Hispanic Artists

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Hispanic Authors and Illustrators Hispanic Chronology
Hispanic Explorers, Pioneers and Astronauts Education, Libraries & Museums
Hispanic Business Leaders Hispanic Related Literature
Hispanic Scientists and Mathematicians Hispanic Teacher Resources
Hispanic Military Leaders
Hispanic Performing Artists
Hispanic Political and Social Leaders
Hispanic Sports Figures
National Hispanic Heritage Month


Separation Bar

Joseph A. Fernandez
Born 1935


Educators of Note

Eduardo Mata
Born 1942


Symphonic Conductor

Margarita Esquiroz
Born 1945


Law & Legal Resource

Teaching - there can be no finer calling requiring the clearest demonstration of moral and ethical behavior.
Ira Shull, For the Love of Teaching
Why do you teach? Let Us Know. Tell Us about your most memorable teacher.

Gnus for Kidz

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5-Minute Quests Today's 5-Minute Quest

Answers to all questions can be found on this page or by using links provided on this page.
Good Luck!
5-Minute Quests

1. What city suffered a severe earthquake on this date in 1985? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

2. Who were the passengers on board when the first hot-air balloon was launched on this date in 1783? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

3. According to the Library of Congress, when the Battle of Saratoga was fought on this date in 1777, who was the American general who led the continental soldiers? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

Use all of these letters to spell the name of a sports figure born on this date:

1. What Soviet city did the Germans bomb on this date in 1941? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

2. According to the University of Georgia, who are the three persons shown on the Stone Mountain Memorial? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

3. According to the History Channel, why wasn't Nikita Khrushchev allowed to visit Disneyland on this date in 1959? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

Use all of these letters to spell the title of a children's book illustrated by Arthur Rackham (according to Writer's Almanac):
(hint: all three questions will require you to use a link found on this page)

1. According to Birmingham, UK, the Cadbury brothers were the first in Britain to sell a powered form of what product?

2. According to Red Hot Jazz, what kind of car did Lovie Austin drive in the 1920s?

3. According to the History Channel, who was the Confederate general defeated at the Battle of Iuka on this date in 1862?

Use all of these letters to spell the title of a 1960's work by William Golding (according to the Authors' Calendar):

George Cadbury
Born on This Date in 1839


Candy Maker

Charles Mauguin
Born on This Date 1878

[Institute of Mineralogy and Physics]


Lovie Austin
Born on This Date 1887

[Red Hot Jazz]


William Golding
Born on This Date 1911

[Nobel Foundation]


Jim Abbott
Born on This Date 1967

[University of Michigan]


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International Talk Like a Pirate Day
(Observed on this date annually)
World Language Official Web Site
Chile: Día de las Glorias del Ejército (Armed Forces Day/Army Day)
(Observed annually on this date)
Chile World Travel Guide Wikipedia
St. Kitts and Nevis: Independence Day
(Commemorates 09/19/1983 independence from the United Kingdom)
St. Kitts Great Britain St. Kitts Tourism Authority
Children's Authors & Illustrators
1867 Arthur Rackham (English Illustrator of Children's Books) Arthur Rackham Young-Adult Authors Artists
1894 Rachel Field (New York City-born Children's Author, Poet, Playwright, Illustrator: 1930 Newbery Medal Winner) Rachel Field Poetry Plays American Artists 1930 Newbery Medal for Hitty, Her First Hundred Years
1911 William Golding (English Author of Lord of the Flies: 1983 Nobel Prize for Literature) William Golding Young-Adult Authors 1983 Nobel Prize for Literature
1941 James Haskins (Alabama-born African-American Children's Author) James Haskins Young-Adult Authors Civil Rights African-American Authors
Authors, Poets, Playwrights and Journalists
1904 Bergen Evans (English Lexicographer and Educator) English Authors Dictionaries Education
1932 Mike Royko (Chicago-born Journalist, Columnist) Chicago Journalism
1947 Thomas Cook (Alabama-born Novelist and True-Crime Author) Thomas Cook
Artists, Architects and Designers
1730 Augustin Pajou (French Sculptor and Decorator) French Artists
Scientists, Mathematicians and Inventors
1878 Charles Mauguin (French Mineralogist and Crystallographer) Charles Mauguin Crystallography
1915 Elizabeth Stern (Canadian-born American Pathologist) Canadian Scientists and Mathematicians Disease Writer's Almanac
Business Leaders
1839 George Cadbury (English Social Reformer and Chocolate Manufacturer) George Cadbury Chocolate Spartacus
1851 William Hesketh Lever (English Entrepreneur; Founder of Lever Brothers) English Business Leaders Unilever
Political and Social Leaders
1737 Charles Carroll (Maryland-born Signer of the Declaration of Independence, U.S. Senator) Maryland Political and Social Leaders U.S. Senate U.S. Declaration of Independence
1905 Leon Jaworski (Texas-born Attorney; Watergate Special Prosecutor) Texas Political and Social Leaders Watergate Law and Legal Resources
1907 Lewis Powell, Jr. (Virginia-born Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court: 1972-1987) Virginia Political and Social Leaders U.S. Supreme Court Oyez
Performing Artists
1887 Lovie Austin (Tennessee-born African-American Jazz Musician) Lovie Austin Jazz African American Performing Artists
1929 Mel Stewart (Ohio-born African-American Actor) Ohio Performing Artists Actors African American Performing Artists Internet Movie Database African American Registry
1934 Brian Epstein (English-born Manager of the Beatles) English Performing Artists The Beatles
1938 Adam West (Washington-born Actor: Batman) Washington Performing Artists Actors Television Batman
1940 Bill Medley (California-born Popular Singer: The Righteous Brothers) California Performing Artists Popular Musicians Internet Movie Database
1941 "Mama" Cass Elliott (Maryland-born Popular Singer: The Mamas and Papas) Cass Elliott Popular Musicians Internet Movie Database
1948 Jeremy Irons (English Actor) English Performing Artists Actors Film Internet Movie Database
1949 Lesly "Twiggy" Lawson (English Model, Actress) English Performing Artists Actors Film Television Internet Movie Database
1950 Joan Lunden (California-born Television Talk Show Host) California Performing Artists Television Internet Movie Database
1958 Lita Ford (English Actress) English Performing Artists Actors Film Internet Movie Database
1964 Trisha Yearwood (Georgia-born Country & Western Singer) Trisha Yearwood Country Musicians
1966 Soledad O'Brien (New York-born Hispanic/African-American Broadcast Journalist) New York Journalism Famous African Americans Hispanic Heritage African American Registry
Sports Figures
1926 Duke Snider (Los Angeles-born Member of the Baseball Hall of Fame) Los Angeles Sports Figures Baseball Hall of Fame
1936 Al Oerter (New York-born Member of the Track and Field Hall of Fame) Al Oerter Track and Field Hall of Fame The Olympic Games
1943 Joe Morgan (Texas-born African-American Member of the Baseball Hall of Fame) Texas Sports Figures Baseball Hall of Fame Famous African Americans
1967 Jim Abbott (Michigan-born One-Handed Professional Baseball Pitcher) Jim Abbott Baseball Special Needs Education
Notable Persons Who Have Died on This Date Persons of Historical Note Who Have Died on This Date
1881 President Garfield (20th U.S. President: Died from Assassin's Bullet Received on July 2) Garfield Assasination The American Presidency U.S. History Death
Historically Notable Events
Historically Notable Events
Historical Events Occurring between 1600 - 1699
1676 Colonial Leader, Nathaniel Bacon, Captures Jamestown and Orders the Town Burned Virginia Jamestown Virginia Historical Society
Historical Events Occurring between 1700 - 1799
1725 In Germany, Johann Sebastian Bach Gives an Organ Recital at Dresden's Sophienkirche Johann Sebastian Bach Composers Pipe Organs American Public Media
1777 Continental Army Defeats British at Saratoga New York American Revolution Library of Congress
1778 The Continental Congress' Committee on Finance Reports First National Budget Continental Congress Economics Historic Firsts U.S. Treasury
1783 First Hot-Air Balloon Launched with Animals As Passengers Hot Air Balloons Balloon Zone
1796 Philadelphia's American Daily Advertiser Publishes George Washington's Farewell Address George Washington Journalism University of Virginia
Historical Events Occurring between 1800 - 1899
Travelling with Lewis and Clark

Lewis: Set out this morning a little after sun rise and continued our rout about the same course of yesterday or S. 20 W. for 6 miles when the ridge terminated and we to our inexpressable joy discovered a large tract of Prairie country lying to the S. W. and widening as it appeared to extend to the W. through that plain the Indian informed us that the Columbia river, in which we were in surch run. this plain appeared to be about 60 Miles distant, but our guide assured us that we should reach it's borders tomorrow

the appearance of this country, our only hope for subsistance greately revived the sperits of the party already reduced and much weakened for the want of food.

the country is thickly covered with a very heavy growth of pine of which I have ennumerated 8 distinct species.

after leaving the ridge we asscended and decended several steep mountains in the distance of 6 miles further when
we struck a Creek about 15 yards wide. our course being S. 35 W. we continued our rout 6 miles along the side of
this creek upwards passing 2 of it's branches which flowed in from the N. 1st at the place we struck the creek and the other 3 miles further.

the road was excessively dangerous along this creek being a narow rockey path generally on the side of steep precipice, from which in many places if ether man or horse were precipitated they would inevitably be dashed in pieces.

Fraziers horse fell from this road in the evening, and roled with his load near a hundred yards into the Creek. we all expected that the horse was killed but to our astonishment when the load was taken off him he arose to his feet & appeared to be but little injured, in 20 minutes he proceeded with his load. this was the most wonderfull escape I ever witnessed, the hill down which he roled was almost perpendicular and broken by large irregular and broken rocks.

the course of this Creek upwards due W. we encamped on the Stard. side of it in a little raviene, having traveled 18 miles over a very bad road. we took a small quantity of portable soup, and retired to rest much fatiegued. several of the men are unwell of the disentary. brakings out, or irruptions of the Skin, have also been common with us for some time.

Clark: Set out early proceeded on up the Creek passing through a Small glade at 6 miles at which place we found a horse. I derected him killed and hung up for the party after takeing a brackfast off for our Selves which we thought

after Brackfast proceed on up the Creek two miles & left it to our right passed over a mountain, and the heads of branch of hungary Creek, two high mountains, ridges and through much falling timber (which caused our road of to
day to be double the derect distance on the Course

Struck a large Creek passing to our left which I Kept down for 4 miles and left it to our left & passed down the mountain bad falling timber to a Small Creek passing to our left and Encamped. I killed 2 Pheasents, but fiew birds Blue jay, Small white headed hawk, Some Crows & ravins & large hawks. road bad. as we decend the mountain the heat becomes more proseptable every mile

Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery Lewis & Clark Map: 08/18/05 Lolo Trail
The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska
Travelling with Lewis and Clark

Clark: Set out this morning a little after day & proceeded on very well the men ply their oares & we decended with great velocity, only Came too once for the purpose of gathering pappows, our anxiety as also the wish of the party to proceed on as expeditiously as possible to the Illinois enduce us to continue on without halting to hunt.

we Calculate on ariveing at the first Settlements on tomorrow evening which is 140 miles, and objecet of our party is to divide the distance into two days, this day to the Osarge River, and tomorrow to the Charriton a Small french Village—

we arived at the Enterance of Osage River at dark and encamped on the Spot we had encamped on the 1st & 2d of June 1804 haveing Came 72 miles.

a very singular disorder is takeing place amongst our party that of the Sore eyes. three of the party have their eyes inflamed and Sweled in Such a manner as to render them extreamly painfull, particularly when exposed to the light, the eye ball is much inflaimed and the lip appears burnt with the Sun, the cause of this complaint of the eye I can't account for. from it's Sudden apearance I am willing to believe it may be owing to the reflection of the Sun on the water

Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery Lewis & Clark Map: 09/19/1906 Cole County, Missouri

The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

1819 John Keats Writes "To Autumn" John Keats Poetry Library of Congress
1832 Sauk and Fox Indians Sign the Treaty Ending the Black Hawk War, Ceding 6 Million Acres of Land Illinois Iowa Wisconsin Native American Heritage Historic U.S. Documents Wisconsin Hsitorical Society
1836 Tennessee-born Ambrose Sevier and Maryland-born William Fulton Begin Terms as the First U.S. Senators from the New State of Arkansas Arkansas Political and Social Leaders Tennessee Political and Social Leaders Maryland Political and Social Leaders U.S. Senate Historic Firsts Arkansas History Commission
1850 U.S. Congress Creates the Territory of New Mexico, Which Includes Much of the Southwest United States New Mexico U.S. Congress U.S. History New Mexico Magazine
1857 Gaslights Illuminate the Streets of St. Paul for the First Time St. Paul, Minnesota Light Historic Firsts MInnesota Historical Society
1862 The Battle of Iuka Is Fought Mississippi Battle of Iuka History Channel
1800 Confederate Prisoners Taken at the Battle of South Mountain and Crampton's Gap in Maryland Arrive at Fort Delaware for Internment Maryland Delaware Forts Prisoner of War American Civil War State of Delaware
1863 In Georgia, the Battle of Chickamauga Begins Georgia Battle of Chickamauga History Channel
1864 The Third Battle of Winchester Is Fought Virginia The Third Battle of Winchester History Channel
Rebel Agents Fail to Release 3,000 Confederates Held on Lake Erie's Johnson Island Ohio U.S. Civil War Prisoner of War National Park Service Ohio Historical Society State of Michigan
1865 Minnesota Governor Stephen Miller Announces Gold Has Been Found Near Vermilion Lake Minnesota Gold Minnesota Historical Society
1868 Whites in Camilla, Georgia Murder 13 African-Americans Protesting Republican Rally Georgia Racism Civil Rights/Human Rights African-American Heritage Death University of Georgia
Ground Is Broken for the Los Angeles and San Pedro Railroad, the First in Southern California Los Angeles, California Railroad Historic Firsts LearnCalifornia
1871 University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh Is Founded as Oshkosh State Teachers College Wisconsin Education Education University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh Wisconsin Hsitorical Society
1876 Melville Bissell Patents a Carpet-sweeper Inventors & Inventions Patents & Trademarks University of Houston
1886 The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Opens Its Operations through Wilmington, Delaware Wilmington, Delaware Railroad State of Delaware
1889 Georgia Legislature Bans Sale of Cigarettes, Tobacco or Cigarette Paper to Minors Georgia Tobacco Child Health Care University of Georgia
In Richmond, Indiana Horse-Drawn Trolley Cars Give Way to Electric Streetcars Richmond, Indiana Transportation Indiana Historical Society
1892 Pennsylvania Pilot Boat J. Henry Edmunds Is Run Down by the Four-Masted Schooner Ralph Haywood Off of Delaware's Cape Henlopen Pennsylvania Cape Henlopen, Delaware Naval History State of Delaware
1893 Governor of New Zealand Consents to The Electoral Act 1893 Giving All Women in New Zealand the Right to Vote New Zealand Women's Suffrage Voting New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage
1894 Johannes Brahms Plays the Piano at a Private Premiere of His Two Clarinet Sonatas, Op. 120 Johannes Brahms Composers Classical Music Historic Firsts American Public Media
1895 Chickamauga Field Dedicated at Chickamauga And Chattanooga National Military Park Georgia Battle of Chickamauga National Park Service
Historical Events Occurring between 1900 - 1949
1900 Butch Cassidy and Sundance Kid Rob First National Bank in Winnemucca, Nevada Nevade Butch Cassidy Crime History Channel
1901 New York Stock Exchange Closes to Honor Death of President McKinley President McKinley Markets & Investments Death History Channel
1907 West Virginia's Governor Terminates a Meeting on Immigration When He Learns the President of the United Mine Workers Is Present West Virginia Government Immigration Labor West Virginia Archivesl
1908 Gustav Mahler Conducts the First Performance of His Symphony No. 7 ("Song of the Night") in Prague Prague, Czech Republic Gustav Mahler Composers Historic Firsts American Public Media
1913 Francis Ouimet Is First Amateur to Win the U.S. Open Golf Tournament Golf U.S. Open Historic Firsts Massachusetts Foundation for the Humanities
1919 President Wilson Campaigns in San Diego for WWI Peace Treaty & League of Nations California President Woodrow Wilson Treaty of Versailles Journal of San Diego History
1924 Heavy Rains and High Winds Disrupt the Pendleton Roundup in Oregon Oregon Rodeo Storms Pendleton Roundup
1926 The Duluth Eskimos Professional Football Team Defeats the Kansas City Cowboys 7-0 Duluth, Minnesota Football Minnesota Historical Society
1930 Frenchmen Dieudonne Coste and Maurice Bellonte, Who Made the First East-to-West trans-Atlantic Flight, Are Celebrated in Minneapolis French Explorers and Aviators Minneapolis, Minnesota Aviation History Minnesota Historical Society
1934 Bruno Hauptmann Arrested for Lindbergh Kidnapping Charles Lindbergh Crime New York Times
1941 Germans Bomb Leningrad Soviet Union Nazi Germany Aviation World War II History Channel
1942 Del Valle Army Air Base Opens Near Austin, TX Texas Aviation Texas State Historical Association
Historical Events Occurring between 1950 - 1999
1952 John Steinbeck's East of Eden is Published in New York by Viking John Steinbeck American Authors American Collection
U.S. Immigration Refuses to Allow Charlie Chaplin to Return to Hollywood. Charlie Chaplin Immigration McCarthyism/Red Scare BBC
1953 Alabama Legislature Ratifies 19th Amendment to the Constitution 30 Years Late Alabama 19th Amendment Women Women's Suffrage To in Alabama History
1955 Argentina President Juan Perón Is Overthrown by Rebels Juan Perón History Channel
Our Town Performed on Television by Eva Maria Saint, Frank Sinatra, Paul Newman Thornton Wilder Television Internet Movie Database
1956 The Last Episode of Groucho Marx' Radio Game Show, "You Bet Your Life," Airs Groucho Marx Radio History Channel
1957 First Underground Nuclear Test Takes Place in Nevada Nevada Nuclear Weapons World History Historic Firsts New York Times
1959 Nikita Khrushchev Erupts When Not Allowed to Visit Disneyland Nikita Khrushchev California Cold War Disneyland History Channel
1960 "The Twist" Tops the Charts Popular Music History Channel
1970 U.S. Postal Service Issues Stamp Commemorating Georgia's Stone Mountain Memorial Georgia U.S. Postal Service University of Georgia
The "Mary Tyler Moore Show" Debuts on CBS Minneapolis, Minnesota CBS Television Minnesota Historical Society
1983 St. Kitts and Nevis Gain Independence from the United Kingdom St. Kitts Great Britain U.S. Department of State
1985 Mexico City Earthquake Kills Thousands Mexico City Earthquakes Death New York Times
1989 Bomb Destroys UTA flight 772 in the Air over Niger: All on Board Die Niger Air Disasters Terrorism Death BBC
1994 U.S. Troops Enforce Return of Exiled Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide Haiti New York Times
1995 New York Times & Washington Post Print Unabomber Manifesto Theodore Kaczynski Journalism Terrorism Writer's Almanac
1998 Plaque Is Erected on 130th Anniversary of Camilla, Georgia Massacre Georgia Civil Rights/Human Rights African-American Heritage Death University of Georgia
Historical Events Occurring 2000 - to Present
2002 President Bush Asks Congress Authority to Overthrow Iraqi Leader Saddam Hussein Saddam Hussein U.S. Congress President George W. Bush Iraq War New York Times
2003 Hurricane Isabel Hits Washington, D.C. Washington, D.C. Hurricanes BBC