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Costa Rica Costa Rica

APRIL 11

Costa Rica Costa Rica
 
 

 
 
 
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5-Minute Quests Today's 5-Minute Quest

Answers to all questions can be found on this page or by using links provided on this page.
Good Luck!
5-Minute Quests
BEGINNERS

1. In what year was Apollo 13 launched on this date? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

2. Who became the first African-American umpire in Major League Baseball on this date in 1966? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

3. According to the Constitution Society, in what year was Charles Evans Hughes the Republican Party candidate for president? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

Use all of these letters to spell the name of a performing artist born on this date:
REVERS HOJS
INTERMEDIATE

1. What is Meshach Taylor's profession? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

2. According to the Douglas Archives, on November 19, 1863 Edward Everett was the principal speaker at what dedication ceremony? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

3. According to the National Inventors Hall of Fame, what did Luther Burbank produce in 1871 to help to combat the potato epidemic in Ireland? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

Use all of these letters to spell the title of a book by Graham Salisbury (according to his official website):
AT HIS BARK
EXPERT
(hint: all three questions will require you to use a link found on this page)

1. According to the Constitution Society, on what date was Charles Evans Hughes sworn in as Chief Justice of the United States?

2. According to the Smithsonian Institution, during what years did Dean Acheson serve as the U.S. Secretary of State?

3. According to the Internet Movie Database, who played the role of the minister in Charlie Chaplin's movie The Tramp?

Use all of these letters to spell the name of a crew member aboard the Space Shuttle Challenger, on this date in 1984 (according to NASA):
ENFORCE ABC SIRS
 
 

Edward Everett
Born on This Date 1794

[Boston Public Library]
Educator Orator

Charles Evans Hughes
Born on This Date 1862

[St. Olaf College
Justice, U.S. Supreme Court

Percy L. Julian
Born on This Date 1899

[National Academy of Science]
Research Chemist

Jane Bolin
Born on This Date 1908

[Smithsonian Institution]
First African-American Judge

Graham Salisbury
Born on This Date 1944

[Official Web Site]
Children's Author
 
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Costa Rica: Juan Santamaria
(Commemoration of the defeat of William Walker's attempt to seize control of Costa Rica: 1855-56)
Costa Rica U.S. Department of State Costa Rica Outdoors
Calendar
Children's Authors & Illustrators
1944 Graham Salisbury (Pennsylvania-born Children's Author) Graham Salisbury Young-adult Authors
Authors, Poets and Journalists
1722 Christopher Smart (English Religious Poet) English Writers Poetry Religion Academy of American Poets Writer's Almanac
1819 Joseph Beckham Cobb (Georgia-born Humorist ) Georgia Authors and Illustrators Mississippi Writers
1857 John Davidson (Scottish Poet and Playwright) Scottish Authors and Illustrators Poetry Plays
1901 Glenway Wescott (Wisconsin-born Poet, Novelist, Essayist) Glenway Wescott Poetry
1902 Quentin Reynolds (New York City-born Newscaster and Writer) New York  City Writers and Illustrators
1905 József Attila (Hungarian Poet) József Attila Poetry
1908 Leo Rosten (Polish-American Humorist) Leo Rosten
1934 Mark Strand (Canadian Poet) Canadian Authors and Illustrators Poetry University of Illinois Writer's Almanac
1941 Ellen Goodman (Massachusetts-born Journalist, Author) Ellen Goodman Journalism
1951 Kay Sloan (Mississippi-born Fiction Writer) Mississippi Authors and Illustrators Mississippi Writers
Artists, Architects and Designers
1864 Lizzie Plummer Bliss (Massachusetts-born Co-founder New York City's Museum of Modern Art) Massachsuetts Political and Social Leaders Museum of Modern Art Asia Times
1869 Gustav Vigeland (Norwegian Sculptor) Norwegian Artists Artists
1913 Oleg Cassini (French Fashion Designer) Parisian Artists & Designers Biography.com
Songwriters, Classical Composers, Conductors and Performing Artists
1819 Charles Halle (German-English Pianist, Conductor) German Composers Classical Musicians
Scientists, Mathematicians and Inventors
1899 Percy L Julian (Alabama-born African-American Chemist) Percy L Julian Chemistry Medical Research Plants Famous African Americans
1907 Henry Scheffé (New York City-born Mathematician, Statistician) Henry Scheffé Statistics
Political and Social Leaders
146 Septimus Severus (Emperor of Rome from A.D. 193 to 211) Roman Empire
1492 Margaret of Angouleme (French Queen Consort of Henry II of Navarre; Renaissance Poet and Patron of the Arts) French Political and Social Leaders Poetry Fine Arts
1721 David Zeisberger (Moravian Missionary to Native Americans in Pennsylvania) Czech Political and Social Leaders Pennsylvania Political and Social Leaders Native American Heritage Religion History Channel
1770 George Canning (Prime Minister of England) English History Chambers Book of Days Historic UK
1790 George Rockingham Gilmer (Georgia Governor, Congressman) Georgia Political and Social Leaders U.S. Congress University of  Georgia
1794 Edward Everett (Massachusetts-born Statesman, Orator) Edward Everett Education
1862 Charles Evans Hughes (New York-born U.S. Secretary of State, Chief Justice U.S. Supreme Court Justice) Charles Evans Hughes U.S. Government U.S. Supreme Court
1893 Dean Acheson (Connecticut-born U.S. Secretary of State, Statesman) Dean Acheson U.S. Government
1908 Jane Bolin (New York-born First Female African-American Judge) Jane Bolin Law and Legal Resources Famous African Americans
1928 Ethel Kennedy (Chicago-born Wife of Robert F. Kennedy) Chicago Political and Social Leaders Robert F. Kennedy Biography.com
1930 Nicholas Brady (New York City-born Financier, U.S. Secretary of the Treasury) New York City Political and Social Leaders U.S. Government Economics U.S. Treasury
Performing Artists
1932 Joel Grey (Ohio-born Actor) Ohio Peforming Artists Actors Film Internet Movie Database
1939 Louise Lasser (New York City-born Actress) New York City Peforming Artists Actors Film Television Internet Movie Database
1947 Meshach Taylor (Massachusetts-born African-American Actor) Meshach Taylor Actors Television Famous African Americans Internet Movie Database
1979 Josh Server (Illinois-born Actor) Illinois Actors Actors Television Internet Movie Database
1987 Joss Stone (English Singer) English Performing Artists Popular Musicians Biography.com
Persons of Historic Significance Who Have Died on This Date Persons of Historic Significance Who Have Died on This Date
1926 Luther Burbank (Massachusetts-born Botanist) Luther Burbank Botany
1987 Erskine Caldwell (Georgia-born Author) Erskine Caldwell American Authors
2004 Joan Williams (Mississippi-born Writer) Mississippi Authors and Illustrators American Authors Mississippi Writers
2007 Kurt Vonnegut (Indiana-born Author) Kurt Vonnegut American Authors
Roscoe Lee Browne (New Jersey-born African-American Emmy-Winning Actor) New Jersey Performing Artists African-American Performing Artists American Performing Artists Television Emmy Awards IMDB
Historically Significant Events Historically Significant Events
Historic Events of the 1500s that Occurred on this Date
1506 The Foundation Stone of the New Saint Peter's Basilica Is Laid Under the Patronage of Pope Julius II (some sources: 04/18/1506) Italy Catholic Catholic Encyclopedia Concordia
1562 French Huguenots Sign a Manifesto Declaring They Will Fight in Defense of the Protestants France Religion Concordia
Historic Events of the 1600s that Occurred on this Date
1680 Exploring the Mississippi River North from Illinois by Canoe, Father Louis Hennepin Is Captured by a Group of Dakota Belgian Explorers Minnesota North American Explorers Mississippi River Dakota Minnesota Historical Society
1689 William III and Mary II Are Crowned Sovereigns of Britain British History British Monarchy Westminster Abbey Historic UK
Historic Events of the 1700s that Occurred on this Date
1713 France Signs Treaty of Utrecht Recognizing Anne as the Queen of England Great Britain France Queen Anne European History Univeristy of Houston
1769 California's First non-Native Permanent Settlers Sail into San Diego Bay Aboard the San Antonio Captained by Don Juan Perez Spain San Diego, California Immigration Historic Firsts Latin-American Heritage University of San Diego Learn California
1775 John Howe Arrives in Concord, Massachusetts to Spy for the British Great Britain Concord, Massachusetts Battles of Lexington and Concord Massachusetts Foundation for the Humanities
1796 The First Elephant Brought to America Arrives in New York City from Calcutta, India India Elephants Historic Firsts Indian American Forum for Political Education
Historic Events of the 1800s that Occurred on this Date
1803 France Offers to Sell the Louisiana Territory to the United States France Thomas Jefferson Lousiana Purchase History Channel National Park Service
Zebulon Pike Becomes the Commander of Detroit Detroit Zebulon Pike Historical Society of Michigan (pdf)
1805
Travelling with Lewis and Clark

Lewis: Set out at an early hour; I proceeded with the party and Capt Clark with George Drewyer walked on shore in
order to procure some fresh meat if possible. we proceeded on abot five miles, and halted for breakfast, when Capt Clark and George Drewyer joined us; the latter had killed, and brought with him a deer which was at this moment excepable as we had had no fresh meat for several days. the country from fort Mandan to this place is so constantly hunted by the Minetaries that there is but little game we halted at two P. M. and made a comfortable dinner on a venison stake and beavers tales with the bisquit which got wet on the 8th inst. by the accidant of the canoe filling with water before mentioned.

the powder which got wet by the same accedent, and which we had spread to dry on the baggage of the large perogue, was now examined and put up; it appears to be almost restored, and our loss is therefore not so great as we had at
first apprehended.—

the country much the same as yesterday. on the sides of the hills and even the banks of the rivers and sandbars,
there is a white substance t[h]at appears in considerable quantities on the surface of the earth, which tastes like a mixture of common salt and glauber salts. many of the springs which flow from the base of the river hills are so strongly impregnated with this substance that the water is extreemly unpelasant to the taste and has a purgative effect.—

[These salts are an admixture of sodium sulphate, sodium bicarbonate, and magnesium sulphate. Sodium chloride is not especially common. Ground water dissolves the salts from the formations through which it passes. Evaporation of this water where it is discharged produces salt crystals and salt crusts.]

saw some large white cranes pass up the river—these are the largest bird of that genus common to the country
through which the Missouri and Mississippi pass. they are perfectly white except the large feathers of the two
first joints of the wing which are black.
[the whooping crane, Grus americana, now an endangered species] we encamped this evening on the Stard. shore just above the point of woodland which formed to extremity of the last course of this day. there is a high bluff opposite to us, under which we saw some Indians, but the river is here so wide that we could not speake to them; suppose them to be a hunting party of Minetares.— we killed two gees today.

Clark: Set out verry early I walked on Shore, Saw fresh bear tracks, one deer & 2 beaver killed this morning in the
after part of the day killed two gees; Saw great numbers of Gees Brant & Mallard Some White Cranes Swan & guls,
the plains begin to have a green appearance, the hills on either side are from 5 to 7 miles asunder and in
maney places have been burnt, appearing at a distance of a redish brown choler, containing Pumic Stone & lava, Some of which rolin down to the base of those hills—

In maney of those hills forming bluffs to the river we procieve Several Stratums of bituminious Substance which resembles Coal; thoug Some of the pieces appear to be excellent Coal it resists the fire for Some[time], and consumes without emiting much flaim. [ Some of the shale beds of the Sentinel Butte Formation contain much organic material and appear black. Inorganic material dominates so that the carbonaceous shale either burns poorly or not at all.] The plains are high and rich Some of them are Sandy Containing Small pebble, and on Some of the hill Sides large Stones are to be Seen—

In the evening late we observed a party of Me ne tar ras on the L. S. with horses and dogs loaded going down, those are a part of the Menetarras who camped a little above this with the Ossinniboins at the mouth of the little Missouri all the latter part of the winter we Camped on the S. S. below a falling in bank. the river raise a little.

Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04 McLean County, North Dakota Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery Native American Tribes

The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

1806
Travelling with Lewis and Clark

Lewis: As the tents and skins which covered both our men and baggage were wet with the rain which fell last evening, and as it continued still raining this morning we concluded to take our canoes first to the head of the rapids, hoping
that by evening the rain would cease and afford us a fair afternoon to take our baggage over the portage.

this portage is two thousand eight hundred yards along a narrow rough and slipery road. the duty of getting the canoes above the rapid was by mutual consent confided to my friend Capt. C. who took with him for that purpose all the party except Bratton who is yet so weak he is unable to work, three others who were lamed by various accedents and one other to cook for the party. a few men were absolutely necessary at any rate to guard our baggage from the War-clel-lars who crouded about our camp in considerable numbers.

these are the greates theives and scoundrels we have met with. by the evening Capt. C. took 4 of our canoes above the rapids tho' with much difficulty and labour. the canoes were much damaged by being driven against the rocks in dispite of every precaution which could be taken to prevent it. the men complained of being so much fatiegued in the evening that we posponed taking up our 5th canoe untill tomorrow.

these rapids are much worse than they were fall when we passed them, at that time there were only three difficult
points within seven miles, at present the whole distance is extreemly difficult of ascent, and it would be impracticable to decend except by leting down the empty vessels by a cord and then even the wrisk would be greater than in taking them up by the same means.

the water appears to be upwards of 20 feet higher than when we decended the river. the distance by way of the river between the points of the portage is 3 Ms—

many of the natives crouded abot the bank of the river where the men were engaged in taking up the canoes; one of them had the insolence to cast stones down the bank at two of the men who happened to be a little detatched from
the party at the time.

on the return of the party in the evening from the head of the rapids they met with many of the natives on the road, who seemed but illy disposed; two of these fellows met with John Sheilds who had delayed some time in purchasing a dog and was a considerable distance behind the party on their return with Capt. C.. they attempted to take the dog from
him and pushed him out of the road. he had nothing to defend himself with except a large knife which he drew with an intention of puting one or both of them to death before they could get themselves in readiness to use their arrows, but discovering his design they declined the combat and instantly fled through the woods.

three of this same tribe of villains the Wah-clel-lars, stole my dog this evening, and took him towards their village; I
was shortly afterwards informed of this transaction by an indian who spoke the Clatsop language, and sent three men
in pursuit of the theives with orders if they made the least resistence or difficulty in surrendering the dog to fire on
them;

they overtook these fellows or reather came within sight of them at the distance of about 2 miles; the indians discovering the party in pursuit of them left the dog and fled. they also stole an ax from us, but scarcely had it in their possession before Thompson detected them and wrest it from them. we ordered the centinel to keep them out of camp, and informed them by signs that if they made any further attempts to steal our property or insulted our men we should put them to instant death.

a cheif of the Clah-clel-lah tribe informed us that there were two very bad men among the Wah-clel-lahs who had been the principal actors in these seenes of outradge of which we complained, and that it was not the wish of the nation by any means to displease us. we told him that we hoped it might be the case, but we should certainly be as good as our words if they presisted in their insolence. I am convinced that no other consideration but our number at this moment protects us.

The Cheif appeared mortified at the conduct of his people, and seemed friendly disposed towards us. as he appeared to be a man of consideration and we had reason to beleive much rispected by the neighbouring tribes we thought it
well to bestoe a medal of small size upon him. he appeared much gratifyed with this mark of distinction, and some
little attention which we shewed him.

he had in his possession a very good pipe tomahawk which he informed us he had received as a present from a trader who visited him last winter over land pointing to the N. W., whome he called Swippeton; he was pleased with the tommahawk of Capt. C. in consequence of it's having a brass bowl and Capt. C. gratified him by an exchange.

as a further proof of his being esteemed by this white trader, he gave us a well baked saylor's bisquit which he also informed us he had received from Swippeton. from these evidences I have no doubt but the traders who winter in some of the inlets to the N. of us visit this part of the Columbia by land at certain seasons, most probably when they are confined to their winter harbour. and if so some of those inlets are probably at no great distance from this place, as there seems to be but little inducement to intice the trader hither from any considerable distance particularly as the difficulty in traveling on the borders of this mountainous country must be great at that season as the natives informed me their snows were frequently breast deep. I observe snowshoes in all the lodges of the natives above the
Columbean vally.

I hope that the friendly interposition of this chief may prevent our being compelled to use some violence with these people; our men seem well disposed to kill a few of them. we keep ourselves perefectly on our guard.

This evening we send Drewyer and the two Feildses on a few miles up the river to the entrance of Cruzatt's river to hunt untill our arrival.

The inhabitants of the Yeh-huh Village on the North side immediately above the rapids have lately removed to the opposite side of the river, where it appears they usually take their salmon. like their relations the Wah-Clel-lars they have taken their houses with them.

I observe that all the houses lately established have their floors on the surface of the earth, are smaller and of more temperary structure than those which are sunk in the ground. I presume the former are their spring and Summer dwellings and the latter those of the fall and winter. these houses are most generally built with boards and covered with bark. some of an inferior ore more temperary cast are built entirely of cedar bark, which is kept smooth and extended by inserting small splinters of wood through the bark crosswise at the distance of 12 or 14 inches assunder. several families inhabit the same appartment.

their women as well as those of the 3 villages next below us pierce the cartelage of the nose and insert various ornaments. they very seldom imprint any figures on their skins; a few I observed had one or two longitudinal lines of dots on the front of the leg, reaching from the ankle upwards about midleg. most of their women braid their hair in two tresses as before mentioned. the men usually cew their hair in two parsels which like the braded tresses of the female hang over each ear in front of the sholder, and gives an additional width to the head and face so much admired by them. these cews are usually formed with throngs of dressed Otterskin crossing each other and not roled in our
manner arrond the hair. in all other rispects I observe no difference in their dress habits manners &c. from those in the Neighbourhood of the diamond Island.

today we recognized a man of the Elute nation who reside at the long narrows of the Columbia, he was on his return from a trading voyage to the Columbean valley with 10 or 12 others of his nation. many other natives from the villages above were employed in taking their roots &c over the portage on their return. I observed that the men equally with the women engage in the labour of carrying. they all left their canoes below the rapids and took others above which they had left as they decended. those which were left below were taken down the river by the persons from whom they had been hired or borrowed. the natives from above behaved themselves in a very orderly manner.

The salmon have not yet made their appearance, tho' the natives are not so much distressed for food as I was induced to believe.

I walked down to day about ľ of a mile below our encampment to observe the manner in which these people inter
their dead. I found eight sepulchers near the north bank of the river built in the following manner. four strong forks are first sunk several feet in the ground and rise about six feet high froming a parrallelogram of 8 by 10 feet. the intervals between these upright forks, on which four poles are laid, are filled up with broad erect boads with their lower ends sunk in the ground and their upper ends confined to the horizontal poles. a flat roof is formed of several layers of boards; the floors of these sepulchres are on a level with the surface of the earth. the human bodies are well rolled in dressed skins and lashed securely with chords and laid horizontally on the back with the head to the west. in some of these sepulchres they are laid on each other to the debth of three or four bodies. in one of those sepulchres which was nearly decayed I observed that the human bones filled it perfectly to the hight of about three feet. many articles appear to be sacreficed to the dead both within and without the sepulcres. among other articles, I observed a brass teakettle, some scollep shells, parts of several robes of cloth and skins, with sticks for diging roots &c.— this appears to be the burying ground of the Wahclellahs, Clahclellahs and Yehhuhs.—


Lewis: rained the greater part of last night and continues this morning.

all of the party except a fiew to guard the baggage turned out with Capt. Clark to takeing up our canoes with the tow Rope up the big Shoote took one large one and one Small one at once the large one filled at the highest pitch where it is allmost perpinticular but with Some difficulty we got the 2 to the head of the portage about noon. then went back took dinner and took another large canoe and a Small one the other Smallest one was taken & carried by land. this large canoe filled twice with water at the worst pitch but with some difficulty & hard fatigue got them Safe up towards evening by the assistance of a number of Indians at the worst pitch &C. and halled the large canoe up by force allthough She was full of water. the most of the mens feet sore towing over the Sharp rocks.

Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Skamania County, Washington Native Americans
The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska
1814 Napoleon Bonaparte Abdicates as Emperor of France and Is Banished to the Island of Elba French Political and Social Leaders Napoleon New York Times
1848 The First Post Office Opens in Manitowoc, Wisconsin Manitowoc, Wisconsin U.S. Postal Service Historic Firsts Wisconsin Historical Society
1851 Jenny Lind, the "Swedish Nightingale," Sings in Madison, Indiana While on Her Way by Boat from Louisville, Kentucky to Cincinnati, Ohio Jenny Lind Madison, Indiana Louisville, Kentucky Cincinnati, Ohio Popular Musicians Steam Boats Indiana Historical Society
1853 Georgia-born John A. Campbell Is Sworn in as Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court Georgia Political and Social Leaders President Franklin Pierce U.S. Supreme Court Oyez University of  Georgia
1861 U.S. Troops Occupy Florida's Fort Pickens Florida American Civil War Forts Florida Historical Society
1862 Confederates Surrender Fort Pulaski, Georgia to Union Troops Georgia Battle of Ft. Pulaski
1863 President Lincoln Attends Performance of "Pocahontas" at the Washington Theatre President Abraham Lincoln Stage and Theater Lincoln Papers
1864 U.S.S. Nita Captures the Schooner Three Brothers at the Mouth of Florida's Homossassa River Florida American Civil War Naval History Florida Historical Society
1865 President Lincoln Makes What Will Be His Last Public Address to Crowd Celebrating the End of the War President Abraham Lincoln American Civil War Historic American Documents Lincoln Papers
U.S.S. Sea Bird Captures Two Schooners Carrying Cotton at the Mouth of Florida's Crystal River Florida American Civil War Naval History Florida Historical Society
1871 The Last Spike Is Driven to Complete the Railroad Between Memphis, Tennessee and Little Rock, Arkansas Memphis, Tennessee Little Rock, Arkansas Railroad Arkansas History Commission
1881 Spelman College Opens in Basement of Atlanta's Friendship Baptist Church Georgia Education African-American History Spelman College African American Registry
1888 The Concertgebouw Opens in Amsterdam, Netherlands with a Concert Performed by a 700-piece Ensemble Amsterdam, Netherlands Classical Music Historic Firsts Concertgebouw American Public Media
1889 In Arkansas, the Izard County Courthouse Burns Izard County, Arkansas Fire Arkansas History Commission
1893 Frederic Ives Patents the Process for Half-tone Printing Patents & Trademarks Art U.S. Patent and Trademark Office
1897 USS Oregon First Battleship to Dock at Bremerton, Washington Puget Sound Naval Shipyard Bremerton, Washington Naval History Historic Firsts History Link
1898 President McKinley Asks Congress to Intervene in Spain's War in Cuba U.S. Congress McKinley Spanish-American War Library of Congress
1899 The Treaty Ending the Spanish-American War Is Declared In Effect Spanish-American War Historic U.S. Documents New York Times
Historic Events that occurred 1900-1949 on this date
1900 U.S. Navy Acquires Its First Commissioned Submarine for $160,000 Naval History Historic Firsts Library of Congress
1902 In Milan, Italian Tenor Enrico Caruso Makes His First 10 Phonograph Records for the Gramophone Typewriter Company Enrico Caruso Opera Classical Music Historic Firsts American Public Media
1907 New York Giants' Roger Bresnahan Is First Catcher to Wear Shin Guards New York City Sports Figures Baseball Major League Baseball Historic Firsts New York Times
1908 Florida's Governor Broward Declares Martial Law in Pensacola to Railroad Strike Violence Pensacola, Florida Railroads Union Strikes Pensacola, Florida Florida Historical Society
West Virginia Coal Operator, Samuel Dixon, and Six Others Indicted for Peonage and Conspiracy West Virginia Business Business Labor Crime West Virginia Archives
1909 Pope Pius X Issues Decree Beatifying Joan of Arc Joan of Arc Catholicism Catholic Encyclopedia
1912 Police and Militia Break Up Fight Between Roosevelt and Taft Supporters at Michigan's Republican Convention Michigan Political Leaders Theodore Roosevelt William Howard Taft Politics Historical Society of Michigan (pdf)
1914 George Bernard Shaw's Pygmalion Premieres in London George Bernard Shaw Plays The Guardian
1915 Charlie Chaplin' s "The Tramp" Is Released in the U.S. English Performing Artists Charlie Chaplin Actors Film Internet Movie Database
1919 International Labor Organization (ILO) is Founded In Affiliation with the League of Nations The League of Nations Labor History Channel
The New Symphony Orchestra Gives Its First Concert in New York City New York City New York Philharmonic Historic Firsts American Public Media
1921 Iowa Is the First State to Impose a Cigarette Tax Iowa Tobacco Taxes Historic Firsts New York Times
The Majestic Theater Opens in Downtown Dallas, Texas Dallas, Texas Stage and Theater The Majestic Theater Texas State Historical Association
1930 The American Premiere of the Staged Version of Igor Stravinsky's Ballet "The Rite of Spring," Is Performed in Philadelphia Stravinsky Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Ballet Historic Firsts American Public Media
1931 Dorothy Parker Resigns As Drama Critic for The New Yorker Dorothy Parker Journalism History Channel
1936 The Detroit Red Wings Win Their First Stanley Cup Defeating Toronto 3-1 Detroit Sports Figures Hockey NHL State of Michigan
1939 U.S. Patent Is Issued for Pentothal, a Surgical Anesthetic, Tranquilizer - "Truth Serum" Patents and Trademarks Medical Research Organic Chemistry Technology and Society
1941 German Bombers Blitz Coventry, England Great Britain Nazi Germany World War II CNN
President Roosevelt Issues Executive Order Creating the Office of Price Administration (OPA) President Franklin Roosevelt Economics History Channel
Austrian-born Composer Arnold Schönberg Becomes an American Citizen Austrian Composers Classical Composers Immigration American Public Media
1943 10,000 Attend Join UAW and NAACP Convention for Improved Race Relations in Detroit Detroit, Michigan UAW NAACP Historical Society of Michigan (pdf)
Philadelphia Inquirer Publishes Eudora Welty's Story "The Robber Bridegroom" Eudora Welty American Authors Journalism American Collection
1945 U.S. Troops Liberate Buchenwald Concentration Camp Nazi Germany The Holocaust World War II History Channel
1947 Jackie Robinson Signs a Contract with the Brooklyn Dodgers and Plays in an Exhibition Game Against the New York Yankees Jackie Robinson Baseball Hall of Fame Historic Firsts African-American Sport Figures Pasadena City College University of  Georgia
1948 Savannah-born Claude Harmon Is First Native Georgian to Win the Masters Golf Tournament Georgia  Sports Figures Golf The Masters Historic Firsts Sports Illustrated
Historic Events that occurred 1950-1999 on this date
1951 President Truman Informs the Nation He Has Relieved General MacArthur of Korea Command Harry Truman Douglas MacArthur Korean War History Channel New York Times BBC Wisconsin Historical Society
1953 President Eisenhower Appoints Oveta Culp Hobby First Secretary of New Department of HEW HEW President Eisenhower Historic Firsts Texas State Historical Association
1957 British Government Agrees to Singapore Self-Rule Under a New Constitution British Government Singapore Government BBC
U.S. X-13 Is First Aircraft to Achieve Vertical Takeoff and Landing Aviation History Historic Firsts Technology and Society
1961 Adolf Eichmann Trial Begins in Israel for Nazi War Crimes Israel Adolf Eichmann Law War Crimes BBC
1965 40 Tornadoes Strike U.S. Midwest: 272 Die, 5,000 Injured Indiana Michigan Ohio Wisconsin Tornadoes Death CNN Historical Society of Michigan (pdf) Wisconsin Historical Society
Jack Nicklaus Wins His Second Masters Championship with a Record 271 Jack Nicklaus World Golf Hall of Fame The Masters Sports Illustrated
1966 Emmett Ashford Is Major League Baseball's First African-American Umpire Baseball Major League Baseball Famous African Americans Historic Firsts CNN
Jack Nicklaus Wins His Third Masters Championship Jack Nicklaus World Golf Hall of Fame The Masters Sports Illustrated
1968 President Lyndon Johnson Signs the 1968 Civil Rights Bill into Law Lyndon Johnson Civil Rights Historic U.S. Documments African-American History Library of Congress
1970 Apollo 13 Is Launched for a Manned Lunar Landing Lunar Exploration NASA History Channel Wisconsin Historical Society
U.S. B-52s Strike North Vietnamese Positions Vietnam War Aviation History History Channel
1975 Alaska Airlines Hires Joann Osterud as Its First Female Pilot Alaska Airlines Women Aviation Historic Firsts Alaska Historical Society
1977 President Carter Hosts White House Easter Egg Roll The White House President Carter Easter History Channel
1979 Ugandan Dictator Idi Amin Is Overthrown Ugandan Political and Social Leaders History Channel South African History
1980 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Prohibits Sexual Harassment of Workers by Supervisors U.S. Government Human Rights/Civil Rights Law Equal Employment Opportunity Commission New York Times
1981 Arrest of a Black Man Fuels Race Riot in Brixton, England Briston, England Racism Crime BBC
Reagan Released from Hospital after Assassination Attempt Ronald Reagan University of Missouri Kansas City New York Times
1983 Spain's Seve Ballesteros Wins His Second Masters Championship Spanish Sports Figures World Golf Hall of Fame The Masters Sports Illustrated
1984 Challenger (STS-41C) Astronauts Complete First In-Space Satellite Repair The Space Shuttle Historic Firsts NASA
Soviet Soyuz T-11 Returns to Earth Soviet Space Program Space Exploration Spacefacts
1990 British Customs Seizes the Barrel of a Massive "Supergun" Bound for Iraq British Government Iraq War BBC
1991 Space Shuttle STS 37 (Atlantis 8) Lands The Space Shuttle NASA
Miss Saigon Opens at the Broadway Theatre, New York. New York City Plays American Musicals Vietnam War Asian-American Heritage Internet Broadway Database
1992 Serbia and Montenegro Proclaim Themselves to be the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Serbia Bates College
1993 A 10-day Riot Begins at the Southern Ohio Correctional Facility in Lucasville: 9 Inmates and a Prison Guard Will Die Lucasville, Ohio Prisons Death Ohio Historical Society
1996 Israeli Planes and Helicopters Strike Targets in Beirut, Lebanon Israel Beirut, Lebanon Aviation History War BBC
Greg Norman Shoots a Record 63 at the Masters Greg Norman Golf The Masters University of  Georgia
1997 6.2 Magnitude Earthquake Kills 9, Leaves 100,000 Homeless, in Southern Xinjiang, China China Earthquake Death USGS
1999 Spain's Jose Maria Olazabal Wins His Second Masters Championship Spanish Sports Figures Golf The Masters Sports Illustrated
Historic Events that occurred 1950-1999 on this date
2004 Phil Mickelson Wins the Masters Title for His First Major Championship California Sports Figures Golf The Masters University of Georgia