for

Nauru Nauru

JANUARY 31

Nauru Nauru
 
 

Nauru
 
 
 
Teaching - there can be no finer calling requiring the clearest demonstration of moral and ethical behavior.
Ira Shull, For the Love of Teaching
 
Why do you teach? Let Us Know. Tell Us about your most memorable teacher.
 
 



Presidential Proclamations






Gnus for Kidz

Who Am I?









 
5-Minute Quests Today's 5-Minute Quest

Answers to all questions can be found on this page or by using links provided on this page.
Good Luck!
5-Minute Quests
BEGINNERS

1. In what year on this date did the first McDonald's Restaurant open in Russia? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

2. What was the name of the first U.S. satellite launched on this date in 1958? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

3. According to the National Baseball Hall of Fame, Jackie Robinson was the first athlete to do what at UCLA? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

Use all of these letters to spell the title of a book written by Denise Fleming (according to her Scholastic booklist):
PILOT ESTEEM
INTERMEDIATE

1. Which manned lunar landing mission was launched on this date in 1971? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

2. According to Ohio Biography, how many books did Zane Grey publish? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

3. According to the Baltimore County Public Library, what is the title of Denise Fleming's 1994 Caldecott Honor Book? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

Use all of these letters to spell the title of a 1922 work by Zane Grey (according to Authors' Calendar):
LOST THAN TAME
EXPERT
(hint: all three questions will require you to use a link found on this page)

1. According to his University of Memphis biography, for what organization did Benjamin Hooks serve as the executive director for 15 years?

2. According to the Nobel Foundation, in what city was Rudolf Mössbauer born?

3. What was the code name for the U.S. Nuclear test that took place on this date in 1984?

Use all of these letters to spell the title of a book by Norman Mailer (according to the History Channel):
MOST FAHRENHEIT EIGHT
 
 
Picture
Zane Grey
Born on This Date 1872

[Keys History]

American Authors

Picture
Jackie Robinson
Born on This Date 1919

[Diabetes Digest]

Icon for the Baseball Hall of Fame

Picture
Benjamin Hooks
Born on This Date 1925

[University of Memphis]

Civil Rights/Human Rights

Picture
Rudolph Mössbauer
Born on This Date 1929

[Nobel Foundation]

Physics 1961 Nobel Laureate in Physics

Picture
Denise Fleming
Born on This Date 1950

[Official Website]

Primary Authors

 
Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan
Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma
Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming
Icon
Icon
National Popcorn Day

Popcorn Smithsonian
Nauru: Independence Day
(Celebration of independence from United Kingdom-administered United Nations trusteeship: 01/31/1968)
Nauru Great Britain United Nations CIA
Calendar
Children's Authors & Illustrators
1941 Gerald McDermott (Detroit-born Artist of Children's Folktale Picture Books) Detroit Authors and Illustrators Primary Authors American Artists
1950 Denise Fleming (Ohio-born Children's Author, Illustrator) Denis Fleming Primary Authors American Artists
1967 Bryan Collier (Maryland-born African-American Children's Author, Illustrator) Bryan Collier Primary Authors American Artists African-American Artists
Authors and Poets
1798 William Apess (Massachusetts-born Native-American Religious Figure, Author) Massachusetts Authors and Illustrators Pequot Indians Religion Massachusetts Foundation for the Humanities
1872 Zane Grey (Ohio-born Novelist of the American West) Zane Grey The Westward Expansion
1893 Freya Madeline Stark (English Explorer, Writer) English Authors English  Explorers, Pioneers
1905 John O'Hara (Pennsylvania-born Novelist, Short Story Writer) Pennsylvania Authors and Illustrators Writer's Almanac
1915 Thomas Merton (French Author, Poet, Diarist) French Authors Poetry The Thomas Merton Center at Bellarmine University Writer's Almanac
Abbott Lamoyne Ferriss (Mississippi-born Sociologist, Educator, Author) Mississippi Authors & Illustrators Educators of Note
1923 Norman Mailer (New Jersey-born Author: Awarded Pulitzer Prizes in 1969 and 1980) Norman Mailer Awarded Pulitzer Prizes in 1969 and 1980
1935 Kenzaburo Oe (Japanese Novelist: 1994 Nobel Laureate for Literature) Japanese Authors and Illustrators 1994 Nobel Laureate for Literature
Classical Composers and Performing Artists
1797 Franz Schubert (Austrian Composer) Franz Schubert Composers
1881 Anna Pavlova (Russian Dancer) Russian Performing Artists Ballet
1921 Mario Lanza (Pennsylvania-born Tenor, Actor) Pennsylvania Performing Artists Opera Biography.com
1937 Philip Glass (Maryland-born Composer) Maryland Composers American Composers
Scientists, Mathematicians and Inventors
1929 Rudolf Ludwig Mössbauer (German Physicist: 1961 Nobel Laureate for Physics) German Scientists and Mathematicians Physics 1961 Nobel Laureate for Physics
Military Leaders
1764 David Blackshear (North Carolina-born Georgia Militia General; Namesake of Blackshear, Georgia) North Carolina Military Figures Blackshear, Georgia American Revolution University of Georgia
Political and Social Leaders
1734 Robert Morris (Pennsylvania-born Signer of the Declaration of Independence) Pennsylvania Political and Social Leaders The Declaration of Independence History Channel
1878 W. W. Trent (West Virginia State Superintendent of Schools) West Virginia Political and Social Leaders Educators of Note West Virginia Archives
1920 Stewart Udall (Arizona-born U.S. Congressman, Secretary of the Interior) Stewart Udall President Kennedy President Lyndon Johnson U.S. House of Representatives U.S. Department of Interior Earth & Environmental Science
1925 Benjamin Hooks (Tennessee-born African-American Civil Rights Leader) Benjamin Hooks American Civil Rights Movement African American Political & Social Leaders
1938 Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands The Netherlands
Performing Artists
1892 Eddie Cantor (New York City-born Actor, Singer) New York Performing Artists Popular Musicians The Internet Movie Database
1903 Tallulah Bankhead (Alabama-born Actress) Tallulah Bankhead Actors Film
1906 Roosevelt Sykes (Arkansas-born African-American Blues Singer) Arkansas Performing Artists Jazz and Blues African American Performing Artists The Internet Movie Database African American Registry
1923 Carol Channing (Washington-born African-American Actress, Singer) Washington Performing Artists Actors African American Performing Artists The Internet Movie Database African American Registry
1926 Jean Simmons (English Actress) British Performing Artists Actors Film The Internet Movie Database
1937 Suzanne Pleshette (New York City-born Actress) New York City Performing Artists Actors Film Television The Internet Movie Database
1940 Jessica Walter (New York City-born Actress) New York City Performing Artists Actors Film Television The Internet Movie Database
Stuart Margolin (Iowa-born Actor) Iowa Performing Artists Filmmakers Television The Internet Movie Database
1942 Derek Jarman (English Music Video Director) English Performing Artists Filmmakers The Internet Movie Database
1959 Kelly Lynch (Minnesota-born Actress) Minnesota Performing Artists Actors Film The Internet Movie Database
1971 Minnie Driver (English Actress) English Performing Artists Actors Film Biography.com
1981 Justin Timberlake (Tennessee-born Popular Singer) Tennessee Performing Artists Popular Musicians The Internet Movie Database
Sports Figures
1913 Don Hutson (Arkansas-born Member of the Professional Football Hall of Fame) Arkansas Sports Figures Football Hall of Fame
1914 Jersey Joe Walcott (New Jersey-born African-American Member of the International Boxing Hall of Fame) New Jersey Sports Figures International Boxing Hall of Fame Famous African Americans African American Registry
1919 Jackie Robinson (Georgia-born African-American Member of the Baseball Hall of Fame) Jackie Robinson Baseball Hall of Fame Famous African Americans
1931 Ernie Banks (Texas-born African-American Member of the Baseball Hall of Fame) Texas Sports Figures Baseball Hall of Fame Famous African Americans African American Registry
1947 Nolan Ryan (Texas-born Member of the Baseball Hall of Fame) Nolan Ryan Baseball Hall of Fame
Persons of Historic Significance Who Have Died on This Date Persons of Historic Significance Who Have Died on This Date
1496 Menno Simons (Dutch-born Namesake of the Mennonite Church) Menno Simons Guide to Religion
1606 Guy Fawkes (Englishman Who Tried to Blow Up Parliament: Namesake of Guy Fawkes Day) Guy Fawkes Day
1780 Jonathan Carver (Massachusetts-born Explorer of the Mississippi River, Minnesota, Lake Superior) Massachusetts Explorers Minnesota Explorers Mississippi River North American Explorers Minnesota Historical Society
1945 Pvt. Eddie Slovik (Detroit-born World War II Soldier Executed for Desertion) Detroit World War II
1956 A.A. Milne (English Author the Winnie the Pooh Stories) A.A. Milne Primary Children's Authors
John Noyes (Head of the Alaska National Guard; Plane Crash) Alaska Military Figures Air Disasters Alaska National Guard Alaska Historical Society
1972 King Mahendra of Nepal Nepal Asian History
1974 Samuel Goldwyn (Polish-born American Filmmaker: co-Founder of MGM Studios) Polish Performing Artists Filmmakers Internet Movie Database History Channel
1976 Ernesto Miranda (Arizona-born Latin-American Namesake of "Miranda Rights") Notorious Persons of Arizona Notorious Americans Human and Civil Rights Notorious Latin Americans Find-a-Grave
2007 Molly Ivins (California-born Political Humorist) Molly Ivins Texas Authors Journalism Politics
Historically Significant Events Historically Significant Events
Historic Events of the 1600s that Occurred on this Date
1605 Earthquake and Tsunami Cause 5,000 Deaths in Tokaido, Japan Japan Earthquake Tsunami Death USGS
1686 King Louis XIV of France Orders the Burning of all Waldensian Protestant Churches Burned French Political and Social Leaders Religion Concordia
Historic Events of the 1700s that Occurred on this Date
1752 Sister Saint Martha Turpin Is First American-born Roman Catholic Nun Catholicism Women Historic Firsts Concordia
1779 Charles Messier Adds M57 (Ring Nebula in Lyra) to His Catalog French Scientists & Mathematicians Space and Astronomy SEDS
1786 Shawnee Leaders Sign the Treaty of Fort Finney, Ceding Shawnee Territories in Southern Ohio and Indiana Ohio Indiana Shawnee Forts Ohio Historical Society
1795 Alexander Hamilton Resigns as Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton History Channel U.S. Treasury
Historic Events of the 1800s that Occurred on this Date
1805
Travelling with Lewis and Clark

Clark: Snowed last night, wind high from the N W.

Sawed off the boys toes

Sent 5 men down the river to hunt with 2 horses,

our interpeter Something better, George Drewyer taken with the Ploursey last evening Bled & gave him Some Sage tea, this morning he is much better—

Cold disagreeable

Gass: Five hunters went out with two horses. In the morning the wind blew and was cold, toward the middle of the day the weather became moderate, and the afternoon was pleasant.

Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04
Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery Fort Mandan Map

Health Care Temperature Snow

The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

1806
Travelling with Lewis and Clark

Lewis: Sent a party of eight men up the river this morning to renew their surch for the Elk and also to hunt; they proceded but a few miles before they found the river so obstructed with ice that they were obliged to return.

Joseph Fields arrived this evening, informed us that he had been hunting in company with Gibson and Willard for the last five days in order to obtain some meat for himself and the other Salt makers, and that he had been
unsuccessfull untill yesday evening when he had fortunately killed two Elk, about six miles distant from this place
and about 8 from the sale works; he left Gibson and Willard to dry the meat of these Elk and had come for the assistance of some men to carry the meat to the salt camp; for this purpose we ordered four men to accompany him early in the morning.

discovered that McNeal had the pox, gave him medecine.

Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop
The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska
1811 The Delaware General Assembly Divides the State into 24 Election Districts Rather Than Continuing to Vote in County Seats Only Delaware Voting Law and Legal Resources State of Delaware
1827 Louisiana Law Requires Court Approval Before a Slave May be Emancipated Louisiana Slavery Law and Legal Resources Louisiana Secretary of State
1840 Abraham Lincoln Votes Yea on Bill to Incorporate Springfield, Illinois Springfield, Illinois Abraham Lincoln Lincoln Logs
1843 Arkansas' State Bank Goes into Receivership with a Loss of $1 Million Arkansas Economics Arkansas History Commission
1846 Carroll University Is Chartered in Waukesha, Wisconsin Waukesha, Wisconsin Education Carroll University Wisconsin Historical Society
1848 John C. Fremont Is Tried by Court-Martial for Mutiny, Disobeying Orders John C. Fremont Law and Legal Resources Library of Congress
1855 The Makah Villages Give Up Almost All Tribal Lands on Washington's Olympic Peninsula Washington Makah Historic U.S. Documents History Link
1858 British Launch the First All-Metal Ship, the Great Eastern, 18,900 Tons Great Britain Naval History Historic Firsts Greenwich Guide
1859 The Menger Hotel Opens in San Antonio, Texas San Antonio, Texas Official Website Texas State Historical Association
1861 In Charleston, Illinois, Lincoln Visits His Stepmother, Relatives and His Father's Grave Charleston, Illinois Abraham Lincoln Lincoln Logs
Louisiana State Government Seizes Control of the U.S. Mint in New Orleans New Orleans Currency American Civil War Louisiana Secretary of State
Atlanta, Georgia City Council Selects Five Delegates for the Confederate Convention in Montgomery, AL Atlanta, Georgia American Civil War University of Georgia
1862 President Lincoln Issues Special War Order No. 1. Directing Army of Potomac to Move by February 22 President Abraham Lincoln American Civil War Lincoln Logs
President Lincoln Reports to Congress on the Trent Affair U.S. Congress President Abraham Lincoln Trent Affair Lincoln Logs
Lincoln Approves Act Authorizing Him to Take Possession of Railroad and Telegraph Lines President Abraham Lincoln American Civil War Railroads Telegraph Lincoln Logs
1864 President Lincoln Corresponds with General Banks About Loyalty Oath Being Required in Louisiana Louisiana President Abraham Lincoln American Civil War Reconstruction Lincoln Logs
1865 Congress Sends 13th Amendment Abolishing Slavery to States for Ratification 13TH Amendment to the U.S. Constitution Slavery U.S. House of Representatives History Channel New York Times
President Lincoln Sends Secretary Seward to Virginia to Meet Informally with Confederate Representatives Vrginia President Abraham Lincoln American Civil War Lincoln Logs
Robert E. Lee Is Named General-In-Chief of the Confederate Armies Virginia Military Figures Robert E. Lee American Civil War New York Times
1870 Associate Justice Robert C. Grier Retires from the U.S. Supreme Court Pennsylvania Political and Social Leaders U.S. Supreme Court Oyez
1872 Texas' Governor Is Indicted for Election Fraud Texas Political and Social Leaders Elections Crime Law and Legal Resources Texas State Historical Association
1874 Jesse James Gang Robs Train at Gads Hill, Missouri Jesse James Railroad Crime Crime Library
1879 William Tecumseh Sherman Revisits Atlanta, Georgia 15 Years after Ordering It to be Burned Atlanta, Georgia William Tecumseh Sherman American Civil War University of Georgia
1881 Eleazer K. Foster Assumes the Office of Florida's Superintendent of Public Instruction Florida Educators of Note Florida Historical Society
1883 The Minneapolis Society of Fine Arts Is Incorporated Minneapolis, Minnesota Minneapolis Institute of Arts Minnesota Historical Society
1891 Henrik Ibsen's Hedda Gabbler Premieres at the Residenztheater in Munich, Germany Munich, Germany Henrik Ibsen Plays Historic Firsts Theatre History
The Tampa Bay Hotel Opens Tampa Bay, Florida Official Web Site Florida Historical Society
1893 Coca-Cola Trademark Is Registered for "Nutrient or Tonic Beverages" Patents and Trademarks Foods and Nutrition Coca-Cola USPTO
During a Blizzard, the Temperature Drops 40 Degrees in Five Hours at Park Rapids, Minnesota Park Rapids Snow Temperature Minnesota Historical Society
1899 Bull Town, Texas Changes Its Name to Bovina, Texas Bovina, Texas Official Website Texas State Historical Association
Historic Events that occurred 1900-1949 on this date
1906 8.8 Earthquake Hits Ecuador Ecuador Earthquake USGS
1912 7.0 Earthquake Hits Prince William Sound, Alaska Prince William Sound, Alaska Earthquake USGS
1915 Germans First Use Poison Gas Against Russians Germany Russia World War I Historic Firsts
1917 Germany Announces Renewal of Unlimited Submarine Warfare in the Atlantic Germany World War I Submarines History Channel
1922 7.3 Earthquake Hits West of Eureka, California California Earthquake USGS
1929 Leon Trotsky Is Expelled from the Soviet Union to Turkey Leon Trotsky Turkey Indiana University
The Novel Sartoris, by William Faulkner, Is Published by Harcourt Brace William Faulkner American Authors Harcourt Mississippi Writers
1930 World Powers Meet in London to Negotiate an End to the Naval Arms Race London, England Naval History War Asian History
1933 Etta Moten Barnett Is the First African American Woman to Perform at the White House Texas Performing Artists African-American Performing Artists Historic Firsts Internet Movie Database African American Registry
1938 12,000 Pecan Shellers Begin Three-Month Strike in San Antonio, Texas San Antonio, Texas Labor Job Actions Hispanic Heritage Texas State Historical Association
Stanley Reed Is Sworn In As Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court Kentucky Political and Social Leaders President Franklin Roosevelt U.S. Supreme Court Oyez
1940 The First Social Security Check Is Issued to a Vermont Woman for $22.54 Vermont The Social Security Administration Historic Firsts EconEdLink
1941 Associate Justice James C. McReynolds Retires from the U.S. Supreme Court Kentucky Political and Social Leaders U.S. Supreme Court Oyez
Richard Wright Is Awarded the Joel Springarn Medal by the NAACP Richard Wright American Authors African-American Authors NAACP Mississippi Writers
1944 U.S. Forces Invade the Japanese-held Marshall Islands Marshall Islands World War II New York Times
1945 Private Eddie Slovik Is the Only American Executed for Desertion in WWII World War II U.S. History Death History Channel State of Michigan
Yugoslavia Adopts USSR-style Constitution with Marshal Tito Official Head of State Yugoslavia Bates College
1946 Georgia's Government Authorizes a Franklin D. Roosevelt Memorial in Warm Springs Warm Springs, Georgia President Franklin Roosevelt University of Georgia
1949 First Daytime TV Soap Opera, ''These Are My Children,'' Is Broadcast by Chicago's NBC Affiliate Chicago Television Historic Firsts New York Times
Historic Events that occurred 1950-1999 on this date
1950 President Truman Announces Order to Build the Hydrogen Bomb President Harry Truman Nuclear Weapons World History Truman Library History Channel
1951 F-51 Sets New London to New York Speed Record of 8 Hours and 55 Minutes London New York City Aviation History Historic Firsts Explorer I
1953 High Winds Sink Car Ferry in the Irish Sea: 130 Die Northern Ireland Naval History Death BBC
Hurricane-force Winds Burst Dikes and Flood the Netherlands: 1,800 Die The Netherlands Huirricanes Floods Death BBC
Hundreds Die Along England's East Coast as Hurricane Force Winds and a High Tide Elevate Sea Levels 8' England Huirricanes Floods Death BBC
1955 RCA Demonstrates the First Music Synthesizer Music Sound RCA History of Technology
1956 General John Noyes, Head of the Alaska National Guard, Dies at Nome as a Result of a Plane Crash Alaska Military Figures Air Disasters Death Alaska National Guard Alaska Historical Society
1958 The U.S. Launches Its First Satellite: Explorer I Space Exploration Historic Firsts Explorer I
James Gladstone Is Appointed as Canada's First Senator of Native Descent Canada Native-American Studies Historic Firsts Saskatchewan Indian Cultural Centre
1961 Chimpanzee Survives 16 minute 39 second Mercury 2 Suborbital Mission Unmanned Space Exploration Primates Mercury 2 Mission
David Ben-Gurion Resigns as Prime Minister of Israel David Ben-Gurion Israel The State of Israel
Harris County, Texas Voters Approve $22M Bond for Construction of the Houston Astrodome Texas PBS Politics and Elections Texas State Historical Association
1966 U.S. President Lyndon Johnson Orders Renewed Bombing of North Vietnamese Targets President Lyndon Johnson War Asian History
USSR Launches Luna 9 for Successful Unmanned Lunar Landing Soviet Space Program Space Exploration Lunar Space Exploration Zarya NASA
Louisiana's Centenary College Admits the First African-American Students in School History Louisiana Education African-American Heritage Historic Firsts Centenary College Louisiana Secretary of State
1967 The Last Section of Interstate 5 Is Completed from Everett to Tacoma, Washington Washington Wikipedia History Link
1968 Viet Cong Seize the U.S. Embassy in Saigon for 6 Hours Vietnam War History Channel
First Two Days of Tet Offensive Leave 5,000 Dead Vietnam War Death BBC
U.S. Conducts Underground Nuclear Test in Nevada Nevada Nuclear Weapons Source Information from Geoscience Australia
1970 LSU's "Pistol" Pete Maravich Sets the College Basketball Career Scoring Record Pennsylvania Sports Figures Basketball Hall of Fame Historic Firsts LSU Sports New York Times
1971 Apollo 14 Is Launched for Manned Lunar Landing Space Exploration Lunar Exploration Apollo 14 Mission Summary History Channel
1972 Nepal's King Birendra Accedes to Throne on Death of His Father King Mahendra Nepal Asian History
HEOS 2 Launched for International Study of Interplanetary Cosmic Particles. Space Exploration The Solar System NASA Satellite Mission Summaries
1974 Ray Kroc Buys the San Diego Padres Ray Kroc Baseball Business San Diego Padres
1983 New Law Makes Seat Belts Mandatory in England Great Britain Auto Safety Laws and Legal Resources Historic Firsts BBC
1984 U.S. Conducts 20 to 150 kT Underground Nuclear Test in Nevada Nevada Nuclear Weapons Source Information from Geoscience Australia
1985 South African President P.W. Botha Offers Nelson Mandela Conditional Release from Prison P.W. Botha Nelson Mandela Apartheid Prison South African History
1986 5.0 Earthquake Injures 17 People in Ohio Ohio Earthquake USGS
1988 Doug Williams Is the First African-American Quarterback to Start in the Super Bowl Louisiana Sports Figures African-American Sports Figures Historic Firsts Super Bowl XXII African American Registry
1990 The First McDonalds Opens in Russia Russia Business McDonalds Historic Firsts History Channel
1991 6.6 Earthquake Kills 200-400 People in Afghanistan Afghanistan Earthquake Death USGS
1992 U.S. Postal Service Issues Stamp Commemorating W.E.B. DuBois W.E.B. DuBois U.S. Postal Service African-American Political and Social Leaders University of Georgia
1995 President Bill Clinton Authorizes a $20 Billion Loan to Mexico Mexico President Clinton International Trade History Channel
1996 Truck of Explosives Rams Sri Lanka Central Bank: 86 Die Sri Lanka Terrorism Death BBC
1998 Space Shuttle STS-89 (Endeavour 12) Returns from 9-day MIR Docking Mission The Space Shuttle Soviet Space Program NASA STS-89 Mission Chronology
Historic Events that have occurred on this date from 2000 to present
2000 Alaska Airlines Flight 261 Crashes in Southern California. All 88 on Board Die California Aviation Disasters Death History Link
2001 Scottish Court Convicted a Libyan Terrorist for the 1988 Bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 Scotland Libya 1988 Bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 Terrorism New York Times
Georgia's Governor Signs Law Adopting New State Flag Georgia University of Georgia
2006 The U.S. Senate Confirms (58-42) Samuel Alito as Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court New Jersey Political and Social Leaders U.S. Congress U.S. Supreme Court Natonal Public Radio