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FEBRUARY 18

The Gambia Flag The Gambia Flag
 
 

Gambia
 
 
Teaching - there can be no finer calling requiring the clearest demonstration of moral and ethical behavior.
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5-Minute Quests Today's 5-Minute Quest

Answers to all questions can be found on this page or by using links provided on this page.
Good Luck!
5-Minute Quests
BEGINNERS

1. Paul Williams was born on this date in 1894. Was Mr. Williams an artist, an architect or a designer? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

2. In what year was Harriett Gibbs Marshall born on this date? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

3. According to the Kennedy Center, Aretha Franklin is known around the world as the Queen of what? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

Use all of these letters to spell the title of a work published by Harriett Gibbs Marshall (according to the African American Registry):
LET COAT SCORN
INTERMEDIATE

1. In what year was Toni Morrison the Nobel laureate for literature? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

2. According to Afro-American Almanac, Bill Pickett is credited as the originator of which rodeo sport? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

3. According to the White House, what position did Condoleezza Rice hold for six years while at Stanford University? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

Use all of these letters to spell the title of a work by Toni Morrison (according to Luminarium):
O NO MOSS ON GOLF

EXPERT
(hint: all three questions will require you to use a link found on this page)

1. According to the Chemical Heritage Foundation, what was the name of the company founded by Henry Aaron Hill in 1952?

2. According to Black Collegian, what was Toni Morrison's given name at birth?

3. According to the African American Registry, from where had Audre Lorde's parents emigrated in order to settle in Harlem?

Use all of these letters to spell the name of a Top 5 hit by Aretha Franklin (according to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame):
HAIN COOLS OFF
 
Black History Month
 
Separation Bar
Toni Morrison
Toni Morrison
Born on This Date 1931

1993 Nobel Laureate for Literature
Henry Aaron Hill
Henry Aaron Hill

Chemist

Aretha Franklin
Aretha Franklin

Popular Singer

Picture of this person
Condoleezza Rice

President George W. Bush

Bill Pickett
Bill Pickett

Rodeo Cowboy

 
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Gambia: Independence Day
(Celebration of independence from United Kingdom as constitutional monarchy: 02/18/1965)
`Gambia `Great Britain `Expedia `U.S. Department of State
Calendar
Primary Authors and Illustrators Born on This Date Young-adult  Authors and Illustrators Born on This Date Icon
1919 Virginia Kahl (Wisconsin-born Children's Author) Wisconsin Authors and Illustrators Young-adult Authors
1936 Jean Marie Auel (Illinois-born Novelist, Children's Author) Jean Marie Auel Young-adult Authors
1949 Barbara Joosse (Wisconsin-born Children's Author) Wisconsin Authors and Illustrators Primary Authors Official Web Site
1950 Bebe Moore Campbell (Pennsylvania-born African-American Journalist, Educator, Children's Author) Pennsylvania Authors Journalism Educator of Note Young-adult Authors African American Authors African American Registry
Authors, Poets and Journalists
1859 Sholem Aleichem (Ukrainian Humorist, Writer) Ukrainian Authors Writer's Almanac Biography.com
1864 Gustave Schirmer, Jr. (New York City-born Music Publisher) New York City Authors Music Schimer Music
1886 Nikos Kazantzakis (Greek Poet, Novelist; Author of Zorba the Greek and The Last Temptation of Christ) Greek Authors Authors Calendar Writer's Almanac
1899 Arthur Bryant (English Historian, Biographer) English Authors
1909 Wallace Stegner (Iowa-born Author) Iowa Authors Writer's Almanac
1922 Helen Gurley Brown (Arkansas-born Editor, Writer) Arkansas Authors Journalism Biography.com
1929 Len Deighton (English Spy Novelist) English Authors
1931 Toni Morrison (Ohio-born African-American Author; 1993 Nobel Laureate for Literature) Toni Morrison Notable African American Authors 1993 Nobel Laureate for Literature
1934 Audre Lorde (New York City-born African-American Poet) Audre Lorde Poetry Notable African American Poets
Artists
1848 Louis Comfort Tiffany (New York City-born Painter, Designer, Glass Craftsman) New York City Artists American Artists Glass Tiffany New York Times
1857 Max Klinger (German Painter, Sculptor, Engraver) German Artists Artists
1894 Paul Williams (Los Angeles-born African-American Architect) Paul Williams Architecture Noted African American Artists
1931 Johnny Hart (New York-born Cartoonist) Johnny Hart Cartoons & Comics
Scientists, Mathematicians and Inventors
1677 Jacques Cassini (French Astronomer) Jacques Cassini Astronomy Saturn
1745 Count Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta (Italian Physicist; Pioneer in the Science of Electricity) Alessandro Volta Physics electricity
1838 Ernst Mach (Austrian Physicist, Philosopher of Science) Austrian Scientists & Mathematicians Physics Philosophy
Business Leaders
1795 George Peabody (Massachusetts-born Merchant, Financier, Philanthropist) Massachusetts American Business Leaders Philanthropy
1862 Charles Schwab (Pennsylvania-born Business Leader, Industrialist; First President of U.S. Steel) Pennsylvania Business Leaders American Business Leaders
1898 Enzo Anselmo Ferrari (Italian Automobile Developer) Enzo Ferrari Automobiles
Military Leaders
1817 Lewis Armistead (North Carolina-born Confederate General) North Carolina Military Figures American Civil War History Channel
1833 James Deshler (Alabama-born Confederate General) Alabama Military Figures American Civil War University of Georgia
Philosopher, Educators, Religious Leaders
1833 Ramakrishna (Indian Mystic, Hindu Religious Leader) Sri Ramakrishna Hinduism Sri Ramakrishna Math
Political and Social Leaders
1516 Mary I, Queen of England (Daughter of Henry VIII, Known as ''Bloody Mary'') English Political and Social Leaders Queen Mary I Greenwich Guide
1874 Louis T. Wigfall (South Carolina-born Secessionist; U.S. Senator from Texas) South Carolina Political & Social Leaders Texas Political & Social Leaders Racism U.S. Congress Texas State Historical Association
1892 Wendell Willkie (Indiana-born Attorney; Candidate for President of the United States) Wendell Wilkie Indiana Political & Social Leaders
Performing Artists
1914 Pee Wee King (Wisconsin-born Member of the Country Music Hall of Fame) Wisconsin Performing Artists Country  Music Hall of Fame Wisconsin Historical Society
1920 Bill Cullen (Pennsylvania-born Television Host) Pennsylvania Performing Artists Television Internet Movie Database
Jack Palance (Pennsylvania-born Academy Award-Winning Actor) Pennsylvania Performing Artists Actors Television Film Academy Awards Biography.com
1925 George Kennedy (New York City-born Academy Award-Winning Actor) New York City Performing Artists Actors Television Film Academy Awards Internet Movie Database
1932 Miloš Forman (Czech-American Film Director, Screenwriter, Actor) Czech Republic Filmmakers Biography.com
1933 Yoko Ono (Japanese Wife of John Lennon) Japan John Lennon The Beatles Popular Music Biography.com
1950 Cybill Shepherd (Tennessee-born Actress) Tennessee Performing Artists Actors Television Film Biography.com
1952 Juice Newton (Virginia-born Popular Singer) Virginia Performing Artists Popular Musicians Internet Movie Database
1954 John Travolta (New Jersey-born Actor) New Jersey Performing Artists Actors Television Film Biography.com
1957 Vanna White (South Carolina-born Television Hostess) South Carolina Performing Artists Television The Internet Movie Database Biography.com
1960 Greta Scacchi (Italian-American Actress) Italian Performing Artists Actors Film Internet Movie Database
1964 Matt Dillon (New York-born Actor) New York Performing Artists Actors Film Internet Movie Database
1968 Molly Ringwald (California-born Actress) California Performing Artists Actors Film Internet Movie Database
Sports Figures
1895 George Gipp (Michigan-born Member of the College Football Hall of Fame) Michigan Sports Figures Football Hall of Fame
1938 Manny Mota (Dominican Republic Major League Baseball Player) Dominican Republic Sports Figures Baseball Hispanic Sports Figures ESPN
Persons of Historic Significance Who Have Died on This Date Persons of Historic Significance Who Have Died on This Date
1546 Martin Luther (German Theologian; Religious Reformer) Martin Luther Religion
1564 Michelangelo Buonarotti (Italian Artist) Michelangelo Artists The Sistine Chapel
1879 Robert Hall Chilton (Virginia-born Confederate General) Virginia Military Figures American Civil War University of Georgia
1920 Sammy Marks (South African Business and Political Leader) South African Political Leaders South African History
1931 William R. Merriam (New York-born 11th Governor of Minnesota) New York Political Leaders Minnesota Political Leaders Minnesota Historical Society
1937 Lamartine Hardman (Governor of Georgia) Georgia Political and Social Leaders University of Georgia
1967 J. Robert Oppenheimer (New York City-born Nuclear Physicist) J. Robert Oppenheimer Physics World War II Nuclear Weapons
1994 Richard McMullen (Governor of Delaware: 1937-41)) Delaware Political and Social Leaders
1998 Harry Caray (Missouri-born Sportscaster; Member of the Baseball Hall of Fame) Missouri Sports Figures Baseball Hall of Fame Media
2001 Dale Earnhardt (North Carolina-born Auto Race Driver) Dale Earnhardt Daytona, Florida Auto Racing Daytona 500 History Channel
Historically Significant Events Historically Significant Events
Historic Events of the 1400s that Occurred on this Date
1461 In England, Lancastrian Forces Defeat the Yorkists at the Battle of St. Albans England Historic UK
Historic Events of the 1700s that Occurred on this Date
1735 First Opera Performance in America Is Flora in Charleston, South Carolina Charleston, South Carolina Opera Historic Firsts Charleston County, South Carolina
Historic Events of the 1800s that Occurred on this Date
1804 Ohio University Is Chartered As the First University in the Northwest Territory Ohio Education Historic Firsts Ohio University
1805
Travelling with Lewis and Clark

Clark: a cloudy morning Some Snow, Several Indians here to day Mr. McKinsey [of the Northwest Trading Company] leave me, the after part of the day fine I am much engaged makeing a discriptive List of the Rivers from Information our Store of Meat is out to day

Ordway: clear and pleasant. Several of the hunters went out eairly a hunting. the remainder moved the camp about 5 mls. down the River to a bottom where Capt Clarks party had Some time before been a hunting, and had made a pen and put up 2 Elk and 11 deer which we found Safe as they left it. Several men out packing in the meat which was killed yesterday we fixed our camp at an old Indian cabbin near the meat pen. the hunters came in had killed one Elk & Seven deer we got the meat all packed in, Lewis concluded that we would Start for the Fort the next morning. we fleased the meat from the bones and eat the marrow out of them.

Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04
Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery Fort Mandan Map

Native American Tribes Deer Elk

The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

1806
Travelling with Lewis and Clark

Clark: This morning we dispatched a party to the Salt works with Sergt. Ordway. and a Second party with Sergt. Gass after the Eight Elk killed over the Netul.

in the evening Sergt. Ordway returned and reported that the waves ran So high in the Bay that he could not pass to the enterance of a Creek which we had directed him to assend with the Canoe. Collins & Windsir returned this evening with one Deer which they had Killed. the deer are pore and their flesh by no means a[s] good as that of the Elk which is also poore but appears to be getting better than Some weeks past.

in the forenoon we were visited by a Clatsop & Seven Chinnooks from whome I purchased a Sea otter's Skin and two hats made of way tape and Silk grass and white cedar bark. they remained untill late in the evening and departed for their village. those people are not readily obstructed by waves in their Canoes.

Since their departure we have discovered that they have Stole an ax.—

Whitehouse brought me a roab which he purchased of the Indians formed of three Skins of the Tiger Cat, this Cat differs from any which I have ever Seen. it is found on the borders of the plains and the woody Country lying along the Pacific Ocian. this animale is about the Size or reather larger than the wild Cat of our Countrey and is much the Same in form, agility and ferosity. the colour of the back, neck and Sides, is a redish brown irrigular varigated with Small Spots of dark brown the tail is about two inches long nearly white except the extremity which is black; it termonates abruptly as if it has been cut off. the belly is white with Small black spots. butifully varigated. the legs are of the Same Colour with the Sides and back marked with transvers stripes of black the ears are black on the outer Side Covered with fine black hair, Short except at the upper point which is furnished with a pencil of verry fine Streight black hair, ¾ of an inch in length, the fur of this animale is long and fine. much more So than the wild Cat of the U States but less so than the Louserva of the N West.

the nativs of this Country make great use of the skins of this Cat, to form the robes which they wear; three whole Skins is the complement usually employed, and Sometimes four in each roab. Those Cats are not marked alike maney of them have but fiew Spots of a darker Colour, particularly on the Back.


Whitehouse: This morning clear & pleasant weather, Six of our Men went from the fort with 2 Canoes to go round on the Sea coast to the Salt works. Ten Men of our party was sent at some time, in order to bring in the Elk meat, which was left by our hunters Yesterday. The party that were going to the Salt Camp on arriving at the bay, found the wind blowing so hard, that they had to return to the fort.—

We had several squalls of wind attended with rain in the course of this day.— About noon several Indians belonging to the Clatsop Nation came in Canoes to the Fort. They brought with them some Roots to trade with us,—, which we purchased of them. Towards evening these Indians left the Fort & embarked in their Canoes in order to return to their Village.— Two of our hunters also returned to the Fort, but had killed no Game of any kind. The Men remaining at the fort were employed as usual in dressing Skins &ca.—

Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clatsop County, Oregon Fort Clatsop Native Americans Health Care
The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska
1833 With the Signing of the Treaty of Maumee, the U.S. Government Pays the Ottawa Indians $29,440 to Give Up Their Claims to Lands in Ohio Ohio U.S. Government Ottawa Economics Historic U.S. Documents Ohio Historical Society
1837 The Delaware General Assembly Commissions the First State-Wide Geologic Survey Delaware U.S. Maps Historic Firsts State of Delaware
1842 Santa Rosa County, Florida Is Established as the State's 21st County Santa Rosa County, Florida Florida Historical Society
1850 California's Original 27 Counties Are Created California LearnCalifornia
1854 Governor Herschel Johnson Signs Legislation Establishing Charlton County as Georgia's 111th County Charlton County,  Georgia University of Georgia
1856 The "Known-Nothing Party" Convenes in Philadelphia to Nominate Its First Presidential Candidate Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Politics American Presidency History Channel
1861 "Emerson the Lecturer" by James Russell Lowell Is Published in the Atlantic Monthly Massachusetts Authors Journalism American Collection
President-elect Lincoln's Train Makes Stops in Batavia, Rochester, Clyde, Syracuse, Utica, Little Falls, Fonda, Amsterdam, and Schenectady Before Arriving in Albany, New York New York Abraham Lincoln Railroad Lincoln Log
Jefferson Davis Is Inaugurated as Interim Confederate President Jefferson Davis Alabama History Channel New York Times Alabama State Archive
1862 The Federal Gunboat, Ethan Allen, Enters the Clearwater, Florida Harbor and Captures a Schooner Along with Two Sloops Clearwater, Florida Naval Military History American Civil War Florida Historical Society
Georgia's Delegation to the First Confederate Congress Is Sworn into Office Georgia Government American Civil War University of Georgia
1864 President Lincoln Lifts the Blockade of the Port at Brownsville, Texas Brownsville, Texas President Abraham Lincoln Shipping American Civil War Lincoln Log
Baltimore Constitutional Convention Adopts Resolutions Endorsing President Lincoln for Reelection Baltimore, Maryland President Abraham Lincoln American Presidency 1864 Presidential Election Lincoln Log
1865 The Mayor of Charleston, South Carolina, Surrenders Control of the City to Union Brigadier General Alexander Schimmelfennig Charleston, South Carolina Surrender of Charleston Library of Congress
1868 The University of Minnesota Is Reorganized by the Legislature Minnesota Education University of Minnesota Minnesota Historical Society
1870 Swift County, Minnesota Is Created and Named in Honor of the State's Third Governor, Henry A. Swift Swift County, Minnesota Minnesota Historical Society
1873 U.S. House Censures Massachusetts Representative Oakes Ames for Bribery in a Railroad Construction Scheme Massachusetts Political and Social Leaders U.S. Congress Railroad Economics Crime History Channel
1879 French Architect, Auguste Bartholdi, Is Granted Design Patent for Statue of Liberty Auguste Bartholdi Statue of Liberty Patents & Trademarks USPTO
Orange Park, Florida Is Incorporated Orange Park, Florida Florida Historical Society
1884 Peter French Is Appointed U.S. Collector of Customs for Alaska with Headquarters at Sitka Sitka, Alaska U.S. Customs Alaska Historical Society
1885 Mark Twain's The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Is Published Missouri Authors Mark Twain The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn American Collection History Channel
1894 Mark Twain's Publishing Company, Charles L. Webster & Company, Declares Bankruptcy Missouri Authors Mark Twain American Authors Business American Collection
Historic Events that occurred 1900-1949 on this date
1900 Ajax Soccer Team Forms in Amsterdam The Netherlands Soccer Ajax
1910 Frenchman, Louis Paulhan, Makes the First Recorded Airplane Flight in Texas Texas Aviation Historic Firsts Texas State Historical Association
1911 In Tajikistan, a 7.4 Magnitude Earthquake Causes a Landslide That Dams the Bartang River, Creating Sarez Lake, Flooding Villages and Killing 90 People Tajikistan Earthquake Flooding Death USGS
1913 Raymond Poincare Takes Office as President of France French Political and Social Leaders History Channel
The Arkansas State Flag Is Adopted Arkansas Arkansas History Commission
1926 Ayn Rand Arrives in New York City From France France Ayn Rand New York City Authors American Collection
1929 The First Academy Awards Are Presented Film The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences Historic Firsts History Channel
1930 Photographic Evidence of Pluto Is Discovered by New Mexico State University Astronomer Clyde Tombaugh Illinios Scientists & Mathematicians New Mexico Scientists & Mathematicians Astronomy Photography Pluto New Mexico State University History Channel New Mexico Magazine
1939 The World's Fair Opens In San Francisco San Francisco LearnCalifornia
1943 Leaders of the German Youth Group White Rose Are Arrested for Opposing the Nazi Regime Nazi Germany Crime World War II History Channel
The First Flight-Nurse Class of the United States Army Air Forces Graduates at Bowman Field, Kentucky Kentucky Women in World War II Aviation Military History World War II Historic Firsts U.S. Army Texas State Historical Association
In Washington, Boeing's Top-Secret XB-29 Prototype Superfortress Crashes into a Packing Plant, Killing 19 People and Much of the Livestock Washington Aviation Military History Pigs Death History Link
1948 Eamon de Valera Steps Down as Ireland's Prime Minister After His Party Fails to Win a Majority in the Irish Assembly Irish Political and Social Leaders Elections History Channel
Thomas Heggen and Joshua Logan's Mister Roberts Makes Its Broadway Debut at the Alvin Theatre New York City Plays Internet Broadway Database
Historic Events that occurred 1950-1999 on this date
1951 Nepal's Absolute Monarchy Is Replaced by a Constitutional Monarchy `Nepal `Nepali Congress
1953 The Red Pine (Pinus Resinosa) Is Established as the Minnesota State Tree Minnesota Trees Law and Legal Resources Minnesota Historical Society
1954 The U.S. Secretary of the Army Orders Two Generals to Ignore Subpoenas Issued by Senator Joseph McCarthy Senator Joseph McCarthy U.S. Congress U.S. Army McCarthyism BBC
1960 The 8th Winter Olympic Games Open in Squaw Valley, California California 1960 Winter Olympic Games New York Times
1964 U.S. Cuts Off Military Aid to Great Britain & France for Trade with Cuba Cuba Great Britain France International Trade The Cold War History Channel
1965 In Canada, 26 British Columbia Copper Miners Are Killed in an Avalanche Canada Labor Copper Snow Death History Channel
Gambia Becomes Africa's 36th Independent State Africa Gambia South African History
1969 In West Virginia, United Mine Workers Coal Miners Strike to Protest the Absence of Black Lung Benefits West Virginia Strike United Mine Workers of America West Virginia State Archives
1970 Five of the Chicago Seven Defendants Are Found Guilty of Intent to Incite a Riot at the 1968 Democratic National Convention Chicago Seven 1968 Democratic Presidential Conventions Human Rights/Civil Rights Crime Law and Legal Resources New York Times
1972 The California Supreme Court Strike's Down the State's Death Penalty California Supreme Court Capital Punishment Law and Legal Resources New York Times
1973 Richard Petty Wins the Daytona 500 in Front of 103,000 Spectators Daytona Beach, Florida North Carolina Sports Figures Auto Racing Daytona 500 History Channel
1974 Italian Atmospheric Satellite San Marco Scout D Is Launched Italy Space Exploration Weather & Meteorology Astronautix
1977 Space Shuttle Enterprise Makes Its First "Captive" Test Flight Atop a Boeing 747 The Space Shuttle Historic Firsts NASA New York Times
1978 Police in Northern Ireland Arrest 20+ Suspects for an IRA Bombing That Killed 12 People and Injured 30 in a Restaurant Northern Ireland Terrorism Death BBC
1979 Richard Petty Wins the Daytona 500 Daytona Beach, Florida North Carolina Sports Figures Auto Racing Daytona 500 New York Times
Wilmington, Delaware Receives 16.5" of Snow in 24 Hours Wilmington, Delaware Snow State of Delaware
1980 Pierre Trudeau's Liberals Capture a Majority of Seats in the Canadian Parliament, Unseating Joe Clark's Progressive Conservatives Pierre Trudeau Elections CBC
1988 Anthony Kennedy Is Sworn in as an Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court California Political and Social Leaders U.S. Supreme Court New York Times
1996 An Irish Republican Army Bomb Destroys a London Bus, Killing the Bomber and Others London, England Transportation Terrorism Death BBC
Historic Events that occur  2000-2009 on this date
2001 Veteran FBI Agent Robert Philip Hanssen Is Arrested and Accused of Spying for Russia for More Than 15 Years Russia Notorious People of  Chicago Crime Notorious Americans FBI New York Times
Dale Earnhardt Sr. Is Killed in a Crash on the Last Lap of the 43rd Daytona 500 Daytona, Florida Dale Earnhardt Auto Racing Daytona 500 History Channel
2005 A Ban on Hunting Foxes with Dogs Goes into Effect in England and Wales England Wales Fox Dogs Hunting Law BBC
South African Xhosa Film uCarmen eKhayelitsha Is Selected as the Best Film at the 55th Berlin Film Festival in Germany Berlin, Germany South African Media Film South African History
2006 Speed Skater Shani Davis Is First African-American to Win as Individual Gold Medal at a Winter Olympics Chicago Sports Figures Speed Skating 2006 Torino Winter Olympics Historic Firsts African-American Sports Figures African American Registry