for

The Rwandan Flag

JANUARY 28

The Rwandan Flag
 
 

Rwanda
 
 
 
Teaching - there can be no finer calling requiring the clearest demonstration of moral and ethical behavior.
Ira Shull, For the Love of Teaching
 
Why do you teach? Let Us Know. Tell Us about your most memorable teacher.
 
 



Presidential Proclamations






Gnus for Kidz

Who Am I?









 
5-Minute Quests Today's 5-Minute Quest

Answers to all questions can be found on this page or by using links provided on this page.
Good Luck!
5-Minute Quests
BEGINNERS

1. What country was formed on this date in 1961? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

2. Which university newspaper was first published on this date in 1878? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

3. According to Bookwire, how old was Vera B. Williams when she illustrated her first book for publication? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

Use all of these letters to spell the title of a work by Vera B. Williams (according to Reading Is Fundamental):
ROE COST
INTERMEDIATE

1. What agreement went into effect on this date in 1973? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

2. According to Fact Monster, King Henry VII was the founder of which English royal dynasty? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

3. According to the Twins Foundation, what ballooning feat was accomplished by Auguste Piccard's grandson Bertrand? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

Use all of these letters to spell the title of work by Jackson Pollock (according to the Web Museum):
THEY SHINE A TEE

EXPERT
(hint: all three questions will require you to use a link found on this page)

1. According to the Falling Water web site, what is the title of the Richmond Barthé work of art included at Frank Lloyd Wright's Falling Water?

2. According to the Guggenheim, although Jackson Pollock was born in Wyoming, in which two states did he actually grow up?

3. According to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, in what year did astronaut Ronald McNair earn his Ph.D. from MIT?

Use all of these letters to spell the title of a work by Richmond Barthé (according to Long Island University):
SIERRA VET
 
 
Picture
King Henry VII of England
Born on This Date 1457

[Britannia.com]

the British Monarchy

Picture
Auguste & Jean Felix Piccard
Born on This Date 1884

[Naturforschende Gesellschaft in Zürich]

Hot-air Balloons

Picture
Richmond Barthé
Born on This Date 1901

[Smithsonian Institution]

American Artists

Picture
Jackson Pollock
Born on This Date 1912

ZDF Germany

American Artists

Picture
Vera B. Williams
Born on This Date 1927

[University of Wisconsin]

Primary Authors

 
Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan
Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma
Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming
Icon
Icon
Rwanda: Democracy Day
(Celebration of the anniversary of the formation of the Republic of Rwanda: 01/28/1961)
Rwanda Canadian Immigration Service
Calendar
Primary Authors and Illustrators Born on This Date Young-adult  Authors and Illustrators Born on This Date Icon
1927 Vera B. Williams (California-born Children's Author, Illustrator) Vera Williams Primary Children's Authors American Artists
1932 Ann Jonas (New York-born Children's Author, Illustrator) New York Authors and Illustrators Primary Children's Authors American Artists
Authors and Poets
1841 Henry Morton Stanley (Welsh-American News Correspondent for the New York Herald, Famous for Finding Dr Livingstone in Africa) Welsh Writers and Authors Journalism Africa
1853 José Martí (Cuban Poet, Revolutionary) José Martí Poetry
1862 Franklin Hooper (Massachusetts-born Editor of the Encyclopedia Britannica) Massachusetts Authors Encyclopedia Britannica
1869 Virgilio Dávila (Puerto Rican Poet) Virgilio Dávila Poetry Latin-American Studies
1873 Sidonie-Gabrielle Colette (French Novelist) French Authors Poetry Authors Calendar Writer's Almanac History Channel Biography
1916 Virgilio Ferreira (Portuguese Novelist) Portuguese Authors
1935 David Lodge (English Novelist) English Authors British Council Writer's Almanac
Classical Composers and Performers
1887 Arthur Rubinstein (Polish-American Classical Pianist) Poland Classical Musicians Biography New York Times
Artists
1901 Richmond Barthé (Mississippi-born African-American Sculptor) Richmond Barthe American Artists Famous African Americans
1912 Jackson Pollock (Wyoming-born Artist) Wyoming American Artists
1929 Claes Oldenburg (Swedish-American Artist) Sweden American Artists
Explorers, Pioneers, Aviators and Astronauts
1884 Jean & Auguste Piccard (Swiss-born Belgian Balloonists) Auguste Piccard Belgian Explorers and Aviators Hot Air Ballooons
Scientists, Mathematicians and Inventors
1611 Johannes Hevelius (Polish Astronomer) Polish Scientists & Mathematicians The Moon Comets
1855 William Burroughs (New York-born Inventor of the First Commercially-Successful Adding Machine) New York Scientists and Inventors Inventors and Inventions Mathematics
1903 Kathleen Lonsdale (English Pioneer of X-ray Crystallography) English Scientists & Mathematicians Crystallography
Military Leaders
1828 Thomas Hindman (Tennessee-born Confederate General) Tennessee Military Figures American Civil War History Channel
1833 Charles George Gordon (English General) English Military Figures Greenwich Guide
Philosopher, Educators, Religious Leaders
1954 Rick Warren (California-born Religious Leader, Author) California Authors Religious Leaders Official Web Site Writer's Almanac
Political and Social Leaders
1457 Henry VII, King of England King Henry VII British Monarchy
1762 William Stephens (English Statesman; First Governor of Colonial Georgia) English Political and Social Leaders Georgia Political and Social Leaders Colonial Georgia University of Georgia
1768 Frederick VI, King of Denmark Denmark
1822 Alexander MacKenzie (Prime Minister of Canada) Scotland Canada
1874 James Larkin (Irish Labor Leader) Irish Political and Social Leaders Labor Biography
Performing Artists
1892 Arnst Lubitsch (German/American Film Director) Arnst Lubitsch Filmmakers Biography
1936 Alan Alda (New York City-born Actor) New York Performing Artists Actors Film Television Biography
1968 Sarah McLachlan (Canadian Singer, Songwriter) Canadian Performing Artists Popular Musicians Biography
1981 Elijah (Jordan) Wood (Iowa-born Actor) Iowa Performing Artists Actors Film Biography
Sports Figures
1957 Nick Price (South African Member of the World Golf Hall of Fame) South African Sports Figures World Golf Hall of Fame
Persons of Historic Significance Who Have Died on This Date Persons of Historic Significance Who Have Died on This Date
814 Charlemagne (King of the Franks, Emperor of the West, Founder of the Holy Roman Empire) European History
1547 Henry VIII, King of England Henry VIII British Monarchy
1596 Francis Drake (English Explorer) Francis Drake Explorers Naval History
1612 Thomas Bodley (English Founder of Oxford University's Bodleian Library) English Political and Social Leaders Libraries and Media Resources Bodleian Library Chambers Book of Days
1725 Peter the Great, Czar of Russia Russian Political Leaders
1859 William Hickling Prescott (Massachusetts-born Historian) Massachusetts Authors U.S. History Chambers Book of Days
1908 John Coburn (Indiana-born Attorney, Legislator, Civil War General, U.S. Congressman) Indiana Political and Social Leaders American Civil War U.S. Congress
1927 John Ottis Adams (Indiana-born Artist; First Instructor in Painting and Drawing at the Herron School of Art in Indianapolis) Indiana Artists American Artists Educators of Note Herron School of Art
1938 Bernd Rosemeyer (German Race-Car Driver Killed Trying to Break the Public Road Speed Record) German Sports Figures Auto Racing Center for the Study of Technology and Society
1939 William Butler Yeats (Irish Poet; 1923 Nobel Laureate in Literature) William Butler Yeats Poetry 1923 Nobel Laureate in LIterature
1960 Zora Neale Hurston (Florida-born African-American Author) Zora Neale Hurston American Authors African American Authors
1976 Vivian Henderson (Tennessee-born African-American Educator, Civil Rights Advocate) Tennessee Political and Social Leaders Educators of Note Civil Rights/human Rights African American Political and Social Leaders Atlanta University Time University of Georgia
1985 John Koenakeefe Mohl (South African Artist) South African Artists Artists South African History
1986 Christa McAuliffe (Massachusetts-born Teacher, Astronaut Killed in the Challenger Disaster) Christa McAuliffe Educator Astronauts
Gregory Jarvis (New York-born Astronaut Killed in the Challenger Disaster) New York Astronauts
Ronald McNair (South Carolina-born African-American Physicist, Astronaut Killed in the Challenger Disaster) Ronald McNair Physics Famous African Americans Astronauts
Ellison S. Onizuka (Hawaii-born Asian-American Astronaut Killed in the Challenger Disaster) Hawaii Asian-American Explorers and Aviators Astronauts
Judith A. Resnik (Ohio-born Astronaut Killed in the Challenger Disaster) Ohio Astronauts
Francis R. Scobee (Washington-born Astronaut Killed in the Challenger Disaster) Washington State Astronauts
Michael J. Smith (North Carolina-born Astronaut Killed in the Challenger Disaster) North Carolina Astronauts
1994 Hal Smith (Otis Campbell on the Andy Griffith Show) Michigan Performing Artists Television The Andy Griffith Show Cartoons and Comics
1996 Jerry Seigel (Ohio-born Cartoonist; Creator of Superman) Jerry Seigel Cartoons and Comics
Joseph Brodsky (Russian-American Poet Laureate of the United States; 1987 Nobel Laureate for Literature) Joseph Brodsky Russian Authors Poetry 1987 Nobel Laureate for Literature
2002 Astrid Lindgren (Swedish Children's Author) Astrid Lindgren Primary Authors
Historically Significant Events Historically Significant Events
Historic Events of the 1500s that Occurred on this Date
1547 10-year-old Edward VI Succeeds His Father, Henry VIII, as King of England English History British Monarchy Tutor History
Historic Events of the 1700s that Occurred on this Date
1770 Lord Frederick North Begins His Administration as Prime Minister of England English Political and Social Leaders Colonial America American Revolution Chambers Book of Days
1777 British General, John Burgoyne, Submits a Plan to Isolate New England from the Other Colonies British Military Figures Colonial America American Revolution History Channel
1790 Delaware's General Assembly Formally Adopts the First 11 of the Original 12 Proposed Amendments to the New US Constitution Delaware U.S. Constitution State of Delaware
1791 Alexander Hamilton Recommends Establishing a National Mint Alexander Hamilton Currency History Channel
Historic Events of the 1800s that Occurred on this Date
1805
Travelling with Lewis and Clark

Clark: attempt to cut through the ice &c get our Boat and Canoo out without Suckcess,

Several Indians here wishing to get war hatchets made

the man Sick yesterday is getting well

Mr. Jessome our interpeter was taken verry unwell this evening warm day

Ordway: Clear and cold. all hands employed cutting the Ice from round the Barge. Got large pry bars & attempted to Shake hir loose but found that we could not move hir without considerable more cutting or other means.

Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04
Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery Fort Mandan Map Native American Tribes

Health Care Keelboat

The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

1806
Travelling with Lewis and Clark

Lewis: Drewyer and Baptiest La Page set out this morning on a hunting excurtion. about noon Howard and Werner returned with a supply of salt; the badness of the weather and the difficulty of the road had caused their delay. they inform us that the salt makers are still much straitened for provision, having killed two deer only in the last six days; and that there are no Elk in their neighourhood. The party that were sent this morning up Netul river for the Elk returned in the even ing with three of them only; the Elk had been killed just before the snow fell which had covered them and so altered the apparent face of the country that the hunters could not find the Elk which they had killed. the river on which Fort Clatsop stands we now call Ne-tul, this being the name by which the Clatsops call it.

The Cranbury of this neighbourhood is precisely the same common to the U' States, and is the production of marshey or boggy grounds. The light brown berry, is the fruit of a tree about the size shape and appearance in every rispect with that in the U. States called the wild crab apple; the leaf is also precisely the same as is also the bark in texture and colour. the berrys grow in clumps at the end of the small branches; each berry supported by a seperate stem, and as many as from 3 to 18 or 20 in a clump. the berry is ovate with one of it's extremities attatched to the peduncle, where it is in a small degre concave like the insertion of the stem of the crab apple. I know not whether this fruit can properly be denominated a berry, it is a pulpy pericarp, the outer coat of which is in a thin smoth, tho' firm tough pillecle; the pericarp containing a membranous capsule with from three to four cells, each containing a seperate single seed in form and colour like that of the wild crab. The wood of this tree is excessively hard when seasoned. the natives make great uce of it to form their wedges with which they split their boards of pine for the purpose of building houses. these wedges they also employ in spliting their fire-wood and in hollowing out their canoes. I have seen the natives drive the wedges of this wood into solid dry pine which it cleft without fracturing or injuring the wedge in the smallest degree. we have also found this wood usefull to us for ax handles as well as glutts or wedges. the native also have wedges made of the beams of the Elk's horns which appear to answer extremely well. this fruit is exceedingly assid, and resembles the flavor of the wild crab.


Gass: A clear cold morning, and the weather continued cold all day. About half of our men were employed in bringing home meat; and it was found a very cold uncomfortable business. The two men who lately went to the salt works returned with a small supply.

Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Clatsops Snow
The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska
1807 London's Pall Mall Is the First Street Lit by Gaslights London Light Gases Historic Firsts Chambers Book of Days Historic UK
1825 Delaware's General Assembly Bars African-Americans from Coming Within a 1/2 Mile of Polling Booths on Election Day Delaware Racism Voting Rights Laws African-American Heritage State of Delaware
1831 In Florida, the Name of the West Point Community Is Changed to Apalachicola Apalachicola, Florida Florida Historical Society
1836 Italian Hero of the Battle of San Jacinto, Prospero Bernardi, Arrives in Texas Aboard the Schooner Pennsylvania Italian Military Figures Texas Military Figures Battle of San Jacinto Texas State Historical Association
1846 Montgomery Is Selected as the Capital of Alabama by the State Legislature on the 16th Ballot Montgomery, Alabama Alabama State Archives
1851 Illinois State Legislature Approves Northwestern University's Act of Incorporation Chicago Education Northwestern University
The Oregon Territorial Legislature Creates Lane County in Honor of Governor Joseph Lane Lane County, Oregon SalemOregon.com
1855 The First Train Crosses the Isthmus of Panamá Panamá Railroads Historic Firsts History Channel
1861 President-elect Abraham Lincoln Accepts an Invitation to Visit Indianapolis, Indiana en Route to His Inauguration in Washington, D.C. Washington, D.C. Indianapolis, Indiana Abraham Lincoln American Presidency Lincoln Logs
1863 The USS. Sagamore Captures and Destroys the British Blockade Runner, Elizabeth, at the Mouth of Florida's Jupiter Inlet Great Britain Florida Naval Military History American Civil War Florida Historical Society
1864 The U. S. Schooner, Beauregard, Captures the British Blockade-Runner Racer North of Cape Canaveral, Florida Great Britain Cape Canaveral, Florida Naval Military History American Civil War Florida Historical Society
The British Steamer Rosita Is Captured by the U.S. Army Transport Steamer Western Metropolis Near Key West, Florida Great Britain Key West, Florida Naval Military History American Civil War Florida Historical Society
1866 The San Francisco Golden Era Publishes the Short Story, "Captain Montgomery," by Mark Twain San Francisco Media Missouri Authors Mark Twain American Authors Journalism American Collection
1870 New Mexico Businessman, Frontiersman, Lucien B. Maxwell, Sells 1.7 Million Acres of Land to a British Investment Group for $1,350,000 British Business Leaders New Mexico Business Clan Maxwell Society of USA New Mexico Magazine
1871 The Franco-Prussian War Ends, France Loses Alsace-Lorraine France Germany European History New York Times
1872 5.7 Magnitude Earthquake Kills 188 People in Samaxi, Azerbaijan, Leaving About 30,000 People Homeless Azerbaijan Earthquakes Death USGS
1873 U.S. Patent #135,245 Is Obtained by French Chemist Louis Pasteur for a Process of Brewing Beer and Ale Louis Pasteur Patents and Trademarks Foods and Nutrition USPTO
1877 Lumberman, Winfield Scott Gerrish, Opens the Lake George and Muskegon River Railroad in Clare County, Michigan Clare County, Michigan Railroad Trees State of Michigan
1878 The Yale Daily News Is First Published Journalism Education Yale Daily News
1882 In Ohio, Findlay College Is Established Ohio Education Education University of Findlay Ohio Historical Society
1885 The Florida Legislature Approves the Incorporation of the City of Ocala Ocala, Florida Florida Historical Society
1890 Farmers in Clarks Grove, Minnesota Form a Dairy Cooperative Clarks Grove, Minnesota Farming & Agriculture Cows Business Minnesota Historical Society
Historic Events that occurred 1900-1949 on this date
1902 The Andrew Carnegie Institution Is Established Andrew Carnegie Philanthropy Carnegie Institution History Channel
1904 University of Chicago Begins the Tradition of Awarding Athletic Letters Competitive Sports University of Chicago Sports Historic Firsts
1908 Julia Ward Howe Is the First Woman Elected to American Academy of Arts & Letters Julia Ward Howe Women Historic Firsts Library of Congress Massachusetts Foundation for the Humanities
1912 The First Presbyterian Church Is Dedicated in Orange, Texas - Possibly as the First Air-Conditioned Building West of the Mississippi River Orange, Texas Religion Historic Firsts First Presbyterian Church of Orange, Texas Texas State Historical Association
1914 Beverly Hills, California Is Incorporated Beverly Hillfs, California Beverly Hills, CA Superior Court of California, County of Los Angeles
1915 German Military Sinks the U.S. Merchant Ship William P. Frye Off the Coast of Brazil Germany Brazil Naval History World War I History Channel
President Woodrow Wilson Signs the Act Creating the Coast Guard President Woodrow Wilson Naval History Law and Legal Resources U.S. Coast Guard
1916 President Woodrow Wilson Nominates Louis Brandeis as the First Jewish Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court Louis Brandeis President Woodrow Wilson U.S. Supreme Court Judaism Historic Firsts History Channel
1917 American Forces Are Recalled from Mexico After Nearly 11 Months of Fruitless Searching for Mexican Revolutionary Pancho Villa Pancho Villa History Channel
1918 Civil War Breaks Out in Finland Between the Red Supporters of the Russian Bolsheviks and the White Opposition Finland Russia League of Nations
In Atlanta, Georgia Barbers Raise the Price of a Shave From 15 to 20 Cents Atlanta, Georgia Business University of Georgia
1922 The Green Bay Packers Are Expelled from the American Professional Football Association for Using Notre Dame Players under Assumed Names Green Bay, Wisconsin Football University of Notre Dame Wisconsin Historical Society
1927 Boeing Wins Federal Contract to Transport Mail Between Chicago and San Francisco San Francisco Chicago U.S. Postal Service Boeing History Link
1932 70,000 Japanese Troops Land at Shanghai, Forcing the Chinese 19th Route Army to Retreat Japan China League of Nations
Wisconsin Is the First State to Approve Unemployment Compensation Wisconsin Business Labor Business Law and Legal Resources Historic Firsts Wisconsin Historical Society
1937 Rolls-Royce Wraith Makes Its First Test Run English History Rolls Royce Antique Automobile Club of America History Channel
1938 German Race-Car Driver, Rudolf Caracciola, Sets a Public Road Speed Record (268.496 mph) on a German Autobahn German Sports Figures Auto Racing History Channel Center for the Study of Technology and Society
German Race-Car Driver, Bernd Rosemeyer, Is Killed Trying to Break Rudolf Caracciola's Public Road Speed Record German Sports Figures Auto Racing Death Center for the Study of Technology and Society
1940 Half of the Town of Candle, Alaska Is Destroyed by Fire Alaska Fire Alaska Historical Society
1942 Pro-Axis Saboteurs Attempt to Destabilize Gold Mine Production by Destroying 5 South African Power Stations South Africa Gold World War II South African History
1945 Allied Forces Break Japan's Blockade of China by Opening the 717-mile "Burma Road" Giving China a Supply Line to India China Japan World War II History Channel
1946 Canadian Racing Schooner "Bluenose" Is Wrecked on a Reef and Sinks Off the Coast of Haiti Canada Haiti Naval History Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
1949 Jack Kerouac Leaves New York Beginning Hs Second Cross Country Trip New York City Jack Kerouac American Authors American Collection
Historic Events that occurred 1950-1999 on this date
1954 Dick's Drive-in Begins Serving Hamburgers in Seattle, Washington Seattle, Washington Automobiles Fast Foods History Link
1956 Elvis Presley Makes His First-Ever Television Appearance on the Musical-Variety Program Stage Show Elvis Presley Popular Musicians Television Historic Firsts History Channel
1958 Roy Campanella Is Paralyzed in Auto Accident Roy Campanella Baseball Hall of Fame Automobile Safety Special Needs Education Famous African Americans
Ferenc Münnich Becomes Chairman of Hungary's Council of Ministers Hungary Cold War history Research Center
The United States Air Force Successfully Tests Its Thor Missile Cape Canaveral, Florida Cape Canaveral, Florida Space Exploration Cold War Florida Historical Society
Danish Inventor, Kirk Christiansen, Submits a Patent for the Interlocking Plastic Lego Brick Danish Scientists & Inventors Inventors & Inventions Patents & Trademarks Legos ABC
1959 Vince Lombardi Is Named Head Coach of the NFL's Green Bay Packers Green Bay, Wisconsin Vince Lombardi Professional Football Hall of Fame NFL Wisconsin Historical Society
1960 The NFL Announces New Franchises for Dallas & Minnesota Texas Minnesota Football NFL
1961 Republic of Rwanda Is Formed Rwanda African History Merriam-Webster
1963 Harvey Gantt Is the First African-American Student Admitted to Clemson University South Carolina Education Education U.S. Civil Rights Movement African American Heritage Historic Firsts Clemson University (pdf)
1964 A U.S. Military Jet Is Shot Down over East German Airspace Germany Aviation History Cold War History Channel
1968 Goose Goslin & Kiki Cuyler Elected to Baseball Hall of Fame New Jersey Sports Figures Baseball Hall of Fame Michigan Sports Figures Baseball Hall of Fame
Teams Search Near Greenland for the Wreckage of U.S B-52 Bomber Armed with 4 Hydrogen Bombs Greenland Aviation Military History Nuclear Weapons BBC
1969 The Blowout of a Union Drill Platform in California's Santa Barbara Channel Covers 20 Miles of Coastline with Oil Santa Barbara, California Earth Science Oceans Business Learn California
1973 Vietnam Cease-fire Agreement Goes into Effect Vietnam War History Channel
1975 President Ford Asks for Military Aid to South Vietnam & Cambodia Gerald Ford Cambodia Vietnam Television News Archive
1978 Fantasy Island Premieres Television Internet Movie Database History Channel
1982 U.S. Conducts Nuclear Test in Nevada Nevada Nuclear Weapons
Italian Police Rescue U.S. Brigadier General James Dozier - Held Hostage by the Red Brigade for 42 Days Italy Terrorism BBC
1985 45 Top Artists Record "We Are the World" for Hunger Relief Popular Musicians Foods and Nutrition In the 80s
1986 Space Shuttle Challenger Explodes 72 Seconds after Takeoff Challenger Disaster Notable Persons Who Have Died on This Date History Channel New York Times BBC Texas State Historical Association History Link NASA
1988 Canada's Supreme Court Declares Abortion Ban Unconstitutional Canada Law and Legal Resources Abortion Child Rights Television News Archive
1989 In South Africa, Ultraconservative Members of the Afrikaaner Resistance Movement Organize the White Freedom Movement South Africa Apartheid South African History
1990 In Romania, Thousands Demonstrate Against the Interim Government of Ion Iliescu. Romanian Political and Social Leaders Cold War BBC
1996 The Dallas Cowboys Defeat the Pittsburgh Steelers 27-17 in Super Bowl XXX Texas Sports Figures Pittsburgh Sports Figures Football NFL New York Times
1997 Appearing Before South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission, Four Police Officers Admit to Killing Black anti-Apartheid Leader Stephen Biko 1997 South African Political and Social Leaders Apartheid Crime Law and Legal Resources History Channel