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Gnus for Kidz

Who Am I?

5-Minute Quests Today's 5-Minute Quest

Answers to all questions can be found on this page or by using links provided on this page.
Good Luck!
5-Minute Quests

1. Which state ratified the 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution on this date in 1920? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

2. According to the Christian Science Monitor which U.S. President asked Simmie Knox to paint his official White House portrait? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

3. According to Kidsreads, when did Paula Danziger first know that she wanted to be a writer? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

Use all of these letters to spell the name of a children's author born on this date:

1. What region of Western Algeria was struck by an Earthquake on this date in 1994? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

2. According to the Library of Congress, for which U.S. President did Meriwether Lewis serve as private secretary? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

3. According to the Baseball Hall of Fame, what was Roberto Clemente doing when he died in a plane crash? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

Use all of these letters to spell the name of a book written by Paula Danziger:
(hint: all three questions will require you to use a link found on this page)

1. According to the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, in which year did Luc Montagnier discover the AIDS virus?

2. According to the Stanford University history of apartheid in South Africa, in what year did the apartheid laws institutionalize racism?

3. According to the History Channel, why did Hitler suspend his euthanasia program of the mentally ill and handicapped in 1941?

Use all of these letters to spell the title of a 1981 work by Alain Robbe-Grillet (according to the Authors' Calendar):

Meriwether Lewis
Born on This Date 1774

[Louisiana State Museum]

Lewis and Clark Expedition

Luc Montagnier
Born on This Date 1932

[National Institutes
of Health]

AIDS2008 Nobel Laureate for Medcine and Physiology

Roberto Clemente
Born on This Date in 1934

[Baseball Hall of Fame]

Baseball Hall of Fame

Simmie Knox
Born on This Date 1935

[Official Web Site]

American Artists

Paula Danziger
Born on This Date 1944


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Catholicism: Feast of St. Helena
(Observed annually on August 18 to revere the mother of Constantine the Great)
Religion Catholicism Catholic Encyclopedia
Children's Authors & Illustrators
1904 Louise Fatio (Swiss Children's Author) Louise Fatio Primary Authors
1934 Sonia Levitin (German-born Children's Author) Sonia Levitin Young-adult Authors Official Website
1938 Joan Carris (Ohio-born Children's Author) Joan Carris Young-adult Authors Official Website
1944 Paula Danziger (Washington, D.C.-born Children's Author) Paula Danziger Young-adult Authors Who Am I?
1949 Nicola Bayley (Singapore Children's Author, Illustrator) Nicola Bayley Primary Authors Artists
1918 Elsa Morante (Italian Author) Elsa Morante Adult Authors
1922 Alain Robbe-Grillet (French Author) Alain Robbe-Grillet Adult Authors
1925 Brian Aldiss (English Science Fiction Writer) Brian Aldiss Official Website Writer's Almanac
Artists, Architects & Designers
1894 Travis Banton (Texas-born Stage and Costume Designer) Travis Banton American Artists Stage & Theater Costume Designer Texas Day by Day
1935 Simmie Knox (Alabama-born African-American Artist) Simmie Knox American Artists President Bill Clinton Notable African Americans African American Registry
Classical Composers & Performing Artists
1873 Leo Slezak (Austrian Operatic Tenor) Austrian Performing Artists Opera
1750 Antonio Salieri (Italian Composer) Antonio Salieri Wolfgang Mozart Composers
Scientists, Mathematicians & Inventors
1685 Brook Taylor (English Mathematician) Brook Taylor Calculus
1921 Howard Jones (Virginia-born African-American Engineer) Howard Jones, Jr. American Scientists & Mathematicians African American Scientists & Mathematicians African American Registry
1932 Luc Montagnier (French-born Pioneer in AIDS Research; 2008 Nobel Laureate for Medicine and Physiology) Luc Montagnier Medical Research AIDS 2008 Nobel Laureate for Medcine and Physiology
Explorers, Pioneers and Astronauts
1587 Virginia Dare (First White Child of English Parents to be Born in America) Virginia Dare North Carolina Colonial History Historic Firsts
1774 Meriwether Lewis (Virginia-born Explorer: co-Leader of the Lewis and Clark Corps of Discovery) Meriwether Lewis Notable American Explorers & Pioneers The Lewis & Clark Expedition
Business Leaders
1834 Marshall Field (Massachusetts-born Founder of Marshall Field Department Stores) Marshall Field Businesses & Companies
Political & Social Leaders
1803 Nathan Clifford (New Hampshire-born Associate Justice, U.S. Supreme Court) Nathan Clifford U.S. Supreme Court Oyez
1830 Francis Joseph (Austrian-born Emperor of Austria (1848-1916) and King of Hungary (1867-1916)) Austrian Political and Social Leaders Hungarian Political and Social Leaders
1854 James P. Clarke (Mississippi-born U.S. Senator from Arkansas; Governor of Arkansas: 1895-97) Mississippi Political and Social Leaders Arkansas Political and Social Leaders U.S. Congress Arkansas History Commission
1871 Francis John McConnell (Ohio-born Methodist Bishop, Religious Reformer) Ohio Political and Social Leaders Religious Leaders
1917 Caspar Weinberger (California-born Cabinet Member of the Nixon and Reagan Administrations) Caspar Weinberger Richard Nixon Ronald Reagan
1927 Rosalyn Carter (Georgia-born Wife of U.S. President Jimmy Carter) Rosalyn Carter Jimmy Carter American Women in Politics & Government
Performing Artists
1933 Roman Polanski (French Filmmaker) Roman Polanski Filmmakers
1935 Gail Fisher (New Jersey-born African-American Actress) Gail Fisher Actors Television Famous African Americans
1937 Robert Redford (California-born Actor, Filmmaker) Robert Redford Actors Filmmakers
1952 Patrick Swayze (Texas-born Actor) Texas Performing Artists Actors Film
1969 Edward Norton (Massachusetts-born Actor) Edward Norton Actors Film
1970 Malcolm Jamal Warner (New Jersey-born African-American Actor: Theo on "Cosby") Malcom Jamal Warner Actors Television Bill Cosby Famous African Americans
Sports Figures
1893 Burleigh Grimes (Wisconsin-born Member of the Baseball Hall of Fame) Wisconsin Sports Figures Baseball Hall of Fame Wisconsin Historical Society
1901 Arne Borg (Swedish Champion Swimmer) Swedish Sports Figures Swimming
1928 Marge Unnewehr Schott (Ohio-born Businesswoman; Owner of the Cincinnati Reds) Ohio Sports Figures Baseball Major League Baseball Ohio Historical Society
1934 Roberto Clemente (Puerto Rican Member of the Baseball Hall of Fame: Humanitarian) Roberto Clemente Baseball Hall of Fame Latin American Sports Figures
Baseball Hall of Fame
Rafer Johnson (Texas-born African-American Olympic Decathlon Gold Medalist) Rafer Johnson Track & Field Hall of Fame The 1960 Summer Olympic Games Notable African Americans
Icon Persons of Historic Significance Who Have Died on This Date
Persons of Historical Note Who Have Died on This Date
1227 Genghis Khan (Mongolian Warrior and Leader) Genghis Khan China
1276 Pope Adrian V (Ottobuono Fieschi: Italian Pope of the Catholic Church)) Italian Political and Social Leaders Pope Adrian V Religion
1559 Pope Paul IV (Italian Pope of the Catholic Church) Italian Political and Social Leaders Pope Paul IV Religion
1858 William Austin Burt (Massachusetts-born Inventor, Scientist) William Austin Burt Michigan American Scientists & Mathematicians Inventors & Inventions
1940 Walter P. Chrysler (Kansas-born Automotive Pioneer) Kansas Automobiles Inventor Economics & Business
1989 Luis Carlos Galán (Assassinated Colombian Presidential Candidate) Luis Carlos Galan Politics & Elections
1990 B.F. Skinner (Pennsylvania-born Behavioral Psychologist) B.F. Skinner Psychology
1994 Richard Laurence Millington Synge (English 1952 Nobel Laureate in Chemistry) Richard Laurence Millington Synge Chromatography 1952 Nobel Laureate in Chemistry
2009 Kim Dea-jung (President of South Korea; 2000 Nobel Laureate for Peace) Kim Dea-jung 2000 Nobel Laureate for Peace
Historical Events Occurring from 1500 - 1599
1587 Virginia Dare Is First White Child of English Parents Born in America Virginia Dare U.S. History Historic Firsts Historic UK Virginia Historical Society
Historical Events Occurring from 1700 - 1799
1749 Celeron de Blainville Plants a Lead Plate Along the Ohio River at Present-Day Point Pleasant, West Virginia, Claiming the Territory for France Fraench Explorers Point Pleasant, West Virginia North American Explorers Ohio Rivers West Virginia State Archive
1759 The British Destroy a French Fleet at Lagos, Portugal England France Portugal Naval History War Houghton Mifflin
Historical Events Occurring from 1800 - 1899
Travelling with Lewis and Clark

Meriwether Lewis Is in Pittsburgh Awaiting Completion of His Keelboat for an Aug 31 Launch
Pennsylvania Lewis & Clark Map: 07/15/03 Lewis & Clark Expedition
Keelboats Pittsburgh Legacy
Travelling with Lewis and Clark

Clark: The party with the Indians came today. Reed confessed that he had stolen a "rifle shot-pouch Powder & Ball." His punishment was to run the
ganelet four times and receive 9 lashes from each man in the camp. The Chiefs of the Nations wanted us to give Reed peace, but after we explained to the Indian Chiefs what damage a man could do to our journey, they understood.
Iowa Nebraska Lewis & Clark Map: 08/18/04 Lewis & Clark Expedition Crime Native American Heritage University of Kentucky
Travelling with Lewis and Clark

Lewis: This morning while Capt Clark was busily engaged in preparing for his rout, I exposed some articles to barter with the Indians for horses as I wished a few at this moment to releive the men who were going with Capt Clark from the labour of carrying their baggage and also one to keep here in order to pack the meat to camp which the hunters might kill. I soon obtained three very good horses for which I gave an uniform coat, a pair of legings, a few handkerchiefs, three knives and some other small articles the whole of which did not cost more than about 20$ in the U' States. the Indians seemed quite as well pleased with their bargin as I was. the men also purchased one for an old checked shirt a pair of old legings and a knife. two of those I purchased Capt. C. took on with him. at 10 A. M. Capt. Clark departed with his detatchment and all the Indians except 2 men and 2 women who remained with us.

Two of the inferior chiefs were a little displeased at not having received a
present equivolent to that given the first Chief. to releive this difficulty Capt. Clark bestoed a couple of his old coats on them and I promised that if they wer active in assisting me over the mountains with horses that I would give them an additional present; this seemed perfectly to satisfy them and they all set out in
a good humour.

Capt. Clark encamped this evening near the narrow pass between the hills on Jefferson's river in the Shoshone Cove. his hunters killed one deer which the party with the aid of the Indians readily consumed in the course of the evening.— after there departure this morning I had all the stores and baggage
of every discription opened and aired. and began the operation of forming the packages in proper parsels for the purpose of transporting them on horseback. the rain in the evening compelled me to desist from my operations. I had the
raw hides put in the water in order to cut them in throngs proper for lashing the packages and forming the necessary geer for pack horses, a business which I fortunately had not to learn on this occasion.

Drewyer Killed one deer this evening. a Beaver was also caught by one of the party. I had the net arranged and set this evening to catch some trout which we could see in great abundance at the bottom of the river.

This day I completed my thirty first year, and conceived that I had in all human probability now existed about half the period which I am to remain in this Sublunary world. I reflected that I had as yet done but little, very little indeed, to further the hapiness of the human race, or to advance the information of the succeeding generation. I viewed with regret the many hours I have spent in indolence, and now soarly feel the want of that information which those hours would have given me had they been judiciously expended. but since they are past and cannot be recalled, I dash from me the gloomy thought and resolved in future, to redouble my exertions and at least indeavour to promote those two primary objects of human existence, by giving them the aid of that portion of talents which nature and fortune have bestoed on me; or in future, to live for mankind, as I have heretofore lived for myself.—

Clark: Purchased of the Indians three horses for which we gave a Chiefs Coat Some Handkerchiefs a Shirt Legins & a fiew arrow points &c. I gave two of my coats to two of the under Chiefs who appeared not well Satisfied that the first Chief was dressed so much finer than themselves.

at 10 oClock I Set out accompanied by the Indians except 3 the interpreter and wife, the fore part of the day worm, at 12 oClock it became hasey with a mist of rain wind hard from the S. W. and Cold which increased untill night the rain Seased in about two hours. We proceeded on thro' a wide leavel vallie without wood except willows & Srubs for 15 miles and Encamped at a place the high lands approach within 200 yards in 2 points the River here only 10 yards wide Several Small Streams branching out on each Side below. all the Indians proceeded on except the 3 Chiefs & two young men. my hunters killed two Deer which we eate.

Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery Lewis & Clark Map: 08/18/05 Beaverhead County, Montana Shoshone Indians

The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Kentucky University of Nebraska

Travelling with Lewis and Clark

Lewis: moderate rain last night, the wind of this morning from the S. E. as to cause the water to be So rough that we Could not proceed on untill 8 a. m. at which time it fell a little & we proceeded on tho' the waves were yet high and the wind Strong.

Saw Several Indians on either Side of the river. at 9 A. M. I saw an Indian running down the beech and appd. to be anxious to Speak to us I derected the Canoes to land. this Indian proved to be the brother of the Chief we had on board and Came down from his Camp at no great distance to take his leave of his brother. the Chief gave him a par of Legins and took an effectunate leave of his brother and we procedeed on

haveing previously Sent on 2 canoes with hunters to kill Some meat at 2 P. M we overtook the Canoe hunters, they had killed three deer which was divided and we halted and Cooked Some dinner on the Sandbar. wind Still high and from the Same point.

The Chief pointed out Several places where he Said his nation formerly lived and related Some extroadinary Stories of their tredition. after Dinner we proceeded on, to a point on the N E. Side opposit the remains of an old Mandan village a little below the enterance of Chiss-che-tor River and the place we Encamped as we assended this river 20th of October 1804 haveing come 40 miles to day.

after landing which was a little before night the hunters run out into the bottom and Killed four deer. The winds blew hard from the S. E. all day which retarded our progress very much after the fires were made I set my self down with the big white man Chiefe and made a number of enquiries into the tredition of his nation as well as the time of their inhabiting the number of Villages the remains of which we see on different parts of the river, as also the cause of their evacuation.

he told me his nation first Came out of the ground where they had a great village. a grape vine grew down through the Earth to their village and they Saw light Some of their people assended by the grape vine upon the earth, and Saw Buffalow and every kind of animal also Grapes plumbs &c. they gathered Some grapes & took down the vine to the village, and they tasted and found them good, and deturmined to go up and live upon the earth, and great numbers climbed the vine and got upon earth men womin and children. at length a large big bellied woman in climbing broke the vine and fell and all that were left in the Village below has remained there ever Since (The Mandans beleive when they die that they return to this village)

Those who were left on earth made a village on the river below and were very noumerous &c. he Said that he was born in the Village Opposit to our Camp and at that time his nation inhabited 7 villages as large as that and were full of people, the Sieoux and Small pox killed the greater part of them and made them So weak that all that were left only made two Small villages when Collected, which were built near the old Ricaras village above. their troubles with the Scioux & Pawnees or Ricaras Compelled them to move and build a village where they now live.

Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery Lewis & Clark Map: 08/18/05 Burleigh County, North Dakota Native Americans

The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

1813 Spanish Royalist Army Slaughters Gutiérrez-Magee, Texas Republicans: 1400 Die Spain Texas Republic Hispanic Heritage Texas State Historical Association
1820 Franz Schubert's Opera "Die Zauberharfe" (The Magic Harp) Premieres in Vienna, Austria Vienna, Austria Franz Schubert Historic Firsts American Public Media
1821 Pensacola, Florida's First Newspaper, The Floridian Is Established Florida Journalism Florida Historical Society
1824 Mexican Congress Passes National Law for the Colonization of Texas Mexico Texas Hispanic Heritage Texas State Historical Association
1826 Scotland's Alexander Gordon Laing Is First European to Reach Timbuktu Scotland Mali Howard Community College
1846 General Kearney's Forces Peacefully Capture Santa Fe, New Mexico New Mexcio Mexican-American War El Paso County Community College District New Mexico Magazine
1853 Local Fishermen Are the First to Scale California's Mount Whitney California Natural Resources Mountains Mountain Climbing Mount Whitney Historic Firsts LearnCalifornia
1859 In Lebanon, Indiana, the Presbyterian Academy Is Incorporated as an Exclusive Private School Requiring Tuition Lebanon, Indiana Education Religion Indiana Historical Society
1862 Sioux Indian Uprising Begins with Murder of 44 Whites, Capture of 10 Minnesota Sioux Indians University of Missouri-Kansas City
1863 The Son of Delaware Governor William Cannon Dies of Exposure with the Union Army in Maryland Delaware Political and Social Leaders Maryland Political and Social Leaders American Civil War Death State of Delaware
1864 Union Captures Section of Weldon Railroad to Disrupt Confederate Supplies Virginia Battle of Weldon Railroad The History Channel
Union Troops Burn 4,000 Pounds of Cotton Near Florida's McCrae Plantation Florida American Civil War Florida Historical Society
1868 Pierre Jules Cesar Janssen Finds Helium Line in the Solar Spectrum The Sun Light Helium LeMoyne College
1870 Prussians Defeat the French at Gravelotte: 28,000 casualties Germany France Franco-Prussian War Death Nationmaster
1871 France's Alphonse Pénaud Flies His Planophore Airplane 131 Ft in 11 Seconds Paris Aviation History Historic Firsts Centennial of Flight
1878 First African American Lutheran Church Is Dedicated in Little Rock, Arkansas Arkansas Religion African-American History Historic Firsts Concordia Historical Institute
1887 Thousands of Hometown Fans Flock to See Heavyweight Champ John L. Sullivan John L. Sullivan International Boxing Hall of Fame Massachusetts Foundation for the Humanities
1896 Adolph Ochs Purchases Controlling Interest of Struggling NY Times for $75,000 New York City Journalism Business & Economics NY Times
Historical Events Occurring from 1900 - 1949
1903 Vermont Senator W. P. Dillingham (Namesake of Dillingham, AK) Arrives by Ship on a tour of Alaska Dillingham, Alaska Vermont Political and Social Leaders National Governor's Association Alaska Historical Society
1905 Davis, Stephens, Toombs and Turner Counties Georgia Are Created Georgia Georgia History
1908 President Theodore Roosevelt Issues an Executive Order Establishing the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge in Oregon Oregon Parks and Landmarks President Theodore Roosevelt American Presidency Malheur National Wildlife Refuge
1916 Georgia Law Amended to Allow Women to Hold Low-level Government Jobs Georgia Women Law & Legal Resources Georgia History
The Cherokee Rose Is Named the Official Floral Emblem of Georgia Georgia Botany Georgia History
1919 Georgia's Governor Signs Act Creating a Commission to Eliminate Illiteracy Georgia Reading Georgia History
1920 Tennessee 36th State to Ratify 19th Amendment - Women's Voting Rights Tennessee 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution Women's Suffrage Voting U.S. Constitution Online
1922 Gene Sarazen Wins PGA: First to Win Two Majors in a Year (U.S. Open) New York Sports Figures Golf Historic Firsts U.S. Today
1929 A 350-pound Bear Is Killed in the Lounge of Minnesota's Hotel Duluth Minnesota Bears Minnesota Historical Society
1930 Wolfgang von Gronau and Crew Make 1st Europe-US Transatlantic Flight Germany New York City Aviation History Historic Firsts Centennial of Flight
1932 J.A. Mollison Completes 1st Europe-US Transatlantic Solo Flight Ireland Canada Aviation History Historic Firsts Centennial of Flight
1937 Hugo Black Is Sworn In As Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court Alabama Political and Social Leaders U.S. Supreme Court Oyez
1941 Hitler Suspends Euthanasia of Mentally Ill and Handicapped Adolph Hitler Mental Health Special Education Death History Channel
1947 Hewlett Packard Is Incorporated Business Computer Technology Hewlett Packard LeMoyne College
1949 Construction Is Completed on Ross Dam Located in on Washington's Skagit River Washington Rivers Dams History Link
Plant Patent #1 Issued to Henry Bosenberg, New Jersey, for a Climbing Rose New Jersey Scientists & Mathematicians Botany Patents & Copyrights Historic Firsts U.S. Patent and Trademark Office
Historical Events Occurring from 1950 - 1999
1958 Vladimir Nabokov's Novel Lolita Is Published Vladimir Nabokov Adult Fiction History Channel
1962 Peter, Paul and Mary Release "If I Had A Hammer" Folk Music Official Website RockGreats
1963 James Meredith Is First African American Graduate of the U of Mississippi Mississippi Education American Civil Rights Movement African-American History New York Times
1964 South Africa Is Banned from Olympic Games Because of Apartheid Policies Apartheid The Olympic Games BBC
1966 U.S. Adds "In God We Trust" Motto to $100 Federal Reserve Notes U.S. Government Currency Separation of Church and State U.S. Treasury
1967 Boston's Tony Conigliaro Hit in Eye by a Pitch, Permanently Impairing Vision Baseball Sight ESPN
1969 Three-day Woodstock Music Festival Ends New York State Popular Music BBC
1971 Australia and New Zealand Announce Troop Withdrawal from Vietnam Australia New Zealand Vietnam War History Channel
1976 Two American Soldiers Are Killed by North Koreans in Skirmish at Panmunjom Korea The Cold War Death Stars and Stripes
1977 Elvis Presley Is Buried At Graceland Tennessee Elvis Presley Popular Musicians RockGreats
The Police Play First Public Performance in a Birmingham, England Nightclub Sting Popular Musicians History Channel
1980 George Brett's Batting Average Reaches .401 West Virginia Sports Figures Baseball Hall of Fame New York Times
1983 Hurricane Alicia Slams the Texas Coast: 21 Die with $1+ Billion Damage Texas Hurricanes Death USA Today
1985 Japan Launches Suisei for November Probe of Comet Halley Japan Space Exploration Comets NASA
1986 Bon Jovi Releases "Slippery When Wet" Popular Musicians RockGreats
1987 One Legislator Is Killed in Grenade Attack on Sri Lankan Parliament Sri Lanka Death OPSEC
1988 Indiana Senator Dan Quayle Is Nominated as George Bush's Running Mate Dan Quayle President George Bush Politics & Elections American Rhetoric
1989 Leading Colombian Presidential Candidate Luis Carlos Galán Is Assassinated Colombia Politics & Elections Crime Death BBC
Manchester United Football Club Is Sold for £20m Great Britain Soccer Business & Economics Manchester United BBC
1990 U.S. Frigates Fire Warning Shots Across Bows of Two Iraqi Tankers Iraq Naval History Gulf War Kuwait Information Office
1991 Soviet Government/Military Leaders Attempt Coup Against President Gorbachev Mikhail Gorbachev Fall of Soviet Communism History Channel
1992 Larry Bird Retires from the NBA after 13 Seasons Indiana Sports Figures Basketball Hall of Fame ESPN
1993 Dan and Steve Buettner of Roseville, Minnesota Complete the First North-to-South Bicycle Ride Across Africa Africa Minnesota Sports Figures Bicycling Historic Firsts Minnesota Historical Society
1994 Magnitude 5.6 Earthquake Strikes Mascara Region of Western Algeria: 172 die Algeria Earthquakes Death BBC
1996 San Jose Mercury Links CIA to Nicaraguan Contra Drugs Brought to Black LA Los Angeles Iran-Contra Scandal CIA Journalism Illegal Drugs African-American Studies PBS
1997 Beth Ann Hogan Is First Coed in the Virginia Military Institute's 158-year history Virginia Education Civil Rights Women Roanoke Times