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Separation Bar

Antonia Pantoja
Born 1922

[Puerto Rico Herald]

Educator and Social Leader

José Torres
Born 1936


Boxing Hall of Fame

Luiz Valdez
Born 1940



Edward James Olmos
Born 1947



Henry Cisneros
Born 1947


Political Leader/Statesman

Teaching - there can be no finer calling requiring the clearest demonstration of moral and ethical behavior.
Ira Shull, For the Love of Teaching
Why do you teach? Let Us Know. Tell Us about your most memorable teacher.

Gnus for Kidz

Who Am I?

5-Minute Quests Today's 5-Minute Quest

Answers to all questions can be found on this page or by using links provided on this page.
Good Luck!
5-Minute Quests

1. Where were Lewis & Clark on this date in 1806? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

2. Where was slave trade abolished on this date in 1850? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

3. According to her official website, where does Sue Ellen Bridgers live? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

Use all of these letters to spell the name of a children's author/illustrator born on this date:

1. What two countries began an 8-year war on this date in 1980? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

2. According to Writer's Almanac, what interested Ray Gonzalez in poetry? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

3. According to Macedonia FAQ, what empire did Alexander the Great annex into Macedonia? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

Use all of these letters to spell the title of a poem by Donald Hall (according to the Academy of American poets):
(hint: all three questions will require you to use a link found on this page)

1. According to Louisiana State University, on what date did Martin Luther King marry Coretta Scott??

2. According to the White House, who appointed Chester A. Arthur Collector of the Port of New York in 1871?

3. According to the BBC, what post did James Dewar hold from 1875 until his death?

Use all of these letters to spell the title of a work by Upton Sinclair (according to Authors' Calendar):

Alexander the Great
Born on This Date in 356 B.C.

[Macedonia FAQ]


James Dewar
Born on This Date 1842

[Today in Science History]


Upton Sinclair
Born on This Date 1878

[Oberlin College]


Sue Ellen Bridgers
Born on This Date 1941

[Gale Group]

Primary Children's Authors

Ray Gonzalez
Born on This Date 1952

[University of Minnesota]


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Children's Authors & Illustrators
1888 Miska Petersham (Hungarian Children's Author, Illustrator) Hungarian Authors Primary Children's Authors Artists
1921 Virginia A. Tashjian (Massachusetts-born Children's Author) Massachusetts Authors & Illustrators Primary Children's Authors
1941 Arthur Geisert (Texas-born Children's Author, Illustrator) Texas Authors & Illustrators Primary Children's Authors Artists
1942 Sue Ellen Bridgers (North Carolina-born Children's Author, Illustrator) Sue Ellen Bridgers Young-Adult Literature
1947 John Prater (North Carolina-born Children's Author) North Carolina Authors & Illustrators Primary Children's Authors
1954 Michael J. Rosen (Ohio-born Poet, Children's Author, Illustrator) Ohio Authors & Illustrators Primary Children's Authors Artists Judaism Poetry
1833 Petroleum V. Nasby (David Ross Locke - New York City-born Journalist) New York Authors & Illustrators Journalists
1878 Upton Sinclair (Baltimore-born Muckraking Novelist) Upton Sinclair
1884 Maxwell (Evarts) Perkins (New York City-born Editor) Maxwell (Evarts) Perkins
1902 Florence Margaret "Stevie" Smith (English Poet, Novelist, Short Story Writer) Florence Margaret Poetry
1916 Sid Chaplin (English Novelist and Short Story Writer) English Authors
1928 Donald Hall (Connecticut-born Poet) Donald Hall Poetry
1952 Ray Gonzalez (El Paso-born Latin-American Poet) Texas Authors & Illustrators Poetry Hispanic Authors & Illustrators Official Web Page Wrtier's Almanac
1915 Hughie Lee Smith (Florida-born African-American Artist) Florida Artists African-American Artists African American Registry
Classical Composers and Performing Artists
1842 H. O'Reilly Clint (Co-author of My Michigan, Michigan's Official State Song) Michigan State of Michigan
1784 Richard Griffith (Irish Geologist and Civil Engineer) Irish Scientists and Mathematicians Geology
1842 James Dewar (English Chemist and Physicist) James Dewar Chemistry Physics Inventors & Inventions
1888 Sue Sophia Dauser (California-born Chief Nurse of the Navy Nurse Corps in World War II) California Scientists & Mathematicians Medical Professionals World War II U.S. Navy
356 B.C. Alexander the Great (Macedonian-born Military Leader) Alexander the Great War
1867 Sterling Price (Virginia-born Governor of Missouri and Confederate General) Virginia  Military Figures Missouri Political and Social Leaders American Civil War
Political and Social Leaders
1861 Herbert Putnam (New York City-born Librarian of Congress: 1899-1939) New York City Political and Social Leaders Libraries Library of Congress
1865 T.H. Humphreys (Justice of the Arkansas Supreme Court) Arkansas Supreme Court Law and Legal Resources Arkansas Library Commission
1899 Leo Strauss (German-born American Political Philosopher) German Political and Social Leaders Philosophy
1912 Frank Zeidler (Wisconsin-born National Chairperson of the Socialist Party) Wisconsin Political and Social Leaders Socilaist Party of Wisconsin Wisconsin Historical Society
1918 Peg Phillips (Washington-born Actress) Washington Performing Artists Actors Television Internet Movie Database
1920 Jay Ward (San Francisco-born Producer of Rocky and Bullwinkle) San Francisco Performing Artists Comics & Cartoons Television Internet Movie Database
1928 Joyce Brothers (New York City-born Pop Psychologist) New York City Psychology Internet Movie Database
1934 Sophia Loren (Italian Actress) Sophia Loren Actors Film
1938 Pia Lindstrom (Swedish Actress) Swedish Performing Artists Actors Television Internet Movie Database
1967 Kristen Johnston (Washington, D.C.-born Actress) Washington, D.C. Performing Artists American Performing Artists Television Wisconsin Historical Society
1917 Arnold "Red" Auerbach (New York City-born Member of the Basketball Hall of Fame) New York City Sports Figures Basketball Hall of Fame
Icon Persons of Historic Significance Who Have Died on This Date
Persons of Historic Significance Who Have Died on This Date
1947 Fiorello La Guardia (Three-Term Mayor of New York City; Member of the U.S. Congress from New York) Fiorello La Guardia U.S. Congress
1957 Jean Sibelius (Finnish Classical Composer) Jean Sibelius Composers
1973 Jim Croce (Pennsylvania-born Popular Singer, Songwriter) Jim Croce Popular Musicians American Composers and Songwriters
1996 Paul Erdös (Hungarian Mathematician) Paul Erdös Scientists & Mathematicians
2002 William Rosenberg (Massachusetts-born Founder of Dunkin' Donuts) Massachusetts Business Leaders Dunkin Donuts Masachusetts Foundation for the Humanities New York Times
2005 Simon Wiesenthal (Ukrainian-born Nazi Hunter) Ukrainian Political and Social Leaders Nazi Germany Judaism The Holocaust War Crimes
Historic Events of the 1500s that Occurred on this Date
1519 Magellan Leaves Spain to Circumnavigate the World Ferdinand Magellen Spain Exploration and Explorers Naval History New York Times
1565 Spanish Forces from St. Augustine Overwhelm the French at Ft. Caroline, FL Spain France Florida Hispanic Heritage National Park Service University of Georgia
1604 The Dutch Peacefully Evacuate Ostend, Ending Spain's 3-year Siege Spain The Netherlands 80 Years War European History Glasgow University
1664 Maryland Passes First anti-Amalgamation Law Forbidding Black/White Marriages Maryland Racism Historic Firsts African American Registry
1676 John Richardson Gives Chief Petagogue 3 Coats and 8 Bottles of Rum for Rights to 2,000 Acres of Land in Kent County, Delaware Kent County, Delaware Native American Heritage Business State of Delaware
1725 In Germany, Johann Sebastian Bach Gives an Organ Recital at Dresden's Sophienkirche Johann Sebastian Bach Composers Pipe Organs American Public Media
Travelling with Lewis and Clark

Clark: A fair morning wind from the S E. Detached 2 men to the 1st. Creek abov the big bend with the horse to hunt and wait our arrival. Proceeded on passed the lower Island opposit which the Sand bars are verry thick & the water Shoal. I walked on Shore with a view of examining this bend Crossed at the narost part which is a high irregular hills of about 180 or 190 feet, this place the gorge of the Bend is 1 mile & a quarter (from river to river or) across, from this high land which is only in the Gouge, the bend is a Butifull Plain thro which I walked,

Saw numbrs of Buffalow & Goats, I saw a Hare & believe he run into a hole in the Side of a hill, he run up this hill which is Small & has Several holes on the Side & I could not See him after, I joined the boat in the evening— passed a Small Island on the Left Shore in the N. W. extremity of the bind Called Solitary Island, and Camped late on a Sand bar near the South Shore— R. Fields killed 1 Deer & 2 Goats one of them a feemale— She Differs from the mail as to Size being Smaller, with Small Horns, Stright with a Small prong without any black about the neck—None of those Goats has any Beard, they are all Keenly made, and is butifull

Lewis: From the goats we got lard. At the big bend we observed a cliff of black rock which resembled lava.

South Dakota Map Lewis & Clark Map: 09/20/04 Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery Pronghorn Buffalo Rabbit
The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Kentucky University of Nebraska
Travelling with Lewis and Clark

Lewis: we were detained this morning untill ten oclock in consequence of not being enabled to collect our horses.
we had proceeded about 2 miles when we found the greater part of a horse which Capt Clark had met with and killed for us. he informed me by note that he should proceed as fast as possible to the leavel country which lay to the S. W. of us, which we discovered from the hights of the mountains on the 19th there he intended to hunt untill our arrival.

at one oclock we halted and made a hearty meal on our horse beef much to the comfort of our hungry stomachs. here I larnt that one of the Packhorses with his load was missing and immediately dispatched Baptiest Lapage who had charge of him, to surch for him. he returned at 3 OC. without the horse. The load of the horse was of considerable value consisting of merchandize and all my stock of winter cloathing. I therefore dispatched two of my best woodsmen in surch of him, and proceeded with the party.

Our rout lay through a thick forrest of large pine the general course being S. 25 W. and distance about 15 miles.
our road was much obstructed by fallen timber particularly in the evening we encamped on a ridge where ther was but little grass for our horses, and at a distance from water. however we obtained as much as served our culinary purposes and suped on our beef.

the soil as you leave the hights of the mountains becomes gradually more fertile. the land through which we passed this evening is of an excellent quality tho very broken, it is a dary grey soil. a grey free stone appearing in large masses above the earth in many places.

Clark: I Set out early and proceeded on through a Countrey as ruged as usial passed over a low mountain into the forks of a large Creek which I kept down 2 miles and assended a Steep mountain leaveing the Creek to our left
hand passed the head of Several dreans on a divideing ridge, and at 12 miles decended the mountain to a leavel
pine Countrey proceeded on through a butifull Countrey for three miles to a Small Plain in which I found maney
Indian lodges,

at the distance of 1 mile from the lodges I met 3 boys, when they Saw me ran and hid themselves iin the grass I dismounted gave my gun & horse to one of the men, searched in the grass and found 2 of the boys gave them
Small pieces of ribin & Sent them forward to the village Soon after a man Came out to meet me with great Caution
& Conducted us to a lage Spacious Lodge which he told me by Signs was the Lodge of his great Chief who had Set out 3 days previous with all the Warriers of the nation to war on a South West derection & would return in 15 or 18 days.

the fiew men that were left in the Village aged, great numbers of women geathered around me with much apparent Signs of fear, and apr. pleased they gave us a Small piece of Buffalow meat, Some dried Salmon beries & roots in different States, Some round and much like an onion which they call quamash the Bread or Cake is called Passhe-co Sweet, of this they make bread & Supe they also gave us the bread made of this root all of which we eate hartily,

I gave them a fiew Small articles as preasents, and proceeded on with a Chief to this Village 2 miles in the Same Plain, where we were treated kindly in their way and continued with them all night

Those two Villages consist of about 30 double lodges, but fiew men a number of women & children; They call themselves Cho pun-nish or Pierced Noses their dialect appears verry different from the flat heads Tushapaws altho origneally the Same people They are darker than the flat heads Tushapaws I have seen.

Their dress Similar, with more beads white & blue principally, brass & Copper in different forms, Shells and ware their haire in the Same way. they are large Portley men Small women & handsom featured

Emence quantity of the quawmash or Pas-shi-co root gathered & in piles about the plains, those roots grow much
an onion in marshey places the seed are in triangular Shell on the Stalk. they Sweat them in the following manner i. e. dig a large hole 3 feet deep Cover the bottom with Split wood on the top of which they lay Small Stones of about
3 or 4 Inches thick, a Second layer of Splited wood & Set the whole on fire which heats the Stones, after the fire is extinguished they lay grass & mud mixed on the Stones, on that dry grass which Supports the Pâsh-Shi-co root a thin Coat of the Same grass is laid on the top, a Small fire is kept when necessary in the Center of the kile &c.

I find myself verry unwell all the evening from eateing the fish & roots too freely. Sent out the hunters they killed nothing Saw Some Signs of deer.

Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery Lewis & Clark Map: 08/18/05 Lolo Trail
Nez Percé
The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska
Travelling with Lewis and Clark

Clark: as three of the party was unabled to row from the State of their eyes we found it necessary to leave one of our Crafts and divide the men into the other Canoes, we left the two Canoes lashed together which I had made high up the River Rochejhone, those Canoes we Set a drift and a little after day light we Set out and proceeded on very well.

The Osage river very low and discharges but a Small quantity of water at this time for so large a river. at meridian we passed the enterance of the Gasconnade river below which we met a perogue with 5 french men bound to the Osarge Gd. village

the party being extreemly anxious to get down ply their ores very well, we Saw Some cows on the bank which was a joyfull Sight to the party and Caused a Shout to be raised for joy we Came in Sight of the little french Village called Charriton the men raised a Shout and Sprung upon their ores and we soon landed opposit to the Village.

our party requested to be permited to fire off their Guns which was alowed & they discharged 3 rounds with a harty Cheer, which was returned from five tradeing boats which lay opposit the village.

we landed and were very politely received by two young Scotch men from Canada one in the employ of Mr. Aird and the other Mr. Reed, two other boats the property of Mr. Lacomb were bound to the Osage and Ottoes. those two young Scotch gentlemen furnished us with Beef flower and Some pork for our men, and gave us a very agreeable supper. as it was like to rain we accepted of a bed in one of their tents. we purchased of a Citizen two gallons of Whiskey for our party for which we were obliged to give Eight dollars in Cash, an imposition on the part of the Citizen.

every person, both French and americans Seem to express great pleasure at our return, and acknowledged them selves much astonished in Seeing us return. they informed us that we were Supposed to have been lost long Since, and were entirely given out by every person &c.

Those boats are from Canada in the batteaux form and wide in perpotion to their length. their length about 30 feet and the width 8 feet & pointed bow & Stern, flat bottom and rowing Six ores only the Skeneckeity form.

[Schenectady boats were first built in the city of that name and were used extensively on the rivers of western New York and the upper Saint Lawrence. Amos Stoddard judged them better for shallow water than keelboats.]

those Bottoms are prepared for the navigation of this river, I beleive them to be the best Calculated for the navigation of this river of any which I have Seen. they are wide and flat not Subject to the dangers of the roleing Sands, which larger boats are on this river. the

American inhabitants express great disgust for the govermt of this Teritory. from what I can lern it arises from a disapmt. of getting all the Spanish Grants Confirmed—

[Spain offered free land to attract Anglo-American settlers to Spanish Louisiana, but because of the abundance of land and the smallness of the region's population few residents attempted to follow the cumbersome process required for securing a completed title. Prior to 1804 local officials accepted uncompleted concessions as authorization to hold lands and raised no questions when they were sold or inherited. Some of the early French settlers and even more of the incoming Anglo-Americans simply squatted on the land without bothering to request a formal concession from the Spanish authorities. Following the Louisiana Purchase, many residents scurried to secure formal titles for their holdings. Reports of widespread fraud made Congress reluctant to authorize wholesale confirmation of the Spanish land titles of Upper Louisiana. A barrage of complaints from territorial residents led to the appointment of a commission to examine and adjust these claims. The controversies persisted for many years, and as territorial officials both Lewis and Clark subsequently found themselves embroiled in the contentious business.]

Came 68 ms. to day.

Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery Lewis & Clark Map: 09/19/1906 Warren County, Missouri

The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

1806 Lewis & Clark Reach La Charette, Missouri on Their Return Missouri Lewis and Clark The History Channel
1819 The State of Alabama Holds Its First (2-day) General Elections Alabama Elections Historic Firsts This Week in Alabama History
1830 The National Negro Convention Convenes in Philadelphia Philadelphia African-American History African American Registry
1837 Panic Closes the New York Stock Exchange for 10 Days New York City Markets & Investments New York Stock Exchange The History Channel
The Picayune Newspaper Is Founded in Louisiana Louisiana Journalism Louisiana Secretary of State
1848 American Association for Advancement of Science Organizes in Philadelphia Philadelphia Science History AAAS
1850 Washington, D.C. Abolishes Slave Trade Washington, D.C. Slavery Library of Congress
President Millard Fillmore Signs the First Railroad Land Grant Act President Millard Fillmore Railroads PBS
1852 Captain Ulysses S. Grant Arrives at Washington's Columbia Barracks Washington Ulysses S. Grant U.S. Military Figures HistoryLink
1853 Elisha Graves Otis Opens His Elevator Factory Elisha Graves Otis Inventors and Inventions History of Technology Library of Congress
1859 Constance Owen Fauntleroy Founds the Minerva Club in New Harmony, Indiana, One of the First Women's Organizations in the U.S. New Harmony, Indiana Women Indiana Historical Society
1863 The Second Day of the Battle of Chickamauga Ends with a Confederate Victory Georgia Battle of Chickamauga The History Channel
1867 Only a Small Minority of the Population Allowed to Vote in Canada's First Election Canada Politics & Elections Historic Firsts Elections Canada
1878 Tchaikovsky's "Valse-scherzo" for Violin and Orchestra Is First Performed, in Paris, with Nicolai Rubinstein Conducting and Stanislaw Barcewicz Soloist Paris Tchaikovsky Composers Classical Music Historic Firsts American Public Media
1881 Chester A. Arthur Sworn in as President Following Garfield Assassination Charles A. Arthur James Garfield The American Presidency New York Times
1882 West Virginia University President William Lyne Wilson Is Nominated as a Democratic Candidate for the U.S. House of Representatives West Virginia Political and Social  Leaders U.S. House of Representatives West Virginia Democratic Party West Virginia State Archives
1892 North Wisconsin Academy (Northland College) Opens Near Ashland, Wisconsin with 27 Students Ashland, Wisconsin Education Northland College Wisconsin Historical Society
1895 Missionary Ridge, Lookout Mountain Dedicated As Part of National Military Park Tennessee Battle of Chattanooga National Park Service
1914 Revenue Cutter Tahoma Is Wrecked and Lost in Alaska's Aleutian Islands Alaska Naval History Alaska Historical Society
1917 Wartime Elections Act Gives Vote to Some Canadian Women Canada Women Women's Suffrage Nationmaster
1918 Canadian Royal Air Force Assigns William Faulkner to Its School of Military Aeronautics Canada William Faulkner American Authors American Collection
1920 Wilmington, Delaware Morning News and Evening Journal Merge to Form the News-Journal Company Wilmington, Delaware Journalism Business News-Journal State of Delaware
1923 McMurry University in Abilene, Texas Opens with 22 Staff and 191 Students Texas Education McMurry University Texas State Historical Association
1930 Elgar's "Pomp and Circumstance" March No. 5 Is First Performed Publicly at Queen's Hall in London, Sir Henry Wood Conducting British Composers Education Composers Historic Firsts American Public Media
1935 First Land Is Purchased for Florida's Fort Clinch State Park Florida Ecomomics Official Website Florida State Historical Association
1938 Wallace H. Carothers Is Granted Patent for "Synthetic Fiber" (Nylon) Polymers Trademark U.S. Patent & Trademark Office
1939 First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt Is the Keynote Speaker at the First Meeting of the Women's Institute in St. Paul St. Paul, Minnesota Eleanor Roosevelt Women's Institute Minnesota Historical Society
1946 First Film Festival Is Held in Cannes, France France Film The History Channel
1951 Fire Destroys 33,000 Acres of Timber and 32 Buildings in Forks, WA Washington Fire Safety HistoryLink
1954 Igor Stravinsky's "In Memoriam Dylan Thomas" Is First Performed in Los Angeles, Conducted by Robert Craft Los Angeles Igor Stravinsky Dylan Thomas Poetry Composers Historic Firsts American Public Media
1957 U.S. Completes First Successful Launch of THOR Ballistic Missile from Cape Canaveral Florida Nuclear Weapons Florida State Historical Association
1958 Martin Luther King, Jr. Stabbed in Chest in New York City New York City Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Crime African American Registry
1962 James Meredith Blocked from Enrolling in the University of Mississippi Mississippi Education U.S. Civil Rights African-American History New York Times
1963 President John Kennedy Proposes Joint U.S./Soviet Moon Mission Soviet Union John F. Kennedy The Moon Space Exploration The History Channel
1967 Cruise Liner Queen Elizabeth II Is Launched Great Britain QE2 BBC
Hurricane Beulah Wracks the Texas Coast: $150M Damage, 300,000 Evacuated Texas Hurricane Death Texas State Historical Association
1968 U.S. Defends Use of Defoliants in Vietnam Vietnam War Chemistry The History Channel
1970 Russian Luna 16 Lands on the Moon to Collect Surface Samples Soviet Space Program Lunar Exploration Space Exploration BBC
1973 Billie Jean King Defeats Bobby Riggs 6-4, 6-3, 6-3 $100,000 Winner-take-all Tennis Match Billie Jean King Tennis Hall of Fame Economics New York Times
Singer Jim Croce Killed in Texas Plane Crash Texas Performing Artists Air Disasters Popular Musicians Death New York Times
1974 Inspection Verifies Gold Holdings at the Fort Knox, KY Bullion Depository Kentucky Gold U.S. Treasury
1979 Former President Dacko Takes Control in Bloodless Central African Coup Central African Republic U.S. Department of State
1981 Belize National Assembly Passes New Constitution for an Independent Belize Belize Great Britain Library of Congress
1984 Terrorist Van Explodes in Front of U.S. Embassy, Lebanon: 14 die Lebanon United States Government Terrorism Death BBC
The Cosby Show Premieres Television Bill Cosby African-American History Internet Movie Database
Emory A. Tate, Jr. Wins the Armed Forces Chess Championship Tournament Chicago Chess African-American History Chess Drum
1985 7.5 Aftershock Hits Mexico City Following September 19th Earthquake Mexico Earthquakes BBC
1998 Cal Ripken Ends His Streak After Playing Record 2,632 Consecutive Games Cal Ripken Baseball New York Times
1999 International Peacekeepers Land in East Timor United Nations East Timor BBC
2001 President Bush Addresses Joint Session of Congress Regarding 9/11 Terrorist Attacks U.S. Congress President George W. Bush 9/11 CNN
2006 Bloodless Coup Overthrows Thailand's Prime Minister Thailand CNN