for

The Earth The Earth

APRIL 22

The Earth The Earth
 
 
 
Teaching - there can be no finer calling requiring the clearest demonstration of moral and ethical behavior.
Ira Shull, For the Love of Teaching
 
Why do you teach? Let Us Know. Tell Us about your most memorable teacher.
 
 



Presidential Proclamations






Gnus for Kidz

Who Am I?









 
5-Minute Quests Today's 5-Minute Quest

Answers to all questions can be found on this page or by using links provided on this page.
Good Luck!
5-Minute Quests
BEGINNERS

1. In what year was the first Earth Day observed? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

2. In 1994, Břrge Ousland became the first person to reach the North Pole alone. What country is Ousland from? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

3. According to the Earth Day Network, who founded Earth Day? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

Use all of these letters to spell the name of a children's author or illustrator born on this date:
SEEK TWIRU
INTERMEDIATE

1. In what year did NASA astronauts take a lunar rover ride on this date? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

2. According to the University of Calgary, how old was Isabella I when her father died? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

3. According to the University of North Carolina, at what college in Atlanta did Benjamin Brawley teach? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

Use all of these letters to spell the title of a book by Paula Fox:
SILK AND MONEY
EXPERT
(hint: all three questions will require you to use a link found on this page)

1. According to the New York Times, where was J. Robert Oppenheimer's home located at the time of his death?

2. According to the Library of Congress, people from how many different countries participated in the 1990 Earth Day activities?

3. According to Jazz at Lincoln Center the foundation of Charles Mingus' technique was laid in five years of study with what kind of musician?


Use all of these letters to spell the title of a poem by Benjamin Brawley (according to the Book of American Negro Poetry ):
HOM RYE
 
 

Queen Isabella I of Spain
Born on This Date 1451

[University of Texas]

Spanish Political and Social Leaders


Benjamin Brawley
Born on This Date 1882

[SCETV]

Author


J. Robert Oppenheimer
Born on This Date 1904

[Goethe-Universität
Frankfurt am Main ]

Nuclear Physicist

Charles Mingus
Born on This Date 1922

[Jazz Visions Photo]

Jazz Musician


Paula Fox
Born on This Date 1923

[New York Times]

Young-adult Children's Author1974 Newbery Medal Winner for Slave Dancer

 
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Children's Memorial Flag Day
(Observed on this date since 1998 to increase public awareness of violent children's deaths)
Child Advocacy Death Official Website
Earth Day
(Since 1970)
Earth Day Earth Day Network
The Bahá'í Faith: Festival of Ridván
(sunset 4/21 - sunset 5/2: commemorates Baha'u'llah's 1863 stay in "Garden of Ridvan" as God's messenger.)
The Bahá'í Faith Bahá'í Academics Resource Library
Brazil: Discovery Day/Dia do Descobrimento
(Commemorates the discovery of Brazil by Pedro Alvarez Cabral in 1500)
Brazil Wikipedia South American Way
 Calendar
Primary Authors and Illustrators Born on This Date Young-adult  Authors and Illustrators Born on This Date Icon
1887 Kurt Wiese (German-American Children's Author, Illustrator) German Authors Primary Children's Authors Artists `University of Southern Mississippi
1923 Paula Fox (New York City-born Children's Author Awarded the 1974 Newbery Medal for Slave Dancer) Paula Fox Young-adult Authors `1974 Newbery Medal for Slave Dancer
1940 Ron Koertge (Illinois-born Poet, Children's Author) Illinois Authors and Illustrators Young-adult Authors Poetry
1943 Eileen Christelow (Washington, D.C.-born Children's Author, Illustrator) Washington, D.C.  Authors Primary Children's Authors American Artists Official Web Site VisitingAuthors.com
1952 Kathy Stinson (Canadian Children's Author) Canadian Authors and Illustrators Young-adult Authors Official Web Site
Authors, Poets and Journalists
1707 Henry Fielding (English Novelist, Dramatist) Henry Fielding
1766 Germaine de Stael (French-Swiss Literary Critic, Novelist) French Writers
1816 Philip James Bailey (English Poet, Critic) English Authors Poetry
1873 Ellen Glasgow (Virginia-born Author Awarded the 1942 Pulitzer Prize for Novel) Virginia Authors 1942 Pulitzer Prize for Novel The History Channel Virginia Historical Society
1876 Ole Edvart Rölvaag (Norwegian-American Novelist) Norwegian Writers Writer's Almanac Minnesota Historical Society
1887 James Norman Hall (Iowa-born Novelist) Iowa Writers
1882 Benjamin Brawley (South Carolina-born African-American Literary & Social Historian) Benjamin Brawley African-American Authors University of Georgia
1918 William Jay Smith (Louisiana-born Poet) Louisiana Authors Poetry
1942 Louise Glück (New York City-born Poet) New York City Writers Poetry
Classical Composers and Performing Artists
1858 Paul Dresser (Composer of the Indiana State Song "On the Banks of the Wabash, Far Away") Indiana Composers American Composers
1904 Dorothy Alexander (Georgia-born Ballet Dancer, Choreographer; Founder of the Atlanta Ballet) Georgia Performing Aritsts Ballet Atlanta Ballet
1916 Yehudi Menuhin (New York City-born Violinist) New York City Performing Aritsts Classical Musicians Biography.com
1932 Michael Colgrass (Chicago-born Composer) Chicago Composers American Composers
Explorers, Pioneers, Aviators and Astronauts
1944 Steve Fossett (Tennessee-born Aviator) Tennessee Aviatiors and Pioneers Aviation Biography.com
Scientists, Mathematicians and Inventors
1891 Harold Jeffreys (English Geophysicist, Astronomer) English Scentists & Mathematicians Earth Science Astronomy St. Andrews University USGS
1904 J. Robert Oppenheimer (New York City-born Nuclear Physicist Who Headed Development of the World's First Atomic Bomb) J. Robert Oppenheimer Physics Nuclear Weapons World War II
Military Leaders
1831 Alexander McCook (Ohio-born Union General) Ohio Military Figures American Civil War
Philosopher, Educators, Religious Leaders
1724 Immanuel Kant (German Philosopher) Immanuel Kant Philosophy
1866 Martha Helena Cillié (South African Teacher, Headmistress at the Wellington Huguenot Ladies Seminary) South African Education Educators of Note South African History
Political and Social Leaders
1451 Queen Isabella I of Spain Who Sponsored Columbus' Voyage to the New World Queen Isabella I Christopher Columbus
1812 James Ramsey (Scottish Statesman, Governor General of India: 1847-56) Scottish Political and Social Leaders Indian Political and Social Leaders BBC
1818 Cadwallader Colden Washburn (Maine-born Business Leader in Minnesota; Wisconsin U.S. Congressman and Governor (1872-74), Namesake of Washburn County, Wisconsin) Maine Political and Social Leaders Minnesota Business Leaders Washburn County, Wisconsin U.S. Congress Wisconsin Historical Society
1830 Emily Davies (English Advocate for University Education for Women) English Political and Social Leaders Education Women Human Rights/Civil Rights
1837 David Brydie Mitchell (Scottish-American Governor of Georgia) Scottish Political and Social Leaders Georgia Political and Social Leaders University of Georgia
1870 Vladimir Ilich Ulyanov Lenin (Russian Communist Leader of the Bolshevik Revolution) Vladimir Lenin Soviet Union
Performing Artists
1899 Martyn Green (English Singer and Actor of Gilbert and Sullivan Operettas) English Performing Aritsts Actors Music Opera
1906 Eddie Albert (Illinois-born Actor) Illinois Performing Aritsts Actors Film Television Biography.com
1919 Benjamin "Bull Moose" Jackson (Ohio-born African-American Saxophonist ) Ohio Performing Artists Jazz African-American Performing Artists
1922 Charles Mingus (Arizona-born African-American Jazz Bass Player, Composer) Charles Mingus Jazz African-American Performing Artists
1923 Aaron Spelling (Texas-born Television Producer) Texas Performing Artists Television Biography.com
1926 Charlotte Rae (Wisconsin-born Actress) Wisconsin Performing Artists Actors Film Television The Internet Movie Database Biography.com Wisconsin Historical Society
1936 Glen Campbell (Arkansas-born Popular Singer, Actor) Arkansas Performing Artists Country & Western Musicians Actors Film Television The Internet Movie Database
1937 Jack Nicholson (New Jersey-born Actor) New Jersey Performing Artists Actors Film The History Channel Biography.com
1950 Peter Frampton (English Popular Musician) English Performing Artists Popular Musician The Internet Movie Database
Persons of Historic Significance Who Have Died on This Date Persons of Historic Significance Who Have Died on This Date
1903 Alexander Ramsey (Minnesota's First Territorial Governor and Second State Governor; A Founder of the Minnesota Historical Society) Minnesota Political and Social Leaders
1908 Henry Campbell-Bannerman (Scottish-born Prime Minister of Great Britain: 1905-08) Scottish Political and Social Leaders British Political and Social Leaders BBC
1971 Jean-Claude Duvalier (Haitian Dictator) Haiti Political and Social Leaders BBC
1978 Will Geer (Indiana-born Actor) Indiana Performing Artists Actors Film Television The Internet Movie Database
1984 Ansel Adams (San Francisco-born Photographer) Ansel Adams Photography Yosemite National Park
1988 Irene Rich (New York-born Born Silent Film Actress) New York Performing Artists Actors Film
1994 Richard Nixon (California-born 37th President of the United States) California Political and Social Leaders Richard Nixon American Presidency
1996 Erma Bombeck (Ohio-born Humorist) Erma Bombeck American Authors
2003 Felice Bryant (Wisconsin-born Songwriter; Member of the Country Music Hall of Fame) Wisconsin Composers and Songwriters American Composers and Songwriters Country Music Hall of Fame Wisconsin Historical Society
Historically Significant Events Historically Significant Events
Historic Events of the 1500s that Occurred on this Date
1500 Pedro Alvares Cabral Claims Brazil for Portugal Brazil Portugal Britannica
1540 Spanish Explorer Francisco Vázquez de Coronado Leaves Culiacán in Mexico in Search of the Seven Cities of Cíbola Francisco Vázquez de Coronado Mexico Texas New Mexico North American Explorers Texas Historical Association
1564 Rene de Laudonniere, Leading Three Ships Carrying 200 Colonists, Mostly Huguenots, Sails From France for Florida France Florida Colonial Florida Immigration Florida Historical Association
Historic Events of the 1600s that Occurred on this Date
1689 Spanish Explorer Alonso De León Discovers the Ruins of a French Settlement, Fort St. Louis, on the Texas Coast Spanish Explorers France Texas North American Explorers Texas Historical Association
Historic Events of the 1700s that Occurred on this Date
1715 In England, a Solar Eclipse Occurs as Predicted by Reverend John Flamsteed, the First Astronomer Royal John Flamsteed Solar Eclipse Space and Astronomy Greenwich Guide
1774 The New York Tea Party Takes Place as the Sons of Liberty Empty Cargo From the Ship London into the New York Harbor England New York City Naval Military History Taxes American Revolution New York Historical Society
1778 Commander John Paul Jones Sets the Town of Whitehaven, England Afire Whitehaven, England John Paul Jones Naval Military History Fire American Revolution The History Channel
Historic Events of the 1800s that Occurred on this Date
1805
Travelling with Lewis and Clark

Lewis: Set out at an early hour this morning; proceeded pretty well untill breakfat, when the wind became so hard a head that we proceeded with
difficulty even with the assistance of our toe lines. the party halted

I asscended to the top of the cutt bluff this morning, from whence I had a most delightfull view of the country, the whole of which except the vally formed by the Missouri is void of timber or underbrush, exposing to the first glance of the spectator immence herds of Buffaloe, Elk, deer, & Antelopes feeding in one common and boundless pasture. we saw a number of bever feeding on the bark of the trees alonge the verge of the river, several of which we shot, found them large and fat.

walking on shore this evening I met with a buffaloe calf which attatched itself to me and continued to follow close at my heels untill I embarked and left it. it appeared allarmed at my dog which was probably the cause of it's so readily attatching itself to me. Capt Clark informed me that he saw a large drove of buffaloe pursued by wolves today, that they at length caught a calf which was unable to keep up with the herd. the cows only defend their young so long as they are able to keep up with the herd, and seldom return any distance in surch of them.—

Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04 McKenzie County, North Dakota
Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery Wind Native American Tribes

The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

1806
Travelling with Lewis and Clark

Lewis: Last night two of our horses broke loos from the picquits and straggled off some little distance, the men who had charge of them fortunately recovered them early.

at 7 A. M. we set out having previously sent on our small Canoe with Colter and Potts. we had not arrived at the top of a hill over which the road leads opposite the village before Charbono's horse threw his load, and taking fright at the saddle and robe which still adhered, ran at full speed down the hill, near the village he disengaged himself from the saddle and robe, an indian hid the robe in is lodge. I sent our guide and one man who was with me in the rear to assist Charbono in retaking his horse which having done they returned to the village on the track of the horse in surch of the lost articles

they found the saddle but could see nothing of the robe the indians denyed having seen it; they then continued on the track of the horse to the place from whence he had set out with the same success. being now confident that the indians had taken it I sent the Indian woman on to request Capt. C. to halt the party and send back some of the men to my assistance being determined either to make the indians deliver the robe or birn their houses.

they have vexed me in such a manner by such repeated acts of villany that I am quite disposed to treat them with every severyty, their defenseless state pleads forgiveness so far as rispects their lives. with this resolution I returned to their village which I had just reached as Labuish met me with the robe which he informed me he found in an Indian lodg his behind their baggage.

I now returned and joined Capt Clark who was waiting my arrival with the party. the Indian woman had not reached Capt C. untill about the time I arrived and he returned from a position on the top of a hill not far from where he had halted the party. from the top of this emmenense Capt. C. had an extensive view of the country.

he observed the range of mountains in which Mount Hood stands to continue nearly south as far as the eye could reach. he also observed the snow clad top of Mount Jefferson which boar S. 10 W. Mount Hood from the same point boar S. 30 W. the tops of the range of western mountains are covered with snow. Capt C. also discovered some timbered country in a Southern direction from him at no great distance.

we now made the following regulations as to our future order of march (viz) that Capt. C. & myself should devide the men who were disencumbered by horses and march alternately each day the one in front and the other in rear. haveing divided the party agreeably to this arrangement, we proceeded on through an open plain country about 8 miles to a village of 6 houses of the Eneshur nation, here we observed our 2 canoes passing up on the opposite side; the wind being too high for them to pass the river they continued on.

we halted at a small run just above the village where we dined on some dogs which we purchased of the inhabitants and suffered our horses to graize about three hours. there is no timber in this country we are obliged to purchase our fuel of the natives, who bling it from a great distance. while we halted for dinner we purch a horse.

after dinner we proceeded on up the river about 4 miles to a village of 7 mat lodges of the last mentioned nation. here our Chopunnish guide informed us that the next village was at a considerable distance and that we could not reach it tonight. the people at this place offered to sell us wood and dogs, and we therefore thought it better to remain all night.

a man blonging to the next village above proposed exchanging a horse for one of our canoes, just at this moment one of our canoes was passing. we hailed them and ordered them to come over but the wind continued so high that they could not join us untill after sunset and the Indian who wished to exchange his horse for the canoe had gone on.

Charbonoe purchased a horse this evening. we obtained 4 dogs and as much wood as answered our purposes on moderate terms. we can only afford ourselves one fire, and are obliged to lie without shelter, the nights are cold and days warm.— Colter and Pots had passed on with their canoe.

Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery Lewis & Clark Map: 11/07/05 Klickitat County, Washington Native Americans
The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska
1834 The South Atlantic Island St. Helena Is Claimed by the English East India Company to be Colonized under a Charter from Charles II England Naval History South African History
1838 The British Ship Sirius Is the First Steamship to Cross the Atlantic, Arriving in New York After Completing an 18-day Crossing Great Britain New York City Steamships Historic UK
1850 A California Law for the "Protection, Punishment, and Government of Indians" Justifies Native-American Slavery in the State California Government Native American Heritage Labor Slavery Law Learn California
1861 Robert E. Lee Begins Trip to Richmond to Take Command of Confederate Forces Robert E. Lee American Military Leaders American Civil War National Park Service
President Lincoln Refuses a Request from Members of the Baltimore YMCA to Ban Union Troop Movement through Maryland Baltimore, Maryland President Abraham Lincoln American Civil War Baltimore YMCA Lincoln Log
1863 Colonel Benjamin Grierson's Union Troops Destroy Telegraph Lines Near Macon, Mississippi Macon, Mississippi Telegraph Grierson's Raid The History Channel
The U.S.S. Octorara Seizes the British Schooner Handy, Carrying a Cargo of Salt Off the Coast of East Florida Florida Naval Military History American Civil War Florida Historical Association
1864 The U.S. Treasury Is Authorized to Mint the First Coins Bearing the "In God We Trust" Motto U.S. Treasury Currencies First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution Historic Firsts Lincoln Log U.S. Treasury
Confederate Forces Kill 11 Federal Soldiers and Captured 30 Palatka, Florida Palatka, Florida American Civil War Death Florida Historical Association
1873 The Texas State Legislature Repeals the Law Authorizing the State Police Texas Law Enforcement Law Texas Historical Association
1876 The First Official National League Baseball Game Is Played in Philadelphia (Boston 6, Philadelphia 5) Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Boston, Massachusetts Baseball Major League Baseball Historic Firsts Baseball Almanac New York Times
The New York Philharmonic Performs the American Premiere of Tchaikovsky's "Romeo and Juliet" Fantasy-Overture Tchaikovsky New York Philharmonic Romes & Juliet Composers Historic Firsts American Public Media
1880 The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway Reaches Albuquerque, New Mexico Albuquerque, New Mexico Railroads New Mexico Magazine
Ormond Beach, Florida Is Incorporated Ormond Beach, Florida Florida Historical Association
1884 John Golding Patents a Process for Metallic Screening Metals Inventors & Inventions Patents U.S. Patent and Trademark Office
Thomas Stevens Begins First Around-the-World Bicycle Trip from Oakland Pier California Bicycling Earth Bicycle Museum of America
1889 The Oklahoma Land Rush Begins at High Noon As Settlers Race into the Newly Opened Oklahoma Territory to Claim Cheap Land Oklahoma Westward Expansion The History Channel New York Times
1891 Asa Candler Purchases Coca-Cola for $2300 Georgia Business Leaders Coca-Cola Business University of Georgia
1894 The New York Press Publishes the Short Story, "An Experiment in Misery," by Novelist Stephen Crane Stephen Crane American Author American Collection
1898 The Spanish-American War Begins as the USS Nashville Captures a Spanish Merchant Ship Off Key West, Florida Spain Key West , Florida Naval Military History Spanish-American War New York Times
Historic Events that occurred 1900-1949 on this date
1903 Charles R. Van Hise Is Chosen to be President of the University of Wisconsin Wisconsin Political and social Leaders Educators of Note University of Wisconsin Wisconsin Historical Society
1904 Representatives of 15 Women's Clubs Gather in Wheeling to Form the West Virginia Federation of Women's Clubs Wheeling, West Virginia Women West Virginia State Archives
1911 Governor Adolph O. Eberhart Signs a Law Abolishing the Death Penalty in Minnesota Minnesota Political and social Leaders Capital Punishment Law and Legal Resources Minnesota Historical Society
1915 Germans Make First Use of Poison Chlorine Gas at the Second Battle of Ypres Germany World War I Chlorine Historic Firsts Brigham Young University History Channel Center for the Study of Technology and Society
1917 In Alaska, a Cave-In and Flooding Closes the Treadwell and Mexican Mines on Douglas Island Alaska Labor Economics Floods Alaska Historical  Society
1934 The U.S. Navy Dirigible Macon Arrives in Miami, Florida Ending a Record Setting 54-hour Flight from Sunnyvale, California Miami, Florida Sunnyvale, California Aviation History Florida Historical Association
1938 In Detroit, Michigan, Remodeled Navin Field Is Dedicated with 20,000 Additional Seats as Briggs Stadium, in Honor of Walter Briggs Sr., the Tigers Owner Detroit, Michigan Baseball State of Michigan
1941 Lillian Hellman's Play Watch on the Rhine Wins the New York Drama Circle's Best American Play of the 1940 Season Louisiana Authors American Author Plays American Collection
1945 Adolf Hitler Admits to All in His Underground Bunker That the War Is Lost and That Suicide Is His Only Recourse Nazi Germany Adolf Hitler World War II History Channel
1948 In Washington, the Aeronautical Machinists Union Strikes Boeing and Will Not Return to Work Until September 13th Washington Business Labor Strike Business Aviation Boeing History Link
Historic Events that occurred 1950-1999 on this date
1952 An Atomic Test Conducted in Nevada is the First Nuclear Explosion Shown on Live Network Television Nevada Nuclear Weapons Television Historic Firsts New York Times
1954 Senator Joe McCarthy Begins First Televised Hearings on the U.S. Army, Which He Claims Is "Soft" on Communism Joe McCarthy U.S. Senate McCarthyism U.S. Army Television Historic Firsts The History Channel Wisconsin Historical Society
The National Basketball Association Adopts the 24-second Shot Clock Basketball National Basketball Association New York Times
1960 Pulitzer Prize-Winning Massachusetts Poet Anne Sexton Has Her First Collection of Poems Published, To Bedlam and Part Way Back Anne Sexton Poetry  Massachusetts Foundation for Humanities
1963 Lester Bowles Pearson Becomes Prime Minister of Canada Canada  Canada Info
1968 CUNY Creates Hostos Community College to Serve Hispanic Americans New York City Education Hispanic Heritage Hostos Community College
1970 The First Earth Day Is Observed Earth Day Historic Firsts Earth Day Network The History Channel Wisconsin Historical Society
1971 Soviets Launch Soyuz 10 for Docking Mission to Salyut 1 Soviet Space Program Space Exploration NASA
1972 NASA Astronauts Take the Rover for a 7 Hour 23 Minute Lunar Ride Astronauts The Moon NASA
Tens of Thousands Protest the Vietnam War in Cities Across the U.S. New York City California Chicago Propaganda Vietnam War History Channel
1976 NASA Launches NATO 3-A, the First in a Series of NATO Defense-Related Communications Satellites Space Exploration NATO Historic Firsts NASA
Barbara Walters Is First Female Network News Anchor Television Women Journalism Historic Firsts The History Channel
1980 13 Leading Officials of the Ousted Government in Liberia Are Publicly Executed on Orders of the New Military Regime Liberia Capital Punishment Death BBC
Canada Announces It Will Boycott the 1980 Moscow Summer Olympics Canada Moscow, Russia 1980 Moscow Summer Olympics The Cold War CBC
1988 The Miami Heat and the Orlando Magic Are Named As New Franchises in the National Basketball Association Miami, Florida Basketball National Basketball Association Florida Historical Association
1990 Pro-Iranian Kidnappers in Lebanon Free American Hostage Robert Polhill After Nearly 39 Months of Captivity Lebanon Iran Terrorism Middle East History New York Times
1991 In Costa Rica, a 7.6 Magnitude Earthquake Leaves 47 People Killed, 109 Injured and 7,439 Homeless Costa Rica Earthquake Death USGS
1992 A Gas Leak Causes Dozens of Sewer Explosions in Guadalajara, Mexico, Killing More Than 200 People and Damaging 1,000 Buildings Guadalajara, Mexico Gas Laws The History Channel
1993 The U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum Is Dedicated in Washington, D.C. The Holocaust Museum Museums The Holocaust U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum New York Times
1994 Břrge Ousland First Person to Reach the North Pole Alone Arctic Norway Official Website
Physicists at FermiLab Present Evidence for Production of Top Quarks from Collisions Between Protons and Antiprotons Subatomic Particles Physics FermiLab
1997 Government Commandos Storm the Japanese Ambassador's Residence in Lima, Peru, Ending a 126-day Hostage Crisis, Killing All 14 Rebels, Rescuing 71 Hostages Lima Peru Terrorism Death BBC
Historic Events that have occurred from 2000 to present
2000 In Miami, Florida, U.S. Federal Agents Removes 6-year-old Refugee, Elián González, to Return Him to His Father in Cuba Elian Gonzalez Miami, Florida Latin-American Heritage BBC
2004 North Korean Train Accident Kills and Injures More Than 2,000 Korea Railroad Death CBS News
2005 Zacarias Moussaoui Pleads Guilty in U.S. Federal Court to Conspiring with the 9/11 Hijackers to Kill Americans New York City New York World Trade Center Crime Terrorism Law and Legal Resources CNN