for
Farming & Agriculture César Chávez

MARCH 31

César Chávez Farming & Agriculture
 
 
Cesar Chavez Day
 
Teaching - there can be no finer calling requiring the clearest demonstration of moral and ethical behavior.
Ira Shull, For the Love of Teaching
 
Why do you teach? Let Us Know. Tell Us about your most memorable teacher.
 
 



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5-Minute Quests Today's 5-Minute Quest

Answers to all questions can be found on this page or by using links provided on this page.
Good Luck!
5-Minute Quests
BEGINNERS

1. In what state was Mary Chestnut born on this date in 1823? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

2. Billie Jean King is a member of which sports hall of fame? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

3. According to the Internet Broadway Database, who played the female lead of Laurey when Oklahoma opened on Broadway on this date in 1943? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

Use all of these letters to spell the name of a children's author/illustrator born on this date:
LAMA GRAIN
INTERMEDIATE

1. In which state was Selena Quintanilla-Perez born? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

2. According to PBS, Mary Boykin Chestnut had a close friendship with which two important people of the Confederacy? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

3. According to the Library of Congress, what job did Clara Barton take in 1854? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

Use all of these letters to spell the name of a member of the cast of "The Glass Menagerie", which opened on Broadway on this date in 1945 (according to the Internet Broadway Database):
UNHAILED JOY
EXPERT
(hint: all three questions will require you to use a link found on this page)

1. According to Fact Monster, who played the role of Selena Quintanilla Perez in the film Selena?

2. According to the National Women's Hall of Fame, what district did Bella Abzug represent in the U.S. House of Representatives?

3. According to the Women's International Center, what honor did Billie Jean King receive in 1967?

Use all of these letters to spell the name of a female member of the dancing ensemble of "Oklahoma", which opened on Broadway on this date in 1943 (according to the Internet Broadway Database):
SAD DAMIANA
 
National Women's History Month
 
Separation Bar

Mary Chestnut
Born on This Date 1823

[PBS]

Diarist


Clara Barton
[Library of Congress]


American Red Cross


Selena Quintanilla Pérez

[Warner Brothers]


Singer
Bella Abzug
Bella Abzug

[U.S. House of Representatives]


U.S. Congress
Billie Jean King
Billie Jean King

[Women's International Center]

International Tennis Hall of Fame
 
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César Chávez Day
(Commemoration of the birth date of César Chávez: 03/31/1927)
César Chávez Farming & Agriculture Labor Latin-American Studies César Chávez Foundation
Bunsen Burner Day
(Commemorates the birth date of Robert Wilhelm Bunsen: 03/31/1811)
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Malta: Freedom Day (Jum il-Heisien)
(Commemorates departure of last British military from Malta: 03/31/1979)
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Calendar
Children's Authors & Illustrators
1844 Andrew Lang (Scottish Poet, Children's Author) Andrew Lang Journalism Poetry Primary Children's Authors
1926 Beni Montresor (Italian Children's Author, Illustrator Awarded the 1965 Caldecott Medal for May I Bring a Friend) Beni Montresor Primary Authors Artist, Designer Film 1965 Caldecott Medal Winner for May I Bring a Friend
1932 Jane Campbell Edwards (Montana-born Children's Author) Montana Authors Young-Adult Authors
Junko Morimoto (Japanese Children's Author, Illustrator) Japanese Authors Primary Authors
Authors, Poets and Journalists
1574 Ben Jonson (English Dramatist) Ben Jonson
1596 René Descartes (French Philosopher, Mathematician) René Descartes Philosophy Physics Calculus
1621 Andrew Marvell (English Poet, Political Writer) Andrew Marvell Poetry
1770 John Wyeth (Massachusetts Printer and Publisher) Massachusetts Authors and Illustrators
1809 Edward Fitzgerald (English Writer) Edward FitzGerald Omar Khayyám
Nikolai Gogol (Ukrainian-born Russian Humorist, Dramatist, Novelist) Nikolai Gogol Russian Authors Plays
1810 James M. Goodhue (New Hampshire-born Newspaper Editor of Minnesota's First Newspaper, the Minnesota Pioneer) New Hampshire Authors & Illusatrators Minnesota Authors & Illusatrators Journalism Minnesota Historical Society
1823 Mary Chestnut (South Carolina Diarist) Mary Chestnut American Civil War
1914 Octavio Paz (Mexican Poet, 1990 Nobel Laureate for Literature) Octavio Paz Poetry 1990 Nobel Laureate for Literature
1926 John Fowles (English Author) John Fowles
1932 John Jakes (Chicago-born Historical Author) John Jakes U.S. History
1942 Robert McGruder (Kentucky-born Journalist) Kentucky Authors and Illustrators Journalism African-American Authors and Illustrators African American Heritage
Classical Composers and Performing Artists
1732 Franz Joseph Haydn (Austrian Composer) Franz Joseph Haydn Classical Composers
1872 Serge Diaghilev (Russian Ballet Impresario) Russian Performing Artists Ballet
Scientists, Mathematicians and Inventors
1811 Robert Wilhelm Eberhard von Bunsen (German Pioneer in Chemical Spectroscopy Who Discovered Rubidium and Cesium) Robert Wilhelm Eberhard von Bunsen Science Rubidium Cesium
1890 Sir Lawrence Bragg (Australian Physicist Awarded the 1915 Nobel Laureate for Physics) Australian Scientists and Mathematicians Physics 1915 Nobel Laureate for Physics
Political and Social Leaders
1870 James Cox (Ohio-born Newspaper Publisher, Governor of Ohio) Ohio Political and Social Leaders Journalism Politics
1872 Arthur Griffith (Irish Journalist and Principal Founder of Sinn Fein) Irish Political and Social Leaders Journalism
1927 César Chávez (Arizona-born Latin-American Farm Labor Leader) César Chávez Farming & Agriculture Labor Latin-American Studies
1948 Al Gore (Washington, D.C.-born U.S. Vice President; 2007 Nobel Laureate for Peace) Al Gore President Bill Clinton The American Presidency 2000 Presidential Election 2007 Nobel Laureate for Peace
Performing Artists
1895 Lizzie Miles (New Orleans-born African-American Jazz Singer) New Orleans Performing Artists Jazz African-American Performing Artists African American Heritage
1935 Herb Alpert (Los Angeles-born Latin-American Popular Musician) Herb Alpert Popular Musicians Latin-American Studies
Richard Chamberlain (Los Angeles-born Actor) Richard Chamberlain Actors Television
1943 Christopher Walken (New York City-born Actor) New York City Performing Artists Actors Film Biography.com
1971 Ewan McGregor (Scottish Actor) Scottish Performing Artists Actors Film Biography.com
Sports Figures
1878 Jack Johnson (Texas-born African-American Member of the Boxing Hall of Fame) Texas Sports Figures Boxing Hall of Fame Famous African Americans African American Heritage
Persons of Historic Significance Who Have Died on This Date Persons of Historic Significance Who Have Died on This Date
1631 Johann Christoph Bach (German Composer) German Composers Composers Concordia
1703 John Donne (English Poet) John Donne Poetry Concordia
1788 Prince Charles Edward Stuart of England English Political and Social Leaders British Monarchy Chambers Book of Days
1816 Francis Asbury (English-American Religious Leader) English Political and Social Leaders Religion Concordia
1855 Charlotte Brontë (English Novelist, Author of Jane Eyre) Charlotte Bronte Authors
1858 Lyman Wight (Connecticut-born Leader in the Mormon Church) Connecticut Political and Social Leaders Mormon Church Texas State Historical Association
1911 Alfred Iverson (Georgia-born Confederate General) Georgia Military Figures American Civil War University of Georgia
1931 Knute Rockne (Norwegian-American Football Coach Member of the College Football Hall of Fame) Norwegian Sports Figures College Football Hall of Fame University of Notre Dame New York Times
1945 Hans Fischer (German Chemist; 1930 Nobel Laureate for Chemistry) German Scientists and Mathematicians Chemistry 1930 Nobel Laureate for Chemistry IntelliHealth
1980 Jesse Owens (Alabama-born African-American Member of the Track & Field Hall of Fame) Jesse Owens Track and Field Hall of Fame The 1936 Summer Olympic Games African-American Sports Figures New York Times
1995 Selena Quintanilla-Perez (Texas-born Latin-American Performing Artist: Murdered) Selena Quintanilla-Perez Popular Musicians Latin-American Studies
1998 Bella Abzug (New York City-born Member of the U.S. Congress) Bella Abzug U.S. Congress
2002 Henry J. Kasperowicz (New Jersey-born Inventor of the Red-Green-Blue Three-color Television Tube) New Jersey Scientists & Inventors Inventors and Inventions Television Technology and Society
Historically Significant Events Historically Significant Events
Historic Events of the 1400s that Occurred on this Date
1492 Spain's Ferdinand II Expels All Jews from Spain to Satisfy Public Demand for Religious "Purification" Spanish Government Judaism Concordia History Channel
Historic Events of the 1700s that Occurred on this Date
1774 The British Close the Port of Boston Boston, Massachusetts Colonial Massachusetts USHistory.org
1776 Abigail Adams Urges Husband, John Adams, to Represent Women at the Continental Congress Contintental Congress Abigail Adams Women History Channel
1782 California's Mission San Buenaventura Is Founded by Father Junipero Serra with an Easter Service California California Missions Father Junipero Serra Hispanic Heritage CaliforniaMissions.com LearnCalifornia
Historic Events of the 1800s that Occurred on this Date
1805
Travelling with Lewis and Clark

Ordway: cloudy. rained Some at three oclock this morning. the Ice does not run So thick in the River as it did yesterday.
Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04
Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery Fort Mandan Map Native American Tribes

The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

1806
Travelling with Lewis and Clark

Lewis: We set out early this morning and proceeded until 8 A. M. when we Landed on the N. side opposite one large wooden house of the Shâh-ha-la nation and took breakfast.

when we decended the river in November last there were 24 other lodges formed of Straw and covered with bark near this house; these lodges are now distroyed and the inhabitants as the indians inform us have returned to the great rapids of this river which is their permanent residence; the house which remains is inhabited; soon after we landed two canoes came over from this house with 4 men and a woman. they informed us that their relations who were with them last fall usuly visit them at that season for the purpose of hunting deer and Elk and collecing wappetoe and that they had lately returned to the rapids I presume to prepare for the fishing season as the Salmon will begin to run shortly.—

this morning we overtook the man who had visited our camp last night he had a fine sturgeon in his canoe which he
had just taken.

the Sagittaria Sagittifolia dose not grow on this river above the Columbian valley.—These indians of the rapids frequently visit this valley at every season of the year for the purpose of collecting wappetoe which is abundant and appears never to be out of season at any time of the year.

at 10 A. M. we resumed our march accompanyed by three men in a canoe; one of these fellows appeared to be a man of some note among them; he was dressed in a salor's jacket which was decorated in this own fassion with five rows
of large and small buttons in front and some large buttons on the pocket flaps. they are remarkably fond of large
brass buttons.

these people speak a different language from those below tho' in their dress habits manners &c they differ but little from the quathlahpohtles. they differ in the manner of intering their dead. they lay them horizontally on boards and
cover them with mats, in a valt formed with boards like the roof of a hose supported by forks and a single pole laid horizontally on those forks. many bodies are deposited in the same valt above ground. these are frequently laid one on the other, to the hight of three or for corps. they deposit with them various articles of which they die possessed, and most esteem while living. their canoes are frequently broken up to strengthen the vault.—

these people have a few words the same with those below but the air of the language is intirely different, insomuch,
that it may be justly deemed a different language.

their women wear longer and larger robes generally, than those below; these are most commonly made of deer skins dressed with the hair on them.

we continued our rout along the N. side of the river passed diamond Island and whitebrant island to the lower point of a handsom prarie opposite to the upper entrance of the Quicksand river; here we encamped having traveled 25 miles today.

a little below the upper point of the White brant Island Seal river discharges itself on the N. side. it is about 80 yards wide, and at present discharges a large body of water. the water is very clear. the banks are low and near the Columbia overflow and form several large ponds. the natives inform us that it is of no great extent and heads in the mountains just above us. at the distance of one mile from the entrance of this stream it forks, the two branches being nearly of the same size. they are both obstructed with falls and innumerable rappids, insomuch that it cannot be navigated.

as we could not learn any name of the natives for this stream we called it Seal river from the great abundance of those animals which we saw about it's entrance. we determined to remain at our present encampment a day or two for the several purposes of examining quicksand river, making some Celestial observations, and procuring some meat to serve us as far as the falls or through the Western mountains where we found the game scarce as we decended.—

the three indians who accompanied us last evening encamped a little distance above us and visited our camp where they remained untill 9 P. M.

in the entrance of Seal river I saw a summer duck or wood duck as they are sometimes called. this is the same with those of our country and is the first I have seen since I entered the rocky mountains last summer.—

our hunters who had halted a little below Seal river in consequence of the waves being too high for their small canoe
did not join us untill after dark. Drewyer who was out below Seal river informed us that game was very scarce in that quarter, a circumstance which we did not expect

Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Clark County, Washington Native Americans
The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska
1820 The First Steamboat Ascends the Arkansas River to Arkansas Post Arkansas Post Rivers Steamboarts Historic Firsts Arkansas History Commission
1825 The Marquis de Lafayette Visits Georgia Marquis de Lafayette Georgia American Revolution University of Georgia
1832 St. Augustine, Florida City Council Authorizes Tax-Supported Free Schools in the City St. Augustine, Florida Laws Education St. Augustine, Florida Florida Historical Society
1833 Arsonists Burn the U.S. Treasury Building in Washington, D.C. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Fire Safety U.S. Treasury
1854 Treaty of Kanagawa Opens Japanese Ports to the U.S. and Establishes U.S. Consulate in Japan Japan Historic U.S. Documents Naval History History Channel
1836 24-year-old Charles Dickens Publishes the First Monthly Installment of The Pickwick Papers Charles Dickens The Pickwick Papers History Channel
1856 The Mexican Government Seizes the Property of the Church and Clergy Mexican Government Religion Concordia
1861 President Lincoln Approves Plan for the Relief of Florida's Ft. Pickens Florida President Abraham Lincoln American Civil War Forts Lincoln Papers
1862 President Lincoln Transmits to the Senate a Treaty of Commerce and Navigation with Ottoman Empire Turkey U.S. Senate President Abraham Lincoln Historic U.S. Documents Lincoln Papers
1865 President Lincoln Remains at the Front and in Communication with Grant and Sherman Virginia Abraham Lincoln Ulysses S. Grant American Civil War Lincoln Papers
Sheridan Pressures Confederate Forces at Virginia's Dinwiddie Courthouse Virginia American Civil War History Channel Lincoln Papers
1867 General John Pope Arrives in Atlanta As Commander of the Third Military District (GA, FL, AL) Atlanta, Georgia Alabama Florida American Civil War Reconstruction University of Georgia
1880 Wabash, Indiana Is the First Town in the World to Light Its Streets with Electricity Wabash, Indiana Electricity Historic Firsts Wabash Carnegie Public Library
1883 Texas Cowboys Begin a Failed Strike Against Closed-Range Ranching Texas Business Westward Expansion Labor Strikes Texas State Historical Association
1889 Alexandre Gustave Eiffel Unfurls French Flag Atop the Completed Eiffel Tower Paris Official Website History Channel
Seattle, Washington's First Electric Trolley Line Begins Operation Seattle, Washington Electricity Historic Firsts History Link
Historic Events that occurred 1900-1949 on this date
1905 Kaiser Wilhelm's Support of the Sultan of Morocco Provokes France and Britain German Government Moroccan Government French Government British Government World War I History Channel
1906 Gloucester, Massachusetts Fish Companies Merge Gloucester, Massachusetts Massachusetts Business Fish Massachusetts Foundation for the Humanities
1914 The World's First Commercial Airline Line Shuts Down After 3 Months Florida Aviation Historic Firsts The Carefree Traveler Magazine
First Episode of the Perils of Pauline Serial Is Released Perils of Pauline The Internet Movie Database
1915 A Bill Placing a $10 Bounty on Wolves Is Signed into Law by Alaska's Governor John Strong Alaska Wolves Economics Alaska Historical Society
1917 US Purchases the Virgin Islands from Denmark for $25M U.S. Virgin Islands Denmark Economics Library of Congress
1918 Norwegian Antarctic Explorer Roald Amundsen Speaks in Duluth, Minnesota to Encourage Continued U.S. Support for World War I Roald Amundsen Duluth, Minnesota World War I Minnesota Historical Society
Daylight Savings Time Is First Observed Nationwide as a War-Time Measure to Save Energy World War I Time Historic Firsts University of Georgia
E.A. Schimler, a Professor at Wisconsin's Northland College, Is Tarred and Feathered by an Anti-German Mob Wisconsin German-American Immigrants World War I Terrorism Northland College Wisconsin Historical Society
1919 The Department of the West Virginia State Police Is Created West Virginia Government Law Encorcement West Virginia State Police West Virginia Archives
1923 First U.S. Dance Marathon Ends in New York City after a World Record 27 Hrs New York City Dance Square Z The New York Times
1931 5.6 Magnitude Earthquake Kills 2,450 in Nicaragua Nicaragua Earthquake Death USGS
Notre Dame Football Coach, Knute Rockne, Dies in Kansas Plane Crash Kansas College Football Hall of Fame University of Notre Dame New York Times
1933 President Roosevelt Signs Bill Creating the Civilian Conservation Corps The U.S. Congress Franklin Roosevelt The New Deal Civilian Conservation Corps Alumni The New York Times
In Ohio, Cincinnati's Union Railroad Terminal Is Completed Cincinnati, Ohio Railroad Architecture Cincinnati Museum Center at Union Terminal Ohio Historical Society
1936 Photographs by Eudora Welty Are Exhibited in New York City New York City Eudora Welty Photography Mississippi Writers
1940 Nazi Germany Launches the Cruiser Atlantis, Which Will Sink 22 Allied Merchant Ships Nazi Germany Naval History World War II History Channel
1942 A Tugboat and 3 Barges Are Sunk by Enemy Fire off Chincoteague, Virginia and Survivors Brought Ashore at Lewes, Delaware Chincoteague, Virginia Lewes, Delaware Naval Military History World War II State of Delaware
1943 Rodgers and Hammerstein Musical ''Oklahoma!'' Opens on Broadway New York City Oklahoma Musical Theater Internet Broadway Database
1945 The Tennessee Williams' Play ''The Glass Menagerie'' Opens on Broadway New York City Tennessee Williams Stage and Theater Internet Broadway Database
1946 6,000 Indians Protest South Africa's Ghetto Act South African Government India Racism South African History
1949 Newfoundland Enters the Confederation as Canada's 10th Province Canada Memorial University of Newfoundland The New York Times
Historic Events that occurred 1950-1999 on this date
1950 Hot Springs, New Mexico Officially Changes Its Name to Truth or Consequences Truth or Consequences, New Mexico New Mexico Magazine
1953 England's Queen Mary Is Buried English Political and Social Leaders British Monarchy BBC
City of Bellevue, Washington Is Incorporated Bellevue, Washington Bellevue, Washington History Link
1959 Tibetans Rebel Against Chinese Military Pressure. Dalai Lama Flees to India Tibet China Dalai Lama BBC History Channel
Busch Gardens, Is Dedicated as a Six-Acre Amusement Park in Tampa, Florida Tampa, Florida Busch Gardens Florida Historical Society
1962 Charles E. Whittaker Resigns as Associate Justice of the United State Supreme Court Kansas Political and Social Leaders U.S. Supreme Court Oyez
William Faulkner Publishes "Hell Creek Crossing" in the Saturday Evening Post William Faulkner American Authors Journalism Mississippi Writers
1966 Harold Wilson's Labour Party Wins Sweeping Victory in Britain's Parliamentary Elections British Government Parliament Elections BBC
Soviets Launch Luna 10 Lunar Orbiter from Space Platform Russian Space Program Space Exploration Lunar Exploration NASA
1968 President Lyndon Johnson Announces He Will Not Run for Re-Election President Lyndon Johnson The American Presidency Elections The New York Times
1971 Lt. William Calley Is Sentenced to Life Imprisonment for His Role in the "My Lai" Massacre My Lai Massacre War Crimes Law University of Georgia
The First Eisenhower Silver Dollars Are Produced at the San Francisco Mint San Francisco Currency Historic Firsts U.S. Treasury
NASA Launches ISIS 2 Ionospheric Observatory Space Exploration Earth and Enivronmental Science NASA
1972 British Protesters Begin 4-day March Against Nuclear Weapons Great Britain Nuclear Weapons BBC
1973 A 77-day Mississippi River Flood Reaches Peak Level in St. Louis St. Louis, Missouri Mississippi River Flooding History Channel
1975 Men's Basketball Coach, John Wooden, Wins His 10th and Final NCAA Championship at UCLA Basketball Hall of Fame UCLA Baksetball New York Times
1976 New Michigan Law Allows Drivers to Make Right Turns on Red After Stopping Michigan Government Automotives Law State of Michigan
The First Edition of the Seattle Weekly Is Published Seattle, Washington Journalism Seattle Weekly Historic Firsts History Link
Wonder Woman Premieres on Television Television Internet Movie Database
1979 British End 181-year Military Presence in Malta as HMS London Departs Malta Great Britain CNN
1981 Ananda Chakrabarty Patents a New Single Cell Life Form Biology Patents and Trademarks Cells USPTO
1983 5.5 Magnitude Earthquake Kills 250-350 People in Colombia Colombia Earthquake Death USGS
1986 6 People Treated for Minor Injuries as 5.5 Magnitude Earthquake Hits Central California California Earthquake USGS
The Greater London Council Is Abolished, Ending 97 Years of Local Rule London BBC
1988 The West Point Bullion Depository Is the First New Mint Opened Since 1862 West Point, New York Currency West Point Bullion Depository U.S. Treasury
1990 An Anti-poll Tax Rally in Central London Erupts into Rioting London Elections Tax BBC
1991 The Soviet Union's 35-year Warsaw Pact Military Alliance with Eastern Europe Ends Soviet Union European History Cold War
Referendum Establishes Georgia As an Independent Republic Georgia Republic of Georgia
1992 The United Nations Labels Libya a Terrorist State Banning All Flights and Arms Sales United Nations Libya Terrorism The New York Times
1995 Singer Selena Quintanilla-Perez, 23, Is Shot and Killed by Fan Club President Selena Quintanilla-Perez Popular Musicians Latin-American Studies Texas State Historical Association
Judge Orders Injunction Against MLB Owners: Players End 232-day Strike Baseball Labor Baseball Library The New York Times
1998 The Milwaukee Brewers Play Their First Game as a National League Team, Losing to the Atlanta Braves at Turner Field Wisconsin Sports Figures Atlanta, Georgia Baseball Major League Baseball Historic Firsts Wisconsin Historical Society
1999 Serbs Capture Three U.S. Army Soldiers Near Yugoslav-Macedonia Border Serbia PBS