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Education Education
Kindergarten Day
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Ira Shull, For the Love of Teaching
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5-Minute Quests Today's 5-Minute Quest

Answers to all questions can be found on this page or by using links provided on this page.
Good Luck!
5-Minute Quests

1. The largest fish ever caught with a rod and reel was caught on this date in 1959. What kind of fish was it? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

2. In what battle did the Texans defeat the Mexicans on this date in 1836? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

3. According to the Froebel Education Centre, where did Friedrich Froebel start the first kindergarten in 1837? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

Use all of these letters to spell the title of a 1992 book by Jane Breskin Zalben (according to the book list at her official web site):

1. In 1856, the first railroad bridge across the Mississippi River allowed trains to travel between which two cities? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

2. According to the "About the Author" section of her official website, in what grade did Jane Breskin Zalben first begin composing poetry for her class newspaper? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

3. According to the University of Oregon, what was the real name of Brazilian hero Tiradentes? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

Use all of these letters to spell the title of a work by Charlotte Brontë (according to the Authors' Calendar):
(hint: all three questions will require you to use a link found on this page)

1. According to the University of Toronto, how many brothers and sisters did Charlotte Brontë have?

2. According to The New York Times, what were two affectionate nicknames given to John Muir?

3. According to the Hispanic Heritage Awards Foundation, how many academy awards did Anthony Quinn receive?

Use all of these letters to spell the title of a novel by Mark Twain:

Friedrich Froebel
Born on This Date 1816

[Brown University]
Founder of Kindgergarten Founder of Kindgergarten

Charlotte Brontë
Born on This Date 1816

[University of Toronto]

John Muir
Born on This Date 1838

[Sierra Club]
Environmental/Conservation Pioneer

Anthony Quinn
Born on This Date 1915

Barbara Park
Barbara Park
Born on This Date 1947

[Bound to Stay Bound]
Young-adult Authors
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The Bahá'í Faith: Festival of Ridván (Day 1-12)
(sunset 4/21 - sunset 5/2: commemorates Baha'u'llah's 1863 stay in "Garden of Ridvan" as God's messenger.)
The Bahá'í Faith BBC
Kindergarten Day
(Commemorates the birth date of Friedrich Froebel, founder of the kindergarten concept: 04/21/1782)
Friedrich Froebel Educators of Note Early Childhood Education University of Florida
Brazil: Triadentes Day
(Observed in remembrance of national hero Tiradentes: martyred 04/21/1792)
Tiradentes U.S. Department of State Destination360 University of Oregon
Primary Authors and Illustrators Born on This Date Young-adult  Authors and Illustrators Born on This Date Icon
1947 Barbara Park (New Jersey-born Children's Author) Barbara Park Young-adult Readers
1950 Jane Breskin Zalben (New York City-born Children's Author and Illustrator) Jane Breskin Zalben Primary Children's Books American Artists
Authors, Poets and Journalists
1816 Charlotte Brontë (British Author of Wuthering Height and Jane Eyre) Charlotte Brontë
1818 Josh Billings (Massachusetts-born Humorist and Writer; Popular After the Civil War) Josh Billings Journalism
1923 John Mortimer (British Writer, Playwright, and Critic) John Mortimer Plays
1943 Thomas McMahon (Ohio-born Scientist and Fiction Writer) Thomas McMahon Physics Physiology
Artists, Architects and Designers
1555 Lodovico Carracci (Italian Painter and Printmaker) Italian Artists
1883 Clarence "Cap" Wigington (Kansas-born First African American Registered Architect in Minnesota) Kansas Artists Minnesota Artists African-American Artists Architecture
Songwriters, Classical Composers, Conductors and Performing Artists
1889 G. Donald Harrison (British-born American Organ Designer and Builder) British Composers and Classical Musicians Organs
1899 Randall Thompson (New York City-born Composer of Choral Music) New York City Composers and Classical Musicians Religion
1911 Leonard Warren (New York City-born Operatic Baritone) New York City Composers and Classical Musicians Opera
1933 Easley Blackwood (Indianapolis-born Classical Pianist, Composer) Indiana Composers and Classical Musicians Classical Musicians American Composers
Scientists, Mathematicians and Inventors
1838 John Muir (Scottish-born American Naturalist and Conservationist) John Muir Earth and the Environment
1864 Max Weber (German Sociologist and Economist) German Scientists & Mathematicians Economists
Political and Social Leaders
1033 Anselm (Italian-born, Archbishop of Canterbury) Italian Political and Social Leaders British Political and Social Leaders Religion Concordia Chambers' Book of Days
1782 Friedrich Froebel (German Educator and Founder of the Kindergarten) Friedrich Froebel Educators of Note Early Childhood Education
1801 Robert M.T. Hunter (Virginia-born Congressman and Speaker of the House from 1839-41) Robert M.T. Hunter U.S. Congress American Civil War
1859 Belle Case La Follette (First Woman to Graduate From the University of Wisconsin School of Law) Wisconsin Political and Social Leaders American Women Political and Social Leaders Law University of Wisconsin School of Law Wisconsin Historical Society
1926 Elizabeth II, Queen of England Elizabeth II British Monarchy
Performing Artists
1874 Billy Bitzer (Massachusetts-born Motion-Picture Cameraman) Massachusetts Performing Artists Movie Camera Film Internet Movie Database
1912 Marcel Camus (French Film Director) French Performing Artists Filmmakers Internet Movie Database
1915 Anthony Quinn (Mexican-born Actor) Mexican Performing Artists Actors Latin-American Studies
1924 Clara Mae Ward (Pennsylvania-born African-American Gospel Singer) Pennsylvania Performing Artists Gospel Musicians Religion African-American Performing Artists African American Registry
1949 Patti LuPone (New York-born Tony Award-Winning Singer, Actress) Patti LuPone Stage & Theater American Musicals Tony Awards
1951 Charles Grodin (Pennsylvania-born Actor) Pennsylvania Performing Artists Actors Film
Tony Danza (New York City-born Actor) New York City Performing Artists Actors Television
1958 Andie MacDowell (South Carolina-born Actress) South Carolina Performing Artists Actors Film
Persons of Historic Significance Who Have Died on This Date Persons of Historic Significance Who Have Died on This Date
1509 Henry VII, King of England British History Henry VII Greenwich Guide
1699 Jean Racine (French Writer and Playwright) French Writers Poetry Plays
1792 Tiradentes (Brazilian National Hero, Martyred by Hanging) Tiradentes University of Oregon
1844 Henry Baldwin (Connecticut-born Associate Justice of U.S. Supreme Court) Connecticut Political and Social Leaders U.S. Supreme Court Oyez
1891 James K. Hilyard (Minnesota African-American Entrepreneur, Publisher) Minnesota Authors Journalism African-American Authors
1910 Mark Twain (Missouri-born Writer, Journalist: Author of Tom Sawyer, Huckleberry Finn Missouri Authors & Illustrators Mark Twain American Authors
1918 Manfred Albrecht Von Richthofen (German Pilot, the Red Baron: Shot Down in Combat) Manfred Albrecht Von Richthofen Aviation History World War I
1946 John Maynard Keynes (British Economist) John Maynard Keynes Economics
1971 Francois "Papa Doc" Duvalier (Haitian Dictator) Haitian Political and Social Leaders
1985 Tancredo Neves (Brazilian President-elect, Died on the Eve of His Inauguration) Brazilian Political and Social Leaders
1990 Erté (Russian Painter) Erté Artists
Frank John Lausche (5-time Governor of Ohio; U.S. Senator from Ohio) Ohio Political and Social Leaders U.S. Congress National Governors Association Ohio Historical Society
2003 Nina Simone (North Carolina-born African-American Jazz Vocalist, Pianist) Nina Simone Jazz African American Performing Artists
2010 Juan Antonio Samaranch (Spanish-born Director of the International Olympic Committee) Juan Antonio Samaranch International Olympic Committee
Historically Significant Events Historically Significant Events
Historic Events of that Occurred on this Date before the Birth of Christ
753 According to Legend, the City of Rome is Founded by Romulus Rome, Italy The Roman Empire University of Pennsylvania History Channel
Historic Events of the 1500s that Occurred on this Date
1509 Henry VIII Becomes King of England Following the Death of His Father, Henry VII British History Henry VIII Historic UK
1512 The Second Council of Pisa Suspends Julius II as Pope Pisa, Italy Catholicism Concordia
Historic Events of the 1600s that Occurred on this Date
1649 Maryland Assembly Passes the Toleration Act Protecting Roman Catholics from Protestant Harassment Maryland Colonial Maryland Historic U.S. Documents Religion Concordia
Historic Events of the 1700s that Occurred on this Date
1732 England's King George II Signs the Royal Charter Creating the New Colony of Georgia British Political and Social Leaders King George II Georgia Colonial Georgia University of Georgia
1777 British Forces Ravage Danbury, Connecticut Danbury, Connecticut American Revolution Danbury Connecticut History Channel
1789 John Adams Is Sworn in as the First Vice President of the United States. John Adams Historic Firsts U.S. Senate New York Times
1792 Portuguese Officials Hang Brazilian Revolutionary Hero Tiradentes Tiradentes University of Oregon
Historic Events of the 1800s that Occurred on this Date
1800 North Carolina's Alfred Moore Is Sworn in As Associate Justice of U.S. Supreme Court North Carolina Political and Social Leaders President John Adams U.S. Supreme Court Oyez
Travelling with Lewis and Clark

Lewis: Set out at an early hour this morning. Capt Clark walked on shore; the wind tho' a head was not violent. the country through which we passed is very simelar in every rispect to that through which we have passed for several

We saw immence herds of buffaloe Elk deer & Antelopes. Capt Clark killed a buffaloe and 4 deer in the course of his walk today; and the party with me killed 3 deer, 2 beaver, and 4 buffaloe calves. the latter we found very delicious. I think it equal to any veal I ever tasted. the Elk now begin to shed their horns.

passed one large and two small creeks on the Lard. side, tho' neither of them discharge any water at present. the wind blew so hard this evening that we were obliged to halt several hours. we reached the place of incampment after dark, which was on the Lard. side a little above White earth river which discharges itself on the Stard. side. immediately at the mouth of this river it is not more than 10 yards wide being choked up by the mud of the Missouri; tho' after leaving the bottom lands of this river, or even sooner, it becomes a boald stream of sixty yards wide and is deep and navigable. the course of this river as far as I could see from the top of Cut bluff, was due North. it passes through a beatifull level and fertile vally about five miles in width. I think I saw about 25 miles up this river, and did not discover one tree or bush of any discription on it's borders. the vally was covered with Elk and buffaloe. saw a great number of Gees today as usual, also some Swan and ducks.—

Ordway: a hard white frost last night. froze water in the buckets Setting near the fire.

a Clear and pleasant morning, but verry chilly & cold. we proceeded on. Saw the hills and vallies on S. S. covered with buffaloe. Some calfs among them. one of the party clumb a Stump of a tree which had a Goose nest in the top of it found four Eggs in it.

Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04 McKenzie County, North Dakota
Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery Wind Native American Tribes

The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Travelling with Lewis and Clark

Lewis: Notwithstanding all the precautions I had taken with rispect to the horses one of them had broken his cord of 5 strands of Elkskin and had gone off spanseled [Hobbled with rope] I sent several men in surch of the horse with
orders to return at 10 A. M. with or without the horse being determined to remain no longer with these villains.

they stole another tomahawk from us this morning I surched many of them but could not find it. I ordered all the spare poles, paddles and the ballance of our canoe put on the fire as the morning was cold and also that not a particle
should be left for the benefit of the indians.

I detected a fellow in stealing an iron socket of a canoe pole and gave him several severe blows and mad the men
kick him out of camp. I now informed the indians that I would shoot the first of them that attempted to steal an article from us. that we were not affraid to fight them, that I had it in my power at that moment to kill them all and set fire to their houses, but it was not my wish to treat them with severity provided they would let my property alone. that I would take their horses if I could find out the persons who had stolen the tommahawks, but that I had reather loose the property altogether than take the hose of an inosent person. the chiefs were present hung their heads and said

at 9 A. M. Windsor returned with the lost horse, the others who were in surch of the horse soon after returned also. the Indian who promised to accompany me as far as the Chopunnish country produced me two horses one of which he politely gave me the liberty of packing.

we took breakfast and departed a few minutes after 10 OClock. having nine horses loaded and one which Bratton rode not being able as yet to march; the two canoes I had dispatched early this morning.

at 1 P. M. I arrived at the Enesher Village where I found Capt Clark and party; he had not purchased a single horse. he informed me that these people were quite as unfriendly as their neighbours the Skillutes, and that he had subsisted since he left me on a couple of platters of pounded roots and fish which an old man had the politeness to offer him.
his party fared much better on dogs which he purchased from those people.

the man resided here from whom I had purchased the horse which ran off from me yesterday. I had given him a large kettle and a knife in exchange for that horse which I informed him should be taken from him unles he produced me the lost horse or one of equal value in his stead, the latter he prefered and produced me a very good horse which I very cheerfully received.

we soon made the portage with our canoes and baggage and halted about ˝ a mile above the Village where we
graized our horses and took dinner on some dogs which we purchased of these people. after dinner we proceeded on about four miles to a village of 9 mat lodges of the Enesher a little below the entrance of Clark's river and encamped;

one of the canoes joined us the other not observing us halt continued on. we obtained two dogs and a small quantity of fuel of these people for which we were obliged to give a higher price than usual. our guide continued with us, he
appears to be an honest sincere fellow. he tells us that the indians a little above will treat us with much more
hospitality than those we are now with.

we purchased another horse this evening but his back is in such a horid state that we can put but little on him; we obtained him for a trifle, at least for articles which might be procured in the U' States for 10 shillings Virga Cory [Virginia currency].—

we took the precaution of piquting and spanseling our horses this evening near our camp.—

Clark: A fair Cold morning I found it useless to make any further attempts to trade horses with those unfriendly people who only Crouded about me to view and make their remarks and Smoke, the latter I did not indulge them with to day.

at 12 oClock Capt Lewis and party Came up from the Skillutes Village with 9 horses packed and one which bratten
who was yet too weak to walk, rode, and Soon after the two Small Canoes also loaded with the residue of the baggage which Could not be taken on horses. we had everry thing imedeately taken above the falls, in the mean time
purchased 2 Dogs on which the party dined— whilst I remained at the Enesher Village

I Subsisted on 2 platters of roots, Some pounded fish and Sun flour Seed pounded which an old man had the politeness to give me. in return for which I gave him Several Small articles—.

the evening Cold and we Could afford only one fire.

Gass: This was another pleasant morning with some white frost.

We found the horse, which had broke away last night, and made preparations for setting out from this place. While we were making preparations to start, an Indian stole some iron articles from among the men's hands; which so irritated Captain Lewis, that he struck him; which was the first act of the kind, that had happened during the expedition. The Indians however did not resent it, otherwise it is probable we would have had a skirmish with them.

We went on till dark, and then run our small canoe among some willows, and laid down to sleep. We did not make any fire for fear the savages, who are very numerous along this part of the river, might come and rob us

Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Klickitat County, Washington Native Americans
The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska
1809 Napoleon's Army Defeats the Austrians at the Battle of Landshut in Germany Austria Napoleon European History War McGill University
1829 20-year-old Felix Mendelssohn Arrives in London for His First Visit London Felix Mendelssohn Composers American Public Media
1832 Abraham Lincoln Is Chosen As Captain Among the Illinois Black Hawk War Recruits Illinois Military Figures Abraham Lincoln American Military Figures Lincoln Papers
1836 Sam Houston's Texans Defeat Mexican Troops at the Battle of San Jacinto Mexico Battle of San Jacinto History Channel Texas State Historical Association
1851 In Indiana, the Sisters of St. Francis Found a Convent at Oldenburg Franklin County, Indiana Education Catholicism Sisters of  St. Francis Found at Oldenburg Indiana Historical Society
1856 First Train Crosses the Mississippi River from Rock Island, Illinois to Davenport, Iowa Illinois Iowa Mississippi River Bridges Railroads Picture History
1858 Illinois State Democratic and Republican Conventions Are Held in Springfield Springfield, Illinois Politics Lincoln Papers
1860 Josiah Whitney Is Appointed State Geologist for California California Scientists & Mathematicians Massachusetts Scientists & Mathematicians Geology LearnCalifornia
1861 The New York Times Publishes Its First Sunday Edition New York City Media Journalism The New York Times Historic Firsts New York Historical Society
1862 Congress Authorizes the Denver Mint Facility Denver, Colorado U.S. Congress Currency U.S. Treasury
1863 Union Begins Raid to Cut the Railroad Line between Chattanooga and Atlanta Alabama Steight's Raid Railroads History Channel
1864 President Lincoln Confers with Governors of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Iowa About Troop Enlistments Ohio Political and Social Leaders Indiana Political and Social Leaders Illinois Political and Social Leaders Iowa Political and Social Leaders President Abraham Lincoln American Civil War Lincoln Papers
1865 President Lincoln's Funeral Train Departs Washington, D.C. Washington, D.C. Assassination of President Abraham Lincoln Railroad History Channel
1873 Stone County, Arkansas Is Created Stone County, Arkansas Arkansas history Commission
1890 District 17 of the United Mine Workers of America Is Formed in Charleston, West Virginia Charleston, West Virginia Labor United Mine Workers of America West Virginia Archives
1897 The Arkansas Federation of Women's Clubs Is Formed Arkansas Women Arkansas history Commission
1899 A Granite Boulder with Plaque Honoring Yamacraw Chief Tomochichi Is Dedicated in Savannah, Georgia Savannah, Georgia Native American Heritage University of Georgia
The Minnesota Legislature Creates a State Public Library Commission and Establishes a System of Traveling Libraries to Serve Rural Areas Minnesota Libraries Libraries Minnesota Library Association Minnesota Historical Society
Historic Events that occurred 1900-1949 on this date
1906 Frank Hamer, Legendary Lawman, Joins the Texas Rangers Texas Law Enforcement Texas State Historical Association
1913 President Woodrow Wilson Signs an Executive Order Establishing a Reservation in Alaska for the Chilkat Natives at Klukwan Klukwan, Alaska Native American Heritage President Woodrow Wilson Historic U.S. Documents Alaska Historical Society
1916 Britain's Sir Roger Casement Is Captured Delivering Arms for Irish Easter Rising Great Britain Ireland War BBC
1918 Australian Anti-Aircraft Battery Shoots Down the Red Baron Manfred Albrecht Von Richthofen Australia World War I Florida International University History Channel
Ernest Hemingway's Story "Dare Devil Joins Tanks" Appears in the Kansas City Star Ernest Hemingway American Authors Journalism American Collection
1928 40 Manufacturers Display 63 Aircraft in Detroit at the First U.S. Airplane Show Detroit, Michigan Aviation History Historic Firsts State of Michigan
1930 A Fire at the Ohio State Penitentiary in Columbus Kills 320 Inmates Columbus, Ohio Prisons Fire Death History Channel Ohio State Historical Society
1936 Thomas Wolfe's Autobiographical Essay on Writing The Story of a Novel Is Published Thomas Wolfe American Authors American Collection
1939 Leonard Bernstein Makes His First Appearance as a Conductor, Leading His Own Incidental Score to "The Birds" at Harvard Leonard Bernstein Classical Music Historic Firsts Harvard University American Public Media
1940 French Soprano Lily Pons Gives a Concert As Her Husband, Andre Kostelanetz, Conducts the Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra French Performing Artists Minneapolis, Minnesota Opera Minnesota Historical Society
1942 First Internees Arrive at Kenedy Alien Detention Camp in Texas Texas Prisoners of War World War II Texas State Historical Association
1945 The Soviet Army Overruns the German High Command to Open a Path to Berlin Nazi Germany The Soviet Union World War II History Channel BBC
1949 Chinese Communist Forces Cross the Yangzi River China War Asian History
Historic Events that occurred 1950-1999 on this date
1955 British Newspapers Begin Publishing Again Following Labor Strike British Business Journalism Labor Strike BBC
1956 "Heartbreak Hotel" Reaches the Top of the Charts As Elvis Presley's First #1 Hit Elvis Presley Popular Music Historic Firsts History Channel
1959 16'10" 2,664 lb. White Shark Is Largest Fish Ever Caught with a Rod and Reel Australia Sharks TCPalm
1960 Brasilia Is Dedicated as the Capitol of Brazil Brazil University of Oregon New York Times
1961 The Minnesota Twins Play Their First Game at Metropolitan Stadium, Losing to the Washington Senators, 5-3 Minneapolis, Minnesota Washington, D.C. Sports Figures Baseball Major League Baseball Historic Firsts Minnesota Historical Society
1962 The World's Fair Opens in Seattle, Washington Seattle, Washington History Link
1965 114-nation U.N. Commission Begins First Disarmament Talks in Five Years The United Nations The Cold War CNN
1967 Coup d'etat Establishes George Papadopoulos As Military Dictator of Greece Greece Nation Master
General Motors Manufactures Its 100 Millionth Vehicle At Its Factory in Janesville. Wisconsin Janesville, Wisconsin Automotives General Motors Wisconsin Historical Society
1975 South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu Resigns and Flees Saigon Nguyen Van Thieu BBC History Channel
1977 The Musical Annie Opens on Broadway New York City Musical Theater Internet Broadway Database
1980 100,000 Black Students and Teachers Protest South Africa's Educational and Political Systems South Africa Education Education Racism South African History
Rosie Ruiz Tries to Steal the Boston Marathon Boston Marathon Marathons Massachusetts Foundation for the Humanities
1982 Emory University Announces the Appointment of Former President Jimmy Carter As Distinguished Professor Georgia Education Jimmy Carter The Carter Center University of Georgia
1983 The Tacoma Dome Opens Tacoma, Washington Tacoma Dome History Link
1987 Tamil Tiger Bomb Kills More Than 100 at Sri Lanka's Main Bus Terminal During Rush Hour Sri Lanka Terrorism Death BBC
1989 100,000 Students Gather at Beijing's Tiananmen Square to Protest Death of Dissident, Hu Yaobang China Human Rights/Civil Rights History Channel
1991 U.S. Postal Service Issues Stamps to Promote the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta Atlanta, Georgia 1996 Atlanta Summer Olympic Games University of Georgia
1995 Timothy McVeigh Is Charged with April 19 Bombing of Alfred P. Murrah Building in Oklahoma City Oklahoma City Bombing Terrorism Law Court TV
7.3 Magnitude Earthquake Is Centered on Samar, the Republic of the Philippines Republic of the Philippines Earthquake USGS
1997 The Red River Rises to 26.2' Above Flood Stage, Causing $1B+ Damage and Displacing 47,000 of the 50,000 Residents of Grand Forks, North Dakota and East Grand Forks, Minnesota Grand Forks, North Dakota East Grand Forks, Minnesota Rivers Flooding Economics Minnesota Historical Society
Ashes of 24 Space Pioneers and Enthusiasts Are Sent into Orbit Gene Roddenberry Space Notable Persons Who Have Died on This Date Celestis