods near the right fork of the river about 6 miles above this place

— in the evining 3 Indians came in a Canoe, and offered to us for Sale roots & 2 Sea otter Skins, neither of which we Could purchase this evening.

Some Showers of rain last night, and to day Several verry hard Showers— we Continue to put up the Streight butifull balsom pine on our houses—and we are much pleased to find that the timber Splits most butifully and to the width of 2 feet or more.

Whitehouse: We had rain & Cloudy weather, during the whole of this day.

We raised another line of our Huts. they had 2 Rooms in each hut, & were 16 feet in the clear. We finished raising the huts, & began the foundation of another line of them in the same Manner, of those we had raised.

the three lines composed 3 Squares, & the other square we intend picketting in, & to have 2 Gates at the two Corners.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

December 15
Clark: I Set out early with 16 men and 3 canoes for the Elk, proceed up the River three miles and thence up a large Creek from the right about 3 miles

the hite of the tide water drew up the Canoes and all hands went out in three different parties and brought in to the Canoe each Man a quarter of Elk,

I Sent them out for a Second load and had Some of the first Cooked against their return,

after eateing a harty diner dispatched the party for a third and last load, about half the men missed their way and did not get to the Canoes untill after Dark, and Serjt. Ordway Colter, Colins Whitehouse & McNeal Staid out all night without fire and in the rain

— Cloudy all day Some rain in the evening.

Whitehouse: We had cloudy weather. Captain Clark with most of our Men set out with 3 Canoes, to go up the Little River about 3 Miles, after the 17 Elks &ca. which the 2 hunters who returned to Camp Yesterday had killed, & left there. We proceeded on, & came near to the place with the Canoes & halted.

The party had carried each 2 loads of Meat to the Canoes and went out for a third. The woods at that place and under brush lay so thick, that the Men got scatter'd & some of them were lost.

Serjeant Ordway, three of the Men & myself were among those that had lost themselves. We were obliged to stay out during the Night. It rained all that night & the wind blew very cold & being without fire, we suffered considerably both from the Rain & wind. Four of the party also got lost, but they came to the place where the party was with much difficulty after dark.—

Gass: The morning was cloudy. Captain Clarke with 16 of the party started to bring in the meat the 4 men were taking care of; myself and 2 others were employed in fixing and finishing the quarters of the Commanding Officers, and 2 more preparing puncheons for covering the huts.

Some light showers fell during the day; and at night 3 Indians came to our camp, and brought us two large salmon.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Clatsop Indians Fort Clatsop USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

December 16
Clark: I, as also the party with me, experienced a most dreadfull night rain and wet without any Couvering, indeed we Set up the greater part of the Night. when we lay down the water Soon Came under us and obliged us to rise.

the five men who Stayed out all night joind me this morning wet and Cold, haveing Stayed out without fire or Shelter and the rain poreing down upon them all night their appearance was truly distressing—

they had left all their loads near the place they Spent the night—

I dispatched 12 men for 2 Elk which was reather below on the opposit Side of the Creak, with directions to meet me at the 2d bend in the Creek below,

had all the meat which had been brought in yesterday put into 2 Canoes and proceeded down to the 2d bend where I met the 12 men with the 2 Elk,

dispatchd 6 men with one of those who Staid out last night for the meet left in the woods & the remainder an elk at Some distance and proceeded on my Self with 3 Canoes to the fort.

wind violent from the S E trees falling, rian and hail, we with Some risque proceeded on thro the high waves in the river, a tempestious disagreeable day.

I found 3 indians at our Camp, they brought fish to Sell which were pore & not fit for use,

had the meet house coverd and the meat all hung up,

Several men complain of haveing hurt themselves heavy loads of meat.

Whitehouse: The party that I was with found our way this morning to where the Canoes lay. We took on board them the Meat that was brought by the whole of this party, and returned down to the fort with our Canoes.

It rained very hard during this day.

We unloaded the Canoes, & deposited the Meat in the house prepared in the fort, for that purpose.

We finished covering the Meat house.

Some of our party was left behind in the Woods, to bring in the remainder of the meat, left by the party that went with Captain Clark.

We had hard Rain & some hail in the afternoon also.

Gass: This was a wet morning with high wind.

About 8 Capt. Clarke and 15 men came in loaded with meat; they left a canoe with 7 men to bring in the remainder.

They had a very bad night, as the weather was stormy and a great deal of rain fell. Notwithstanding this, a serjeant and four men, who had got lost, lay out all night without fire.

As soon as they arrived all hands were set to carrying up the meat, and putting it in a house we had prepared for the purpose. The whole of the day was stormy and wet.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Clatsop Indians Fort Clatsop USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

December 17
Clark: Some rain last night and a continuation of it this morning. all the men at work about the houses, Some Chiking, Dobbing Cutting out dores &c. &c.

The 7 men left to bring in the Elk arrived and informed that they Could not find the meat that the party who Stayed out all night had left—

the forepart of this day rained hailed and blew hard, the after part is fair and Cool— a Mountain which is S. E. about 10 mile distant has got Snow on its top which is ruged and uneavin

Cause a Small fire & Smoke to be made under the meat which is hung up in Small peaces: The trees which our men have fallen latterly Split verry badly into boards. The most of our Stores are wet. our Leather Lodge has become So rotten that the Smallest thing tares it into holes and it is now Scrcely Sufficent to keep off the rain off a Spot Sufficiently large for our bead.

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

December 18
Clark: rained and Snowd alternetly all the last night, and Spurts of Snow and Hail Continued untill 12 oClock, which has chilled the air which is Cool and disagreeable, the wind hard & unsettled—

The men being thinly Dressed and mockersons without Soks is the reason that but little can be done at the Houses to day—

at 12 the Hail & Snow Seased, and rain Suckceeded for the latter part of the day

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

December 19
Clark: Some rain with intervales of fair weather last night, this morning Clear & the wind from the S, W.

we dispatched Sjt. Pryor with 8 men in 2 Canoes across Meriwethers Bay for the boards of an old Indian house which is vacant, the residue of the men at work at their huts—

the after part of the Day Cloudy with Hail and rain,

Serjt. Pryor & party returned in the evening with a load of old boards which was found to be verry indifferent

2 Indians Cam and Stayed a Short time to day

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December 20
Clark: Some rain and hail last night and the rained Continued untill 10 oClock a,m,

Men all employd in Carrying punchens or boads & Covering the houses, 4 of which were Covered to day,

the after part of the day Cloudy with Several Showers of rain—

3 Indians arrive in a Canoe. they brought with them mats, roots & Sackacome berries to Sell for which they asked Such high prices that we did not purchase any of them. Those people ask generally double and tribble the value of what they have to Sell, and never take less than the real value of the article in Such things as is calculated to do them Service. Such as Blue & white beeds, with which they trade with the naivs above; files which they make use of to Sharpen their tools, fish hooks of different Sises and tobacco— Tobacco and blue beeds they do prefur to every thing.

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December 21
Clark: rain as usial last night and all day to day moderately.

we Continued at the Cabins dobbing & Shinking of them, fall Several trees which would not Split into punchins—

one of the indians was detected Stealing a horn Spoon, and leave the Camp.

our Sackacome out, which we made use of to mix with our tobacco to Smoke which has an agreeable flavour.Send 2 men to gather Some at the ocian,

Saw Elk Sign

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December 22
Clark: rained all the last night & to day without much intermition we finish dobbig 4 huts which is all we have Covered, the Punchin floor & Bunks finished Drewyer go out to trap— Sjt. J. Ordway, Gibson & my Servent Sick Several with Biles on them & bruses of different kinds, much of our meat Spoiled.

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December 23
Clark: rained without intermition all last night, and this day much Thunder in the morning and evening with rain and Some hail to day,

we are all employd about our huts have ours Covered and Dobed & we move into it,

2 Canoes of Indians Came up to day. I purchased 3 mats verry neetly made, 2 bags made with Flags verry neetly made, those the Clotsops Carry their fish in. also a Panthor Skin and Some Lickorish roots, for which I gave a worn out file, 6 fish hooks & Some Pounded fish which to us was Spoiled, but those people were fond of—

in the evining those people left us I also gave a String of wompom to a Chief, and Sent a Small pice of Simimon to a Sick Indian in the Town who had attached himself to me

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December 24
Clark: hard rain at Different times last night and all this day without intermition.

men all employd in finishing their huts and moveing into them.

Cuscalah theIndian who had treated me So politely when I was at the Clâtsops village, come up in a Canoe with his young brother & 2 Squars he laid before Capt Lewis and my Self each a mat and a parcel of roots—Some time in the evening two files was demanded for the presents of mats and roots, as we had no files to part with, we each rturned the present which we had received, which displeased Cuscalah a little.

our Store of Meat entirely Spoiled, we are obliged to make use of it as we have nothing else except a little pounded fish, the remains of what we purchased near the great falls of the Columbia, and which we have ever found to be a convenient resort, and a portable method of curing fish

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December 25
Clark: at day light this morning we were awoke by the discharge of the fire arm of all our party & a Selute, Shoute and a Song which the whole party joined in under our windows, after which they retired to their rooms were Chearfull all the morning—

after brackfast we divided our Tobacco which amounted to 12 carrots one half of which we gave to the men of the party who used tobacco, and to those who doe not use it we make a present of a handkerchief,

The Indians leave us in the evening all the party Snugly fixed in their huts—

I recved a presnt of Capt L. of a fleece hosrie Shirt Draws and Socks—, a pr. mockersons of Whitehouse a Small Indian basket of Gutherich, two Dozen white weazils tails of the Indian woman, & Some black root of the Indians before their departure— Drewyer informs me that he Saw a Snake pass across the parth to day.

The day proved Showerey wet and disagreeable.

we would have Spent this day the nativity of Christ in feasting, had we any thing either to raise our Sperits or even gratify our appetites, our Diner concisted of pore Elk, So much Spoiled that we eate it thro' mear necessity, Some Spoiled pounded fish and a fiew roots

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December 26
Clark: rained and blew with great Violence S E all the last night, Some hard Claps of Thunder, the rain as usial Continued all day—

we dry our wet articles before the fire, and have our blankets fleed, great numbers were Caught out of the blankets, those trouble insects are So abundant that we have to have them killd. out of our blankets every day or get no Sleep at night—

The powder in maney of the mens horns are wet from their being so long exposed to the rain &c.

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December 27
Clark: rained last night as usial and the greater part of this day.

In the evening Co-mo wool the Chief and 4 men of the Clat Sop nation presented us a root which resembles the licquirish in Size and taste, which they roste like a potato which they Call Cul ho-mo, also a black root which is cured in a kill like the pash-a-co above; this root has a Sweet taste and the natives are verry fond of it— they Call this root Shaw-na-tâh-que. also a dried berry about the size of a Chery which they Call Shele well all those roots those Indians value highly and give them verry Spearingly.

in return for the above roots Capt Lewis gave the Chief a Small piece of Sheap Skin to Ware on his head, I gave his Son a par of ear bobs and a pece of ribon, and a Small piece of brass for which they were much pleased.

Those roots and berries are timely and extreamly greatfull to our Stomachs, we as have nothing to eate but Spoiled Elk meat,

I Showed Capt L. 2 Musquetors to day, or an insect So much the Size Shape and appearance of a Musquetor that we Could observe no kind of differance.

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December 28
Clark: rained as usial the greater part of the last night and a continuation this morning accompanied with wind from the S East

Derected Drewyer, Shannon, Labeash, Reuben Field, and Collins to hunt; Jos. Fields, Bratten, Gibson to proceed to the Ocean at Some convenient place form a Camp and Commence makeing Salt with 5 of the largest Kittles, and Willard and Wiser to assist them in Carrying the Kittles to the Sea Coast— all the other men to be employed about putting up picketes & makeing the gates of the fort.

York verry unwell from a violent Coald and Strain by Carrying meet from the woods and lifting the heavy logs on the works &c.

rained all Day without intermition. the Weather verry worm.

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December 29
Clark: rained all the last night as usial, this morning Cloudy without rain, a hard wind from the S. E

I gave the Cheif a razor, and himself and party left us after begging us for maney articles none of which they recvied as we Could not Spare the articles they were most in want of.

Peter Crusat Sick with a violent Cold, York better. all hands employed about the Pickets & gates of the fort.

we were informed day before yesterday that a whale had foundered on the coast to the S. W. near the Kil a mox N. and that the greater part of the Clat Sops were gorn for the oile & blubber, the wind proves too high for us to proceed by water to See this monster, Capt Lewis has been in readiness Since we first heard of the whale to go and see it and collect Some of its Oil, the wind has proved too high as yet for him to proceed—

this evining a young Chief 4 Men and 2 womin of the War ci a cum Nation arrived, and offered for Sale Dressed Elk Skins and Wap pa to, the Chief made us a preasent of about ˝ a bushel of those roots. and we purchased about 1˝ bushels of those roots for which we gave Some fiew red beeds Small peaces of brass wire & old Check

those roots proved a greatfull addition to our Spoiled Elk, which has become verry disagreeable both to the taste & Smell

we gave this Chief a Medal of a Small Size and a piece of red riben to tie around the top of his hat which was of a Singular Construction

Those people will not Sell all their Wap pa to to us

they inform us that they are on their way to trade with the Clât Sops. The nations above Carry on a verry Considerable interchange of property with those in this neighbourhood. they pass altogether by water, they have no roads or pathes through the Countrey which we have observed, except across portages from one Creek to another, all go litely dressed ware nothing below the waste in the Coaldest of weather, a piece of fur around their bodies and a Short roabe Composes the Sum total of their dress, except a few hats, and beeds about their necks arms and legs Small badly made and homely generally.

The flees are So noumerous and hard to get rid of; that the Indians have different houses which they resort to occasionally, not withstanding all their precautions they never Step into our house without leaveing Sworms of those tormenting insects; and they torment us in Such a manner as to deprive us of half the nights Sleep frequently— the first of those insects which we saw on the Columbian waters was at the Canoe portage at the great falls.

Hard winds & Cloudy all day but verry little rain to day.

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December 30
Clark: Hard wind and Some rain last night. this morning the Sun Shown for a Short time—

four Indians came down from the War cia cum Village, they offered us roots which we did not think proper to accept of as in return they expect 3 or 4 times as much as the roots as we Could purchase the Roots for, and are never Satisfied with what they receive, those 4 Indians & these that Came yesterday stayed all day.

Drewyer returned and informed that he had killed 4 Elk at no great distance off, a party of 6 men was imediately dispatched for the meat, and returned at Dusk with the 4 Elk— we had a Sumptious Supper of Elks tongues & marrow bones which was truly gratifying—

our fortification is Completed this evening—and at Sun Set we let the nativs know that our Custom will be in future, to Shut the gates at Sun Set at which time all Indians must go out of the fort and not return into it untill next morning after Sunrise at which time the gates will be opened, those of the War ci a cum Nation who are very foward left the houses with reluctianc

this day proved to be the fairest and best which we have had since our arrival at this place, only three Showers dureing this whole day, wind the fore part of the day.

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December 31
Clark: last night was Cloudy and Some rain, this day prove Cloudy and Showerry are day,

all the Indians Continue at their Camp near us, two other Canoes arrived, one from the War ci â cum Village with 3 indians and the other of 3 men & a Squar from higher up the river and are of the Skil-lute nation, those people brought with them Some Wappato roots, mats made of flags and rushes dried fish, and a fiew Shaw-na tâh-que and Dressed Elk Skins, all of which they asked enormous prices for, perticularly the dressed Elk Skins,

I purchased of those people Some Wap pa to two mats and about 3 pipes of their tobacco in a neet little bag made of rushes— This tobacco was much like what we had Seen before with the So So ne or Snake indians, for those articles I gave a large fishing hook and Several other Small articles, the fishing hooks they were verry fond of. Those Skil lutes are much better behaved than the War ci a cum indeed we found a great alteration in the Conduct of them all this morning, the Sight of our Sentinal on his post at the gate, together with our deturmined proseedure of putting all out at Sun Set has made this reform in those War ci a coms who is foward impertinant an thieveish.

The nativs all leave us the fort this evening before Sun Set without being told or desired to do So—

we had Sinks dug & a Sentinal box made—

a Skil lute brought a gun which he requested me to have repared, it only wanted a Screw flattened So as to Catch, I put a flint into his gun & he presented me in return a peck of Wappato for payment, I gave him piece of a Sheap Skin and a Small piece of blue Cloth to Cover his lock for which he was much pleased and gave me in return Some roots &c.

I Saw flies and different kinds of insects in motion to day— Snakes are yet to be Seen and Snales without Covers is Common and verry large water fowls of various kinds are in great numbers in the rivers and Creeks and the sides of Meriwethers Bay near us but excessively wild—

the fore part of this night fair and Clear

With the party of Clât Sops who visited us last was a man of much lighter Coloured than the nativs are generaly, he was freckled with long duskey red hair, about 25 years of age, and must Certainly be half white at least, this man appeared to understand more of the English language than the others of his party, but did not Speak a word of English, he possessed all the habits of the indians

[Probably the man known to the Astorians as Jack Ramsay, because that name was tattooed on his left arm. His father had deserted or was shipwrecked from a British trading vessel—a very early one, judging from the man's apparent age. An Indian with red hair would have to have inherited genes for the trait from both parents. There are legends, apparently with some basis in fact, that a Spanish ship was shipwrecked in the area, perhaps in 1707, the survivors leaving both red-haired and black descendents, one of whom called himself Soto. Thus the redheaded man Lewis and Clark saw could have had European ancestry on both sides.]

Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Clatsop Indians The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

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This guide last edited 12/17/2005
This guide last revised 11/26/2007
This guide created 11/23/2005