for
Armenia Armenia

MAY 28

Azerbaijan Azerbaijan
 
 


Armenia
  Embassy of Azerbaijan in Georgia
Azerbaijan
 
Teaching - there can be no finer calling requiring the clearest demonstration of moral and ethical behavior.
Ira Shull, For the Love of Teaching
 
Why do you teach? Let Us Know. Tell Us about your most memorable teacher.
 
 



Presidential Proclamations






Gnus for Kidz

Who Am I?









 
5-Minute Quests Today's 5-Minute Quest

Answers to all questions can be found on this page or by using links provided on this page.
Good Luck!
5-Minute Quests
BEGINNERS

1. What two nations celebrate Republic Day on this date?
(hint: the answer is found on this page)

2. In what state was Jim Thorpe born? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

3. According to the biography at her official website, how did Debby Atwell begin her work with children's books? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

Use all of these letters to spell the title of a children's book by Debby Atwell (according to her official website):
PALER
INTERMEDIATE

1. What humanitarian organization was founded on this date in 1961? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

2. According to the Library of Congress, from what three Indian tribes was Jim Thorpe a descendant? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

3. According to the University of California Santa Barbara, what theory did Louis Agassiz formulate? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

Use all of these letters to spell the title of a novel written by John Steinbeck:
CDUG FLOOP
EXPERT
(hint: all three questions will require you to use a link found on this page)

1. According to Writer's Almanac, Louis Agassiz was a great teacher who encouraged his students to learn how?

2. According to the Gale Group, what year did Betty Shabazz graduate from nursing school?

3. According to Fact Monster, for how many days was Edward VIII the King of England?

Use all of these letters to spell the title of a book by Ian Fleming (according to the Kuusankoski Public Library):
FIELD GRONG
 
 

Louis Agassiz
Born on This Date 1807

[Harvard University]

Zoologist


Jim Thorpe
Born on This Date 1888

[Sentinel Online]

Olympic Athlete and Professional Baseball and Football Player


Ian Fleming
Born on This Date 1908

[Hindustan Times ]

Author of James Bonds Novels


Betty Shabazz
Born on This Date 1936

[Teachers College of New Jersey]

Wife of Malcolm X

Debby Atwell
Debby Atwell
Born on This Date 1953

[Official Website]

Primary Children's Authors American Artists

 
Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan
Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma
Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming
Icon
Icon
Armenia: First Republic Day
(Commemorates Armenia's Victory over Turkey and Proclamation of an Independent Armenian Republic: 05/28/1918)
Armenia Turkey U.S. Department of State Armenian History
Azerbaijan: Republic Day
(Commemorates the formation of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic: 05/28/1918)
Azerbaijan U.S. Department of State Azerbaijan Embassy, Georgia
Ethiopia: Overthrow of the Derge Regime
(Commemorates overthrow of Derge military regime by Peoples' Revolutionary Democratic Front: 05/18/1991)
Ethiopia Expedia
Calendar
Primary Authors and Illustrators Born on This Date Young-adult  Authors and Illustrators Born on This Date Icon
1924 Isabella Leitner (Hungarian Children's Author) Hungarian Authors Young-adult Authors The Holocaust
1953 Debby Atwell (Rhode Island-born Children's Author, Illustrator) Debby Atwell Primary Children's Authors American Artists
Authors, Poets and Journalists
1779 Thomas Moore (Irish Poet) Thomas Moore Poetry
1855 Ole Amundsen Buslett (Norwegian-American Author, Journalist) Norwegian Authors Wisconsin Authors Authors Journalism Wisconsin Historical Society
1908 Ian Fleming (English Author of the James Bond Novels) Ian Fleming
1911 Randolph Churchill (English Author, Journalist, Politician) English Authors Journalism Politician
1912 Patrick White (Australian Novelist; 1973 Nobel Laureate for Literature) Australian Authors Authors Calendar Writer's Almanac 1973 Nobel Laureate for Literature
1916 Walker Percy (Alabama-born Novelist) Alabama Authors Writer's Almanac
1919 May Swenson (Utah-born Author) Utah Authors Poetry Academy of American Poets Writer's Almanac
1936 Fred Chappell (North Carolina-born Novelist, Poet) North Carolina Authors Poetry Writer's Almanac
1940 Maeve Binchy (Irish Novelist) Irish Authors
1958 Jill Marie Watts (California-born Author, Historian) California Authors
1959 Meg Wolitzer (New York City-born Author) New York City Authors
Classical Composers and Performing Artists
1737 Josiah Flagg (Massachusetts-born Bandmaster, Music Publisher) Massachusetts Composers Popular Music
1925 Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau (German Operatic Baritone) German Performing Artists Opera Biography.com
Scientists, Mathematicians and Inventors
1738 Joseph Ignace Guillotin (French Physician Who First Proposed Beheading as a Humane Means of Execution) French Scientists and Mathematicians Medicine Capital Punishment
1807 Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz (Swiss-American Naturalist, Geologist) Louis Agassiz Zoologist Evolution
Military
1818 P. G. T. Beauregard (Louisiana-born Confederate General) Louisiana Military Leaders American Civil War
Political and Social Leaders
1660 George I, King of England English History British Monarchy
1759 William Pitt the Younger (Prime Minister of England: 1783-1801, 1804-6) English Political and Social Leaders
1814 Daniel Reaves Goodloe (North Carolina-born Abolitionist, Author) North Carolina Political and Social Leaders Abolition American Authors
1831 Eliza Ann Gardner (New York City-born African-American Abolitionist, Rights Activist) New York City Political and Social Leaders Abolition Human Rights/Civil Rights African American Political and Social Leaders
1858 Lizzie Black Kander (Milwaukee, Wisconsin Social Rights Activist) Milwaukee, Wisconsin Immigration Judaism Human Rights/Civil Rights Wisconsin Historical Society
1884 Edvard Benes (Czech President: 1953) Czech Political and Social Leaders
1936 Betty Shabazz (Detroit-born African-American Civil Rights Advocate; Wife of Malcolm X) Betty Shabazz Malcolm X U.S. Civil Rights Movement African American Political and Social Leaders
1944 Rudolph Giuliani (Mayor of New York City) New York Political and Social Leaders Rudolph Giuliani 2001 Attack on the World Trade Center
Performing Aritsts
1910 "T-bone" Walker (Texas-born Member of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame) T-bone Walker Blues Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
1931 Carroll Baker (Pennsylvania-born Actress) Pennsylvania Performing Artists Actors Film Internet Movie Database
1944 Gladys Knight (Georgia-born African-American Member of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame) Georgia Performing Artists Rock and Roll Hall of Fame African American Performing Artists
1947 Sondra Locke (Tennessee-born Actress) Tennessee Performing Artists Actors Film Internet Movie Database
1970 Glenn Quinn (Irish Actor) Irish Performing Artists Actors Film Internet Movie Database
1968 Kylie Minogue (Australian Singer, Actress) Australian Performing Artists Popular Musicians Actors Internet Movie Database
1979 Jesse Bradford (Connecticut-born Actor) Connecticut Performing Artists Actors Film Internet Movie Database
1986 Joseph Cross (New Jersey-born Actor) New Jersey Performing Artists Actors Television Film Internet Movie Database
Sports Figures
1888 Jim Thorpe (Oklahoma-born Native-American Olympic Champion; Member of the College and Professional Football Hall's of Fame) Jim Thorpe Native American Studies College Football Hall of Fame Professional Football Hall of Fame 1912 Summer Olympic Games
1896 Warren Giles (Illinois-born President of the National League; Member of the Baseball Hall of Fame) Illinois Sports Figures Baseball Hall of Fame
1938 Jerry West (West Virginia-born Member of the Basketball Hall of Fame) West Virginia Sports Figures Basketball Hall of Fame Biography.com West Virginia State Archives
Persons of Historic Significance Who Have Died on This Date Persons of Historic Significance Who Have Died on This Date
1843 Noah Webster (Connecticut-born Lexicographer) Noah Webster Dictionaries
1958 Stephen Leacock (Canadian Author) Canadian Authors Authors CBC
1971 Audie Murphy (Texas-born World War II Hero, Actor) Texas Performing Artists Actors Film World War II
1972 Duke of Windsor (Formerly King Edward VIII of England) Great Britain Edward VIII of England
1998 Phil Hartman (Canadian Comedian, Actor) Canadian Performing Artists Actors Film
2000 Donald Davies (Welsh Internet Pioneer) Welsh Scientists and Mathematicians The Internet BBC
2002 Mildred Wirt Benson (Iowa-born Children's Author of Nancy Drew) Iowa Authors and Illustrators Young-adult Authors
Historically Significant Events Historically Significant Events
Historic Events of  that Occurred on this Date from 0 - 999 AD
585 Solar Eclipse Causes Lydians & Medes to Negotiate Peace The Sun Turkey Virginia Tech University
Historic Events of the 1500s that Occurred on this Date
1533 The Archbishop of Canterbury Validates the Marriage of England's King Henry VIII to Anne Boleyn English History Henry VIII Religious Leaders and Theologians Archbishop of Canterbury New York Times
1542 Members of Hernando de Soto's Expedition Place his Remains into the Mississippi River Hernando de Soto North American Explorers Mississippi River Death Georgia Historical Society University of Georgia
Historic Events of the 1700s that Occurred on this Date
1742 First Indoor Swimming Pool Opens (Goodman's Fields, London) London Swimming Architecture Historic Firsts Story of London
1754 The French & Indian War Begins When George Washington Leads a British Attack on French Forces at Jumonville Glen Great Britain France Pennsylvania George Washington French & Indian War National Park Service History Channel Virginia Historical Society
Historic Events of the 1800s that Occurred on this Date
1803
Travelling with Lewis and Clark

The rain does not seem to let up for the explorers. Due to the hard rain in the night, several articles were drenched and some tobacco was ruined. A man from the group joined in with six Indians for their hunt, but no insight as to their interaction was revealed. The weather was so cloudy that no observations could be May 31-Thursday
Missouri Native Americans Weather
1806
Travelling with Lewis and Clark

Lewis: We sent Goodrich to the village of the broken arm this morning he returned in the evening with some roots bread and a parsel of goats-hair for making our saddle pads.

Reubin and Joseph Feilds set out this morning to hunt high up on a creek which discharges itself into this river about 8 miles above us.

at Noon Charbono, York and Lapage returned; they had obtained four bags of the dryed roots of Cows and some bread.

in the evening Collins Shannon and Colter returned with eight deer. they had fortunately discovered a ford on Collins's Creek where they were enabled to pass it with their horses and had hunted at the quawmash ground where we first met with the Chopunnish last fall. deer were very abundant they informed us, but there were not many bear.

The sick Cheif was much better this morning he can use his hands and arms and seems much pleased with the prospect of recovering, he says he feels much better than he has for a great number of months. I sincerely wish these sweats may restore him; we have consented that he should still remain with us and repeat these sweats. he set up a great proportion of the day.—

The Child is also better, he is free of fever, the imposthume is not so large but seems to be advancing to maturity.—


Clark: The Country along the rocky mountains for Several hundred Miles in length and about 50 in width is leavel extremely fertile and in many parts Covered with a tall and opult. growth of the long leafed pine. near the Watercourses the hills are lofty tho' are covered with a good Soil and not remarkably Stoney and possess more timber than the leavel country. the bottom lands on the Water courses are reather narrow and confined tho' fertile and Seldom inundated. this Country would form an extensive Settlement; the Climate appears quit as mild as that of a Similar latitude on the Atlantic Coast; & it cannot be otherwise than healthy; it possesses a fine dry pure air. the grass and maney plants are now upwards of Knee high. I have no doubt that this tract of Country if Cultivated would produce in great abundance every article esentially necessary to the comfort and Subsistence of civillized man. to it's present inhabitents nature Seems to have dealt with a liberal hand, for she has distributed a great variety of esculent plants over the face of the Country which furnish them a plentiful Store of provisions; those are acquired but little toil; and then prepared after the method of the nativs afford not only a nutricious but an agreeable food. among other roots those Called by them the Quawmash and Cows are esteemd. the most agreeable and valuable as they are also the most abundant in those high plains.

The Cows is a knobbed root of an erregularly rounded form not unlike the Gensang in form and Consistence; this root they Collect, rub off a thin black rhind which Covers it and pounding it exposes it in cakes to the Sun. these Cakes are about an inch and ¼ thick and 6 by 18 in wedth, when dry they either eat this bread alone without any further preperation, or boil it and make a thick Musilage; the latter is most common & much the most agreeable. the flower of this root is not very unlike the gensang—. this root they Collect as early as the Snow disappears in the Spring, and Continues to collect it untill the Quawmash Supplies it's place which happins about the Middle of June. the quawmash is also Collected for a fiew weeks after it first makes it's appearance in the Spring, but when the scape appears it is no longer fit for use untill the Seed are ripe which happens about the time just mentioned. and then the Cows declines. The Cows is also frequently dried in the Sun and pounded afterwards and used in thickening Supe and Makeing Mush.

Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery Lewis & Clark Map: 04/01/06 Lewis County, Idaho Nez Percé
The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska
1827 In Minnesota, Dakota Warriors Shoot into an Ojibwe Camp Outside Fort Snelling, Killing Several People Eden Prairie, Minnesota Native American Heritage Forts War Death Minnesota Historical Society
1830 President Andrew Jackson Signs the Indian Removal Act, Mandating Resettlement of All Native Americans West of the Mississippi River U.S. Congress President Andrew Jackson 1830 Indian Removal Act Westward Movement Mississippi River Mt. Holyoke College African American Registry Georgia Historical Society University of Georgia
1837 The James Madison Is the First Steamer to Reach Milwaukee, Wisconsin Milwaukee, Wisconsin Steamboats Historic Firsts Wisconsin Historical Society
1838 Georgia's Governor Gilmer Rejects President Van Buren's Request for an Additional Two Years to Resettle the Cherokee West of the Mississippi River Georgia Political and Social Leaders President Martin van Buren 1830 Indian Removal Act Cherokee Westward Movement Mississippi River Georgia Historical Society University of Georgia
1851 The First Day of the Ohio Woman's Rights Convention in Akron Akron, Ohio Women Suffrage Library of Congress
1854 The Cornerstone Is Laid for St. Raphael's, the First Catholic Church in Madison, Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin Religion Catholicism Historic Firsts Wisconsin Historical Society
1863 The 54th Massachusetts African-American Regiment Departs Boston for Combat in South Carolina Boston, Massachusetts South Carolina American Civil War African-American Military Figures History Channel Massachusetts Foundation for the Humanities
1864 Union Forces Suffer 2,400 Casualties and the Confederates 3,000 at the Battle of Dallas, Georgia Paulding County, Georgia Battle of Dallas Death Georgia Historical Society University of Georgia
In Florida, Union Soldiers From the Schooner Fox Destroy Salt Works between the Suwannee River and St. Marks Florida American Civil War Florida Historical Society
1866 General William Tecumseh Sherman Arrives in Minnesota's Twin Cities as Commander of the Division of the Mississippi Minnesota William Tecumseh Sherman U.S. Army Minnesota Historical Society
1867 The U.S. Senate Ratifies the Treaty Providing for the Purchase of Alaska From Russia Russia Alaska U.S. Congress Historical World Documents Alaska Historical Society
1872 Oregonians See Their First Electric Lights as the Illuminated Passenger Steamer, The State of California, Docks at Portland Portland, Oregon Steamboats Light Bulb SalemOregon.com
1881 In Arkansas, the Towns of Rogers and Siloam Springs Are Incorporated Arkansas Arkansas History Commission
A 12-year-old New Castle, Delaware African American Begins 1-Year of Confinement by Being Lashed 20 Times for Burning Down an Outhouse New Castle, Delaware Fire Crime African-American Heritage State of Delaware
1892 Sierra Club Founded with 182 Charter Members: John Muir Elected First President John Muir The Sierra Club New York Times
The Florida East Coast Railroad Company Is Incorporated Florida Railroad Business Florida Historical Society
1899 In Wilmington, Delaware, the 200th Anniversary of Old Swedes Church Is Celebrated Wilmington, Delaware Religion Old Swedes Church State of Delaware
Historic Events that occurred 1900-1949 on this date
1900 In Minnesota, a Storm Leaves 3"-deep Hail in Winona County Winona County, Minnesota Storms Minnesota Historical Society
1902 Owen Wister's The Virginian Is Published Pennsylvania Authors Adult Fiction Westward Expansion Writer's Almanac History Channel
1903 St. Paul, Minnesota's First Automobile Fatality Occurs When a Child Is Struck St. Paul, Minnesota Automotives Death Historic Firsts Minnesota Historical Society
1913 The Michigan Historical Commission Is Organized in Lansing Lansing, Michigan Michigan Historical Cneter State of Michigan
1917 The City of Lake Wales Is Incorporated by the Florida Legislature Lake Wales, Florida Florida Historical Society
1918 Azerbaijan Is Declared an Independent Republic Azerbaijan Azerbaijan Embassy, Washington, D.C.
In the First Sustained American Offensive of the War, Allied Forces Capture the French Village of Cantigny From the Germans France Germany World War I History Channel
Armenians Defeat Turks, Armenia Proclaimed an Independent Republic Armenia Turkey Armenian History
Barney Oldfield Records the First 100-mph Lap at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway Barney Oldfield Auto Racing Indianapolis Motor Speedway Historic Firsts History Channel
1920 Devil's Backbone Is Dedicated as Iowa's First State Park Devil's Backbone Parks Historic Firsts Backbone State Park Iowa State Historical Society
1923 The Santa Rita No. 1 Oil Well Comes in on the Campus of the University of Texas in Reagan County Reagan County, Texas Business University of Texas in Reagan County Texas State Historical Association
1924 Congress Establishes the Border Patrol to Prevent Smuggling and Illegal Entrance into the United States U.S. Congress Immigration Crime Texas State Historical Association
1926 Congress Creates the U.S. Customs Court U.S. Congress U.S. Government Agencies Law and Legal Resources Georgetown University Law Library
Ernest Hemingway's Book The Torrents of Spring Is Published by Scribner's in New York New York City Ernest Hemingway American Authors American Collection
1929 The First All-Color Movie, On with the Show, Debuts Film History of  Technology Historic Firsts History Channel
1932 In Florida, the Daytona Art League Is Incorporated Daytona Beach, Florida Fine Arts Art League of Daytona Beach Florida Historical Society
1935 John Steinbeck's First Successful Novel, Tortilla Flat, Is Published New York City John Steinbeck <I>Tortilla Flat</I> American Collection History Channel
The California Pacific Exposition Opens for a Year in San Diego's Balboa Park San Diego, California Economics Learn California
The Florida Legislature Adopts Stephen Foster's Old Folks At Home as the Official State Song Florida Stephen Foster Music Florida Historical Society
1936 In Minnesota, the 60-ton 36'-tall Revolving Onyx Statue, "Vision of Peace," Is Dedicated in the Ramsey County Courthouse Ramsey County, Minnesota Art Minnesota Historical Society
1937 From Washington, D.C., President Franklin Roosevelt Opens the Golden Gate Bridge for Automobile Traffic California President Frank Roosevelt Golden Gate Bridge History Channel
Neville Chamberlain Becomes Prime Minister of Britain Neville Chamberlain New York Times
1940 Belgian Army Surrenders Unconditionally to Invading German Forces Belgium Nazi Germany World War II History Channel
1947 Robert Frost's Steeple Bush Is Published by Holt Robert Frost Poetry American Collection
Historic Events that occurred 1950-1999 on this date
1951 Princess Elizabeth Formally Opens the Exhibition of Industrial Power in Glasgow, Scotland Glasgow, Scotland Queen Elizabeth II Energy BBC
Willie Mays of the New York Giants Gets His First Major League Hit, a Home Run Off the Boston Braves' Warren Spahn Alabama Sports Figures Baseball Hall of Fame Baseball Hall of Fame New York Times Alabama State Archives
1953 Disney's Melody Is the First Animated Short Ever Presented in 3-D Walt Disney Cartoons & Comics Historic Firsts Internet Movie Database
1954 Alfred Hitchcock's Dial M for Murder Opens in New York New York City Alfred Hitchcock Film Internet Movie Database
1957 National Academy of Recording Arts & Sciences Established Musicians American Entertainers The Recording Academy
National League Owners Vote Unanimously to Allow the New York Giants and Brooklyn Dodgers to Move to San Francisco and Los Angeles New York City California Baseball Major League Baseball Businesses History Channel New York Times
1958 The U.S. House of Representatives Passes the Alaska Statehood Bill by a Vote of 208-166 Alaska U.S. Congress Alaska Historical Society
1959 Two Monkeys Are the First Living Creatures to Survive Space Flight; 300 Miles in a Jupiter Missile Launched From Cape Canaveral, Florida Cape Canaveral, Florida Space Exploration Monkeys Historic Firsts BBC
1960 In Montgomery, Alabama, an All-White Jury Acquits Martin Luther King Jr. of Tax Evasion Charges Montgomery, Alabama Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Taxes Law Georgia Historical Society University of Georgia
1961 Amnesty International Is Founded by Peter Berenson of London, England London Amnesty International History Channel
1964 Unmanned Apollo 2 Saturn Test Launched into Earth Orbit Space Exploration NASA
1965 Methane Gas Causes a Mine Explosion Near Dharbad, India, Killing 375 People and Injuring Hundreds More India Labor Methane Death History Channel
1967 Francis Chichester Arrives in Plymouth, England on His Yacht, Gypsy Moth IV, Completing His Single-Handed Voyage Around the World Plymouth, England Blue Noose BBC
1971 The USSR Mars 3 Is Launched for the First Soft Landing on Mars Soviet Space Program Mars Historic Firsts NASA
600 Mexican-American Women From 23 States Begin a 3-day Conference in Houston, Texas Houston, Texas Women Hispanic Heritage Texas State Historical Association
1974 Northern Ireland's First Power-Sharing Assembly Collapses Leaving Direct Rule from Westminster Northern Ireland Great Britain BBC
Baseball-Sized Hail Piled Waist High, Shredding a Corn Crop in the Amboy, Minnesota Amboy, Minnesota Storms Farming & Agriculture Minnesota Historical Society
1977 Fire Kills 165 People at the Beverly Hills Supper Club in Southgate, Kentucky Southgate, Kentucky Fire Death New York Times
1984 At Arlington National Cemetery, President Reagan Leads Funeral for Unidentified Soldier Ronald Reagan Vietnam War Arlington Cemetary New York Times
1985 American David Jacobsen Taken Hostage in Lebanon for 17 Months Lebanon Terrorism Middle East History New York Times
18-year-old Tania Aebi Sets Sail From New York City on a 26" Sloop for a 2 1/2-year 27,000-Mile Solo Voyage Around the World New York City Naval History Women Earth New York Times
1986 U.S. Postal Stamp Honors African-American North Pole Explorer, Matthew Henson Arctic  Matthew Henson American Explorers African-American Explorers U.S. Postal Service (pdf)
1987 19-year-old German, Matthias Rust, Lands His Private Plane in Moscow's Red Square Moscow, Rusia Germany Aviation History Cold War Center for the Study of Technology and Society
1991 Peoples' Revolutionary Democratic Front Overthrows Ethiopia's Derge Regime Ethiopia U.S. State Department History Channel
1996 President Clinton's Associates Are Convicted of Fraud in Whitewater Land Deal Arkansas Bill Clinton Crime Law and Legal Resources New York Times
1998 Pakistan Explodes Five Underground Nuclear Devices in Response to India's Recent Nuclear Tests Pakistan India Nuclear Weapons BBC Asian History
In China, a 5.6 Magnitude Earthquake Injures 28 People and Destroys More Than 2,000 Buildings China Earthquake USGS
1999 Da Vinci's Newly Restored Last Supper Reopens to the Public Milan, Italy Leonardo DaVinci KET
Discovery Is the First Space Shuttle to Dock with the International Space Station Space Shuttle Historic Firsts NASA
Historic Events that occurred 2000-2009 on this date
2002 NATO Declares Russia a Limited Partner in the Western Alliance NATO Russia New York Times