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MAY 10

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5-Minute Quests Today's 5-Minute Quest

Answers to all questions can be found on this page or by using links provided on this page.
Good Luck!
5-Minute Quests

1. What country adopted its new constitution on this date in 1979? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

2. In what states did the first Mother's Day observances take place on this date in 1908? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

3. According to his Scholastic biography, where was Christopher Paul Curtis working when he began drafting his first novel The Watsons Go to Birmingham–1963? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

Use all of these letters to spell the name of a children's author born on this date: HEN ROW SEND JO TOWN

1. In what state did Union troops capture Jefferson Davis on this date in 1865? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

2. According to the Chicago Historical Society, how old was John Wilkes Booth when he assassinated President Lincoln? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

3. According to, what was Fred Astaire's real name? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

Use all of these letters to spell the title of a work by Jayne Cortez (according to the Academy of American Poets):
(hint: all three questions will require you to use a link found on this page)

1. According to Florida State University, where are the unique compound lenses invented by Augustin Jean Fresnel still in use?

2. According to the African American Literature Book Club, into how many different languages have Jayne Cortez' poems been translated?

3. According to the International Napoleonic Society, how long did Napoleon's soldiers have to cross the Lodi bridge on this date in 1796?

Use all of these letters to spell the title of a movie in which Fred Astaire appeared in 1935 (according to his Reel Classics filmography):

John Wilkes Booth
Born on This Date 1838

[Chicago Historical Society]

Notorious Americans

Fred Astaire
Born on This Date 1899

[Reel Classics]


Jayne Cortez
Born on This Date 1936


African-American Authors

Christopher Paul Curtis
Born on This Date 1953

[Random House]

Primary Children's Authors

Ellen Ochoa
Born on This Date 1958



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1898 Ariel Durant (Russian-American co-Author of "The Story of Civilization) Ariel Durant World History 1968 Pulitzer Prize for Rousseau and Revolution
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1800 Charles Knowlton (Massachusetts-born Author, Physician) Massachusetts Scientists & Mathematicians Medical Profession
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1860 Augustin Jean Fresnel (French Physicist; Inventor of the Fresnel Lens) France Physics Optics
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1522 Martin Luther Publishes the First Part of His German New Testament Translation Martin Luther The Bible World Languages Concordia
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1733 In London, Trustees Issue a Warrant Authorizing the Raising of Funds in Support of the New Colony of Georgia Great Britain Georgia Colonial Georgia Economics Georgia Historical Society
1749 The 10th and Final Volume of Henry Fielding's Novel Tom Jones Is Published Henry Fielding Authors History Channel
1752 France's Thomas Francois d'Alibard Is First to Test Franklin's Theory of Lightning and Electricity French Scientists and Mathematicians Benjamin Franklin Electricity Lightning Historic Firsts Technology and Society
1774 Louis XVI Succeeds Louis XV as King of France French Political & Social Leaders French Ministry of Foreign Affairs New York Times
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1796 Napoleon Bonaparte Defeats the Austrians at Italy's Lodi Bridge Austria France Napoleon Bonaparte War International Napoleonic Society
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1800 Harrison Land Act Makes Land in the Northwest Territory More Available to the Individual U.S. Government Economics Indiana Historical Bureau
Travelling with Lewis and Clark

Lewis: Set out at sunrise and proceeded but a short distance ere the wind became so violent that we were obliged to come too, which we did on the Lard. side in a suddon or short bend of the river where we were in a great measure sheltered from the effects of the wind. the wind continued violent all day, the clouds were thick and black, had a slight sprinkle of rain several times in the course of the day.

we sent out several hunters to scower the country, to this we were induced not so much from the want of provision as to discover the Indians whome we had reasons to believe were in the neighbourhood, from the circumstance of one of their dogs comeing to us this morning shortly after we landed; we still beleive ourselves in the country usually hunted by the Assinniboins, and as they are a vicious illy disposed nation we think it best to be on our guard, accordingly we inspected the arms and accoutrements the party and found them all in good order.

The hunters returned this evening having seen no tents or Indians nor any fresh sign of them; they killed two Mule deer, one common fallow or longtailed deer, 2 Buffaloe and 5 beaver, and saw several deer of the Mule kind of immence size, and also three of the Bighorned anamals. from the appearance of the Mule deer and the bighorned anamals we beleive ourselves fast approaching a hilly or mountainous country; we have rarely found the mule deer in any except a rough country; they prefer the open grounds and are seldom found in the woodlands near the river; when they are met with in the woodlands or river bottoms and are pursued, they invariably run to the hills or open country as the Elk do. the contrary happens with the common deer

Boils and imposthumes have been very common with the party

[possibly the effects of malnutrition and even mild scurvy, owing to the meat diet]

Bratton is now unable to work with one on his hand; soar eyes continue also to be common to all of us in a greater or less degree. for the imposthume I use emmolient poltices, and for soar eyes a solution of white vitriol and the sugar of lead in the proportion of 2 grs. of the former and one of the latter to each ounce of water.

[Perhaps a recipe of Benjamin Rush's, taken from his Recipe Book or given directly to Lewis. White vitriol is zinc sulphate and sugar of lead is lead acetate.]

Lewis & Clark Map: 04/27/05 Valley County, Montana Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery Wind Native American Heritage Health

The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Travelling with Lewis and Clark

Lewis: This morning the snow continued falling ½ after 6 A. M. when it ceased, the air keen and cold, the snow 8 inches deep on the plain;

we collected our horses and after taking a scant breakfast of roots we set out for the village of Tunnachemootoolt;
our rout lay through an open plain course S. 35 E. and distance 16 ms. the road was slippery and the snow clogged to the horses feet, and caused them to trip frequently. the mud at the sources of the little ravines was deep black and well supplyed with quawmash.

Drewyer turned off to the left of the road in order to hunt and did not join us this evening.

at 4 in the afternoon we decended the hills to Commearp Creek and arrived at the Village of Tunnachemootoolt, the cheeif at whos lodge we had left a flag last fall. this flag was now displayed on a staff placed at no great distance from the lodge. underneath the flag the Cheif met my friend Capt. C. who was in front and conducted him about 80 yds. to
a place on the bank of the creek where he requested we should encamp;

I came up in a few minutes and we collected the Cheifs and men of consideration smoked with them and stated our situation with rispect to provision. the Cheif spoke to his people and they produced us about 2 bushels of the Quawmas roots dryed, four cakes of the bread of cows and a dryed salmon trout.

We thanked them for this store of provision but informed them that our men not being accustomed to live on roots alone we feared it would make them sick, to obviate which we proposed exchangeing a good horse in reather low order for a young horse in tolerable order with a view to kill. the hospitality of the cheif revolted at the aydea of an exchange, he told us that his young men had a great abundance of young horses and if we wished to eat them we should by furnished with as many as we wanted. accordingly they soon produced us two fat young horses one of which we killed, the other we informed them we would pospone killing untill we had consumed the one already killed. This is a much greater act of hospitality than we have witnessed from any nation or tribe since we have passed the Rocky mountains. in short be it spoken to their immortal honor it is the only act which deserves the appellation of hospitallity which we have witnessed in this quarter.

we informed these people that we were hungry and fatiegued at this moment, that when we had eaten and refreshed ourselves we would inform them who we were, from whence we had come and the objects of our resurches.

a principal Cheif by name Ho-hâst,-ill-pilp

[Somewhat more correctly, Hohots Ilppilp. His name referred to a red, or bleeding, grizzly bear, his spiritual animal helper or guardian. From this, or from his many battle scars, later whites called him "The Bloody Chief." The Nez Perce word is áa·c 'ilpílp, "red grizzly." He was still alive in the early 1840s, when he claimed to be the oldest chief of the Nez Perces, and spoke to whites of having met Lewis and Clark. He was friendly to the missionaries and his grandson, Ellis, having received an education in English, was designated "head chief" by U.S. authorities. Nez Perce legend asserts that the sister of Red Grizzly Bear bore a son by William Clark. This man, who had light hair, was proud of his ancestry and would proclaim "Me Clark!" He was photographed at least once, in his old age. He was with the famous Nez Perce flight in 1877, and with this group was deported to Indian Territory, where he died. His descendents were known by the name Clark. Reportedly a black child was also born after the expedition's passing,
but did not live to maturity.]

arrived with a party of fifty men mounted on eligant horses. he had come on a visit to us from his village which is situated about six miles distant near the river. we invited this man into our circle and smoked with him, his retinue continued on horseback at a little distance.

after we had eaten a few roots we spoke to them as we had promised; and gave Tinnachemootoolt and Hohâstillpilp each a medal; the former one of the small size with the likeness of Mr. Jefferson and the latter one of the sewing medals struck in the presidency of Washington, we explained to them the desighn and the importance of medals in
the estimation of the whites as well as the red men who had been taught their value.

[A medal showing a man sowing grain, one of a series of three depicting the white man's way of life, to show Indians the attractions of "civilization." They were discontinued because most Indians preferred a likeness of the "Great Father"—the president]

The Cheif had a large conic lodge of leather erected for our reception and a parsel of wood collected and laid at the door after which he invited Capt. C. and myself to make that lodge our home while we remained with him. we had a fire lighted in this lodge and retired to it accompanyed by the Cheifs and as many of the considerate men as could croud in a circcle within it. here after we had taken a repast on some horsebeef we resumed our council with the indians which together with smoking the pipe occupyed the ballance of the evening.

I was surprised to find on decending the hills of Commearp Cr. to find that there had been no snow in the bottoms of that stream. it seems that the snow melted in falling and decended here in rain while it snowed on the plains. the hills are about six hundred feet high about one fourth of which distance the snow had decended and still lay on the sides
of the hills.

as these people had been liberal with is with rispect to provision I directed the men not to croud their lodge surch of food in the manner hunger has compelled them to do at most lodges we have passed, and which the Twisted hair had informed me was disgreeable to the natives. but their previous want of hospitality had induced us to consult their enclinations but little and suffer our men to obtain provision from them on the best terms they could.

The village of the broken arm as I have heretofore termed it consists of one house only which is 150 feet in length built in the usual form of sticks matts and dry grass. it contains twenty four fires and about double that number of families. from appearances I presume they could raise 100 fighting men. the noise of their women pounding roots reminds me of a nail factory. The indians seem well pleased, and I am confident that they are not more so than our men who have their somachs once more well filled with horsebeef and mush of the bread of cows.—

Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery Lewis & Clark Map: 04/01/06 Lewis County, Idaho Nez Percé
The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska
1823 In Minnesota, the Virginia Is the First Steamboat to Reach Fort St. Anthony, a 20-Day, 729-Mile Trip From St. Louis Minnesota St. Louis, Missouri Forts Steamboats Historic Firsts Minnesota Historical Society
1824 The American Premiere of Mozart's Opera "The Marriage of Figaro" (Sung in English ) Is Performed at the Park Theater in New York City Wolfgang Mozart New York City Composers Opera Historic Firsts American Public Media
1837 Bank Panic Starts Second Worst Depression in U.S. History Economics History Channel U.S. Treasury
1838 U.S. General Winfield Scott Tells Georgia Cherokee They Must Go West within Two Weeks Georgia 1838 Trail of Tears Cherokee Nation Westward Expansion University of Georgia
1840 Mormon Leader Joseph Smith Moves to Commerce, Illinois Renaming It Nauvoo Illinois The Mormon Church Mission to Mormons
1854 First Meeting of the Iowa State Teachers Association is Held at the Muscatine County Courthouse Iowa Education Education Iowa State Education Association Historical Society of Iowa
1857 Indian Members of Britain's Bengal Light Cavalry Initiate Mutiny India Great Britain British National Army Museum
1861 Federal Take Over of Camp Jackson from Missouri Militia Results in Riot: 28 Die Missouri American Civil War Missouri Civil War Museum
President Lincoln Directs U.S. Forces on Florida's Coast to Suspend Writ of Habeas Corpus if Necessary Florida President Abraham Lincoln American Civil War Habeas Corpus Lincoln Papers
5 Delegates Are Elected to Represent Arkansas in the Confederate Congress Arkansas Elections American Civil War Arkansas history Commission
President Lincoln Poses for Photographs in Matthew Brady's Studio Matthew Brady President Abraham Lincoln Photography Lincoln Papers
1862 Confederate Ram Boats Sink Two Union Ironclads at Plum Run Bend, Tennessee Tennessee American Civil War Middle Tennessee State University
President Lincoln Spends Day at Fortress Monroe, Virginia Monitoring Union Attack on Norfolk Virginia President Abraham Lincoln American Civil War Lincoln Papers
Federal Forces Complete a Peaceful Occupation of Pensacola, Florida Pensacola, Florida American Civil War Pensacola, Florida Florida Historical Society
1865 Union Troops Capture Jefferson Davis Near Irwinville, Georgia Georgia Capture of Jefferson Davis American Civil War
Tallahassee, Florida Is Surrendered to Union Forces Tallahassee, Florida American Civil War Tallahassee, Florida Florida Historical Society
1869 Golden Spike Links Union Pacific and Central Pacific Railways Utah Transcontinental Railroad Westward Expansion Massachusetts Foundation for the Humanities
1871 Treaty of Frankfurt am Main Ends Franco-Prussian War German Government European History Historic World Documents History Channel
1872 Equal Rights Party's Victoria Woodhull Is First Woman Nominated for President Ohio Social & Political Leaders American Presidency Women Historic Firsts Southern Illinois University
1877 President Rutherford B. Hayes Has the White House's First Telephone Installed The White House President Rutherford B. Hayes Telephone Historic Firsts History Channel
1879 In Wisconsin, the First Milwaukee Telephone Phone Exchange Is Opened Milwaukee, Wisconsin Telephone Historic Firsts Wisconsin Historical Society
1889 Actor's Insults Incite Riot at NYC Astor Place Opera House: 22 Die New York City Stage and Theater Death History Place
1892 The First Osteopathy School Is Chartered in Kirksville, Missouri Kirksville, Missouri Medicine Education Historic Firsts IntelliHealth
1893 Texas Woman's Press Association and the Texas Equal Rights Association Are Formed Texas Women Journalism Women's Suffrage Texas State Historical Association
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1902 In Minnesota, the St. Paul Saints Minor League Baseball Team Beats the Indianapolis Indians 4-0 in the First American Association Game St. Paul, Minnesota Indianapolis, Indiana Baseball Historic Firsts Major League Baseball Minnesota Historical Society
1906 The First Duma (Council of Representatives) of the Russian State Is Convened Russia Historic Firsts Britannica
King Street Railroad Station Opens in Seattle, Washington Seattle, Washington Railroad History Link
1908 First Mother's Day Observances Take Place in Pennsylvania & West Virginia PA West Virginia Mother's Day Historic Firsts Hallmark New York Times
1919 Charleston, SC Race Riot Begins "Red Summer" of Riots Across the U.S. South Carolina Racism African-American History Death Library of Congress
1921 Michigan Law Makes It Illegal to "Fix" a Sporting Event by Bribing an Athlete Michigan Government Law Economics Sports Crime Historical Society of Michigan (pdf)
1924 J. Edgar Hoover Is Appointed Director of the FBI Washington, D.C. Political & Social Leaders U.S. Government The FBI History Channel
1925 William Faulkner Publishes "The Cobbler" in the New Orleans Times-Picayune William Faulkner American Authors Journalism Mississippi Writers
1927 In Paris, Ernest Hemingway Marries His Second Wife, a Fashion Writer for Vogue Paris, France Ernest Hemingway American Authors Journalism American Collection
1933 The Nazis Stage Massive Public Book Burnings Across Germany Nazi Germany Propaganda Washington Diplomat
1940 Winston Churchill Succeeds Neville Chamberlain as Prime Minister of England Neville Chamberlain Winston Churchill BBC Writer's Almanac
Germany Invades Holland and Belgium Nazi Germany Netherlands Belgium World War II History Channel
1941 Adolf Hitler's Deputy, Rudolf Hess, Parachutes into Scotland Rudolf Hess Scotland World War II Institute for Historical Review New York Times
In Minneapolis, Minnesota, Charles A. Lindbergh, Jr., Speaks at an America First Anti-War Rally Promoting U.S. Isolationism Minneapolis, Minnesota Charles A. Lindbergh War Propaganda World War II Minnesota Historical Society
1948 South Koreans Elect the 198 Members of Their First Parliament Korean Government Elections Historic Firsts Asian History
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1954 "Rock Around the Clock" Is Released by Bill Haley and the Comets Bill Haley Popular Musicians History Channel
1957 President Dwight Eisenhower Nominates Mike Stepovich to be Governor of Territorial Alaska Alaska President Dwight Eisenhower Alaska Historical Society
1960 Triton Sub Completes First Underwater Global Circumnavigation (84 days) Naval History Historic Firsts U.S. Navy
1974 6.8 Magnitude Earthquake Leaves 20,000 Dead in China China Earthquakes Death USGS
1978 Slain Italian Political Leader, Aldo Moro, Is Buried Italian Political and Social Leaders BBC
1979 Four U.S. Trust Territories Ratify Constitution as Federated States of Micronesia Micronesia Expedia
City of Dallas Declares the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas an Historic Landmark Dallas, Texas Economics Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas Texas State Historical Association
1980 U.S. Secretary of the Treasury Announces a $1.5B Government Loan Guarantee for Chrysler Corporation U.S. Treasury Business Chrysler Historical Society of Michigan (pdf)
1990 China Releases 211 Dissidents Arrested During 1989 Beijing Protests China Human Rights History Channel
1992 Former U.S. President Jimmy Carter Meets with Former Soviet Premier Mikhail Gorbachev at the Carter Center in Atlanta, Georgia Mikhail Gorbachev Atlanta, Georgia President Jimmy Carter Georgia Historical Society
1994 Nelson Mandela Inaugurated as President of South Africa South Africa Nelson Mandela BBC
Former President George Bush Resigns from NRA George Bush National Rifle Association Gun Control
1996 A Storm on Mount Everest Kills 8 Mount Everest Death History Channel
South Africa's National Party Withdraws from the Government of National Unity South Africa Government South African History
1997 7.5 Magnitude Earthquake Kills 1,567, Injures 2,300, Destroys 10,533 Houses in Iran Iran Earthquakes Death USGS
1998 The Sinn Fein Political Wing of the Irish Republican Army Backs Good Friday Peace Agreement Northern Ireland BBC
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2000 Wildfire Forces 11,000 Residents to Evacuate Los Alamos, New Mexico New Mexico Tree Los Alamos Wildfire
2001 Boeing Chooses to Move Its Corporate Offices to Chicago from Seattle, Washington Chicago, Illinois Seattle, Washington Aviation History Business Boeing CNN