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Separation Bar

Tito Puente
Born 1923



Hilda Perera
Born 1926


Primary Children's Author

Manuel Berriozabal
Born 1931


Educators of Note

Tommy Nuñez

NBA Referee

Baldemar Velasquez
Born 1947


Labor Activist

Teaching - there can be no finer calling requiring the clearest demonstration of moral and ethical behavior.
Ira Shull, For the Love of Teaching
Why do you teach? Let Us Know. Tell Us about your most memorable teacher.

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5-Minute Quests Today's 5-Minute Quest

Answers to all questions can be found on this page or by using links provided on this page.
Good Luck!
5-Minute Quests

1. Which country achieved its independence on this date in 1960? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

2. On this date in 1950, who was the first Black man to be awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

3. According to HarperChildren, what does Ann Grifalconi say has been the focus of her books? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

Use all of these letters to spell the name of a children's author or illustrator born on this date:

1. What organization was formed in Kansas City on this date in 1949? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

2. According to African American Registry, where did artist Alma Thomas teach for 36 years? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

3. According to the Library of Congress, on what date did Abraham Lincoln write the final version of the Emancipation Proclamation? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

Use all of these letters to spell the title of a movie for which Irving Berlin wrote the music (according to History Channel):
(hint: all three questions will require you to use a link found on this page)

1. According to the Concordia Historical Institute, how many people were executed during the Salem Witch Trials?

2. According to Science World, why was Michael Faraday limited in his ability to understand Ampère's papers?

3. According to Britannica, the origins of the Polish labor union Solidarity go back to what committee founded in 1976?

Use all of these letters to spell the title of a Fay Weldon work (according to Writer's Almanac):
Fourth Earl of Chesterfield
Philip Dormer Stanhope,
Fourth Earl of Chesterfield
Born on This Date 1694

[British National Portrait Gallery]
Michael Faraday
Michael Faraday
Born on This Date 1791

[Universität Bremen]


Ann Grifalconi
Ann Grifalconi
Born on This Date 1929


Primary Children's Authors American Artists

Fay Weldon
Fay Weldon
Born on This Date 1931

[British Council]

English Authors

Junko Tabei
Junko Tabei
Born on This Date 1939


Mount Everest

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts
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Barbados: Arbor Day
(Observed annually on this date)
Barbados Arbor Day Arbor Day Foundation
Mali: Independence Day
(Commemoration of Mali's independence from France: 09/22/1960)
Mali France CIA Factbook
United States: American Business Women's Day
(Commemorates the founding of the American Business Women's Association: 09/22/1949)
Women Presidential Proclamation American Business Women's Association
United States: National Centenarian's Day
(Observed annually on this date)
United States: National Elephant Appreciation Day
Elephants Crayola
Uruguay: Dia del Maestro (Teachers' Day)
(Observed in conjunction with Students' Day 9/21)
Uruguay Education Teacher Appreciation
Children's Authors & Illustrators
1908 Esphyr Slobodkina (Russian Children's Author, Illustrator) Russian Authors & Illustrators Primary Children's Authors Artists
1924 Charles Keeping (English Children's Author, Illustrator) English Authors & Illustrators Primary Children's Authors Artists
1929 Ann Grifalconi (New York City-born Children's Author, Illustrator) Ann Grifalconi Primary Children's Authors Artists
Authors, Poets, Playwrights and Journalists
1790 Augustus Baldwin Longstreet (Georgia-born Author) Georgia Authors University of Virginia
1895 Babette Deutsch (New York City-born Poet) Babette Deutsch Poetry Writer's Almanac
1931 Fay Weldon (English Novelist and Playwright) Fay Weldon Plays
Artists, Architects and Designers
1891 Alma Thomas (Georgia-born African-American Artist) Georgia Artists American Artists African-American Artists African American Registry
1900 William Spratling (New York-born Silver Designer and Architect) New York Artists Silver Architecture Spratling Silver
1909 Lamar Dodd (Georgia-born Artist) Georgia Artists American Artists New Georgia Encyclopedia
Songwriters, Classical Composers, Conductors and Performing Artists
1961 Michael Torke (Wisconsin-born Composer) Wisconsin Composers American Composers Official Web Site
Scientists, Mathematicians and Inventors
1791 Michael Faraday (English Physicist and Chemist) Michael Faraday Physics Chemistry Electricity and Magnetism
1877 Victor Shelford (New York-born Zoologist and Animal Ecologist) New York Scientists & Mathematcians Animals Western Kentucky University
1901 Charles Huggins (Canadian-born American 1966 Nobel Laureate for Physiology or Medicine)  Charles Huggins Medical Research 1966 Nobel Laureate for Physiology or Medicine
1905 Eugen Sanger (German Rocket Propulsion Engineer) German Scientists & Mathematicians Space Exploration
Pioneers, Explorers and Astronauts
1939 Junko Tabei (Japanese Mountain Climber: First Woman to Climb Mount Everest) Japan Women Mount Everest
Business Leaders
1857 William Qwinn Mather (Ohio-born First President of Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Company) Ohio Business Leaders Iron Harvard Business School Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Company State of Michigan
Political and Social Leaders
1694 Philip Dormer Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield Philip Dormer Stanhope
1816 Philetus Sawyer (Vermont-born U.S. Senator from Wisconsin) Vermont Political and Social Leaders Wisconsin Political and Social Leaders U.S. Senate Wisconsin Historical Society
1880 Christabel Pankhurst (English Women's Suffragist) English Political and Social Leaders Women's Rights Women's Suffrage
1895 Elmer A. Benson (Governor of Minnesota: 1937 - 1939) Minnesota Political and Social Leaders Minnesota Historical Society
Performing Artists
1885 Erich von Stroheim (Austrian Director, Screenwriter, and Actor) Erich von Stroheim Filmmakers
1895 Paul Muni (Austrian-born American Actor) Austrian Performing Artists Actors Film Internet Movie Database
1902 John Houseman (Romanian-born American Actor) John Houseman Actors Film Television
1909 Allan "Rocky" Lane (Indiana-born Actor) Indiana Performing Artists Actors Film Internet Movie Database
1925 Virginia Capers (South Carolina-born African-American Actress) South Carolina Performing Artists Actors Film Television Internet Movie Database African American Database
1954 Shari Belafonte Harper (New York City-born African-American Actress) New York City Performing Artists Actors Film Television Internet Movie Database
1956 Debby Boone (New Jersey-born Popular Singer) New Jersey City Performing Artists Popular Singer Internet Movie Database
1957 Nick Cave (Australian Actor) Australian Performing Artists Actors Film Internet Movie Database
1958 Andrea Bocelli (Italian Popular Singer) Italian Performing Artists Popular Singer Internet Movie Database
Joan Jett (Pennsylvania-born Popular Singer) Pennsylvania Performing Artists Popular Singer Internet Movie Database
1961 Scott Baio (New York City-born Actor) New York City Performing Artists Actors Television Internet Movie Database
1920 Bob Lemon (California-born Member of the Baseball Hall of Fame) Bob Lemon Baseball Hall of Fame
1927 Tommy Lasorda (Pennsylvania-born Member of the Baseball Hall of Fame) Tommy Lasorda Baseball Hall of Fame
Notable Persons Who Have Died on This Date Persons of Historical Note Who Have Died on This Date
1554 Coronado (Spanish Explorer) Coronado
1776 Nathan Hale (Connecticut-born Patriot Hanged by the British as a Spy) Nathan Hale The American Revolution
1989 Irving Berlin (Russian-born American Composer. Songwriter) Irving Berlin Composers
1999 George C. Scott (West Virginia-born Academy-Award Winning Actor for "Patton")  George C. Scott Film Academy Awards
2001 Isaac Stern (Ukrainian-born American Classical Violinist)  Ukrainian Performing Artists  Classical Musicians
Historically Notable Events
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Historical Events Occurring between 1500 - 1598
1598 Playwright Ben Jonson Is Indicted for Manslaughter Ben Jonson Plays Crime Law & Legal Resources History Channel
Historical Events Occurring between 1600 - 1699
1601 The First Japanese Roman Catholic Priests Are Ordained in Nagasaki Japan Catholicism Historic Firsts Concordia
1676 The British Duke of York's System of Laws and Courts Is Established in All Three Delaware Counties England Delaware Laws and Legal Resources State of Delaware
1692 The Last Eight "Witches" Are Hanged in Salem, Massachusetts Salem Witch Trials Religion Capitol Punishment Concordia
Historical Events Occurring between 1700 - 1799
1776 Nathan Hale Proclaims 'I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country' before Being Hanged Nathan Hale American Revolution Capitol Punishment Library of Congress
1788 The Sauk and Fox Indians Grant Julien Dubuque, a French Trapper from Quebec, Permission to Mine for Lead in Present-Day Wisconsin French Explorers and Pioneers Wisconsin Dubuque, Iowa Native American Heritage Lead Wisconsin Historical Society
1789 Congress Approves Temporary General Post Office and Postmaster General U.S. Congress U.S. Post Office National Archives and Records Administration
1792 The First French Republic Is Proclaimed "one and indivisible" The French Revolution French Ministers of Diplomatic Affairs
Historical Events Occurring between 1800 - 1899
Travelling with Lewis and Clark

Lewis: A thick fog this morning detained us untill 7 oClock passed a butifull inclined Prarie on both Sides in which we See great numbers of Buffalow feeding—took the Meridean altitude of the Suns upper Leimb. 92° 50' 00" the SexSecnt the Latd. produced from this Obsivation is 44° 11' 33" 3/10 North—

passed a Small Island on the left shore. imediately above passed a Island Situated nearest the left shore abt.
3 miles long, behind this Isd. on the L. S. a Creek Comes in about 15 yards wide, this Creek and Islands are Called the 3 Sisters a butifull Plain on both Sides of the river—

passed a Island Situated nearest the S. S. imedeately above the last Called Ceder Island this Island is about 1½ miles long & nearly as wide Covered with Ceder, on the South Side of this Island Mr. Louiselle a trader from St. Louis built a fort of Ceder & a good house to trate with the Seaux & wintered last winter; about this fort I observed a number of Indian Camps in a Conicel form,— they fed their horses on Cotton limbs as appears. here our hunters joined us havening killed 2 Deer & a Beaver, they Complain much of the Mineral Substances
in the barren hills over which they passed distroying their mockersons.

We proceeded on and Camped late on the S. Side below a Small Island in the bend S. S. Called Goat Island. The large Stones which lay on the Sides of the banks in Several places lay Some distance in the river, under the water and is dangerous &. I walked out this evening and killed a fine Deer, the musquiters is verry troublesom in the bottoms

South Dakota Map Lewis & Clark Map: 09/20/04 Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery Weather The Sioux Buffalo Deer Beaver Geology The Sun Mosquitos Cottonwood Tree The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Kentucky University of Nebraska
Travelling with Lewis and Clark

Lewis: Notwithstanding my positive directions to hubble the horses last evening one of the men neglected to comply. he plead ignorance of the order. this neglect however detained us untill ½ after eleven OCk at which time we renewed our march, our course being about west.

we had proceeded about two and a half miles when we met Reubin Fields one of oure hunters, whom
Capt Clark had dispatched to meet us with some dryed fish and roots that he had procured from a band of Indians, whose lodges were about eight miles in advance.

I ordered the party to halt for the purpose of taking some refreshment. I divided the fish roots and buries, and was happy to find a sufficiency to satisfy compleatly all our appetites. Fields also killed a crow

after refreshing ourselves we proceeded to the village due West 7½ Miles where we arrived at 5 OCk. in the afternoon our rout was through lands heavily timbered, the larger wood entirely pine. the country except the last 3 miles was broken and decending the pleasure I now felt in having tryumphed over the rocky Mountains and decending once more to a level and fertile country where there was every rational hope of finding a comfortable subsistence for myself and party can be more readily conceived than expressed, nor was the flattering prospect of the final success of the expedition less pleasuing.

on our approach to the village which consisted of eighteen lodges most of the women fled to the neighbouring woods on horseback with their children, a circumstance I did not expect as Capt Clark had previously been with them and informed them of our pacific intentions towards them and also the time at which we should most probably arrive. the men seemed but little concerned, and several of them came to meet us at a short distance from their lodges unarmed.

Clark: a verry worm day the hunters Shild killed 3 Deer this morning. I left them on the Island and Set out with the Chief & his Son on a young horse for the Village at which place I expected to meet Capt Lewis this young horse in fright threw himself & me 3 times on the Side of a Steep hill & hurt my hip much,

Cought a Coalt which we found on the roade & I rode it for Several miles untill we saw the Chiefs horses, he cought one & we arrived at his Village at Sunet, & himself and myself walked up to the 2d Village where I
found Capt Lewis & the party Encamped,

much fatigued, & hungery, much rejoiced to find something to eate of which They appeared to partake plentifully. I cautioned them of the Consequences of eateing too much &c.

The planes appeared covered with Spectators viewing the White men and the articles which we had, our party weacke and much reduced in flesh as well as Strength, The horse I left hung up they receved at a time they were in great want, and the Supply I Sent by R. Fields proved timely and gave great encouragement to the party with Captn Lewis.

he lost 3 horses one of which belonged to our guide.

Those Indians Stole out of R. F. Shot pouch his knife wipers Compas & Steel, which we Could not precure
from them, we attempted to have Some talk with those people but Could not for the want of an Interpreter thro' which we Could Speake, we were Compelled to converse alltogether by Signs

— I got the Twisted hare to draw the river from his Camp down which he did with great cherfullness on a white Elk Skin, from the 1s fork which is a few seven miles below, to the lage fork

[Probably the Snake River]

on which the So So ne or Snake Indians fish, is South 2 Sleeps; to a large river

[The Columbia River]

which falls in on the N W. Side and into which The Clarks river empties itself is 5 Sleeps from the mouth of
that river to the falls is 5 Sleeps

[Celilo Falls]

at the falls he places Establishments of white people &c. and informs that great numbers of Indians reside on all those foks as well as the main river; one other Indian gave me a like account of the Countrey, Some few drops of rain this evening. I precured maps of the Country & river with the Situation of Indians, To come from Several men of note Seperately which varied verey little.—

Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery Nez Percé
Lewis & Clark Map: 08/18/05 Clearwater County
The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska
Travelling with Lewis and Clark

Clark: This morning being very wet and the rain Still Continueing hard, and our party being all Sheltered in the houses of those hospitable people, we did not think proper to proceed on untill after the rain was over, and continued at the house of Mr. Proulx.

I took this oppertunity of writeing to my friends in Kentucky &c.

at 10 A M. it seased raining and we Colected our party and Set out and proceeded on down to the Contonemt. at Coldwater Creek about 3 miles up the Missouri on it's Southern banks, at this place we found Colo. Hunt & a Lieut Peters in Command & one Company of Artillerists we were kindly received by the Gentlemen of this place.

[Fort Bellefontaine was in Saint Louis County, Missouri, near the mouth of Coldwater Creek. When established in 1805 by General Wilkinson, it was the first United States fort west of the Mississippi, and included a government Indian factory as well as a military post. The factory was moved to Fort Osage in 1808. The fort itself was moved to higher ground because of flooding in 1810, and was abandoned in 1826.]

Mrs. Wilkinson the Lady of the Govr. & Genl. we wer Sorry to find in delicate health.

we were honored with a Salute of Guns and a harty welcom— at this place there is a publick Store kept in which I am informed the U. S have 60000$ worth of indian Goods

Ordway: the hard rain continued this morning untill about 11 Oclock A. M. at which time the party was collected and we Set out & procd. on

towards evening we arived at Bell fountain a Fort or cantonement on South Side which was built since we ascended the Missouri & a handsome place. we moovd. a short distance below and Camped, the Company of Artillery who lay at this fort fired 17 Rounds with the field peaces

the most of our party was Quartered in the Canonment. Several flat Boats are built at this place. Some rain this evening. a number of these Soldiers are aquaintances of ours &C.

Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery Lewis & Clark Map: 09/19/1906 Missouri Native American Heritage

The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

1846 General Stephen W. Kearny Appoints Charles Bent as the First Governor of New Mexico New Mexico Political and Social Leaders Historic Firsts New Mexico Magazine
1853 California's First Telegraph Message Is Sent from Point Lobos to San Francisco Providing Information on Incoming Ships San Francisco Telegraph Naval History Historic Firsts LearnCalifornia
1862 President Lincoln Issues a Preliminary Version of the Emancipation Proclamation President Abraham Lincoln Slavery Emancipation Proclamation Library of Congress
1863 Atlanta Receives Its First Union Prisoners of War: 163 from Battle of Chickamauga Georgia American Civil War Prisoner of War University of Georgia
1864 Arkansas' Confederate Legislature Meets at the Courthouse in Hempstead County Arkansas Legislature American Civil War Arkansas History Commission
In Indianapolis, Indiana, a Treason Trial Begins for the "Sons of Liberty" a Secret Order of Confederate Sympathizers Indianapolis, Indiana Crime Law and Legal Resources American Civil War Indiana Historical Society
1869 Wagner's Opera, "Das Rheingold," Is First Performed in Munich at the Request of Emperor Ludwig II, but Against the Composer's Wishes Richard Wagner Composers Opera Historic Firsts American Public Media
1877 Rutherford B. Hayes Is First President to Visit Atlanta Since Civil War Georgia President Hayes The American Presidency American Civil War University of Georgia
1888 Portland, Oregon's Skidmore Fountain Is Dedicated. at the Intersection of S.W. First and Pine Street Portland, Oregon Skidmore Fountain
1890 An Expeditionary Team Make the First Recorded Ascent of Washington's Mount Olympus Washignton Mountains Climbing Historic Firsts Olympic National Park History Link
1898 Discovery Claim Is Staked on Anvil Creek Near Alaska's Cape Nome and the Future City of Nome Nome, Alaska Alaska Historical Society
Historical Events Occurring between 1900 - 1949
1902 William Faulkner's Family Moves to Oxford, MS, Just Prior to His 5th Birthday William Faulkner American Authors American Collection
1906 5 Days of Race Riots Break Out in Atlanta, GA Resulting in At Least 10 Black Deaths 1906 Atlanta Race Riots Racism Civil Rights/Human Rights African American Heritage
1911 A Gang of Counterfeiters are Sentenced to Prison in Huntington, West Virginia Huntington, West Virginia Currency Prison Law and Legal Resources WEst Virginia State Archive
1918 Will Rogers' First Movie, Laughing Bill Hyde, Opens at Theaters Will Rogers Film The Internet Move Database
1922 F. Scott Fitzgerald Publishes Tales of the Jazz Age Short Story Collection F. Scott Fitzgerald American Authors American Collection
1927 Gene Tunney Defends Heavyweight Title Against Jack Dempsey in Chicago Chicago Boxing Hall of Fame Boxing Hall of Fame History Channel New York Times
1931 Texas Law Attempts to Support Cotton Prices by Limiting Planting Acreage Texas Farming & Agriculture Law & Legal Resources Great Depression Texas State Historical Association
1939 Jack Kerouac Begins Post-graduate Year at Horace Mann Prep School in New York Jack Kerouac American Authors American Collection
1940 A Bronze Statue of Paul Revere Is Unveiled in the Shadow of Boston's Old North Church Paul Revere Art American Revolution Massachusetts Foundation for the Humanities
1949 The Soviet Union Explodes Its First Atomic Bomb Soviet Union Nuclear Weapons New York Times
Kansas City Business Leaders Form American Business Women's Association Missouri Women Presidential Proclamation American Business Women's Association
Historical Events Occurring between 1950 - 1999
1950 Ralph Bunche Is First Black Man Awarded Nobel Peace Prize Ralph Bunche United Nations African-American History 1950 Nobel Laureate for Peace
1952 Classes Open at the University of Miami Medical School, Florida's First Medical School Florida Education Medicine Education University of Miami Medical School
Agricultural Hall Opens on the University of Delaware Farm Site South of Newark Delaware Education Education Farming & Agriculture University of Delaware State of Delaware
1954 Sabrina Opens, Starring Humphrey Bogart, William Holden, Audrey Hepburn Audrey Hepburn Humphrey Bogart Sabrina Internet Movie Database
1958 Florida Institute of Technology Holds Classes for Its First 154 Students Florida Education History of Technology Florida Institute of Technology Florida State Historical Society
1959 African Americans Petition End Segregation of Jacksonville, FL Recreation Facilities Florida Golf Racism Civil Rights/Human Rights African American Heritage Florida State Historical Society
1961 President Kennedy Signs Peace Corps Legislation President John F. Kennedy The Peace Corps Peace Corps History Channel
1964 ''Fiddler on the Roof'' Begins a Run of 3,242 Broadway Performances New York City Plays Internet Broadway Database
1968 Cesar Tovar Plays All Nine Positions in the Same Game for the Minnesota Twins Venezuelan Sports Figures Minnesota Sports Figures Baseball Major League Baseball Latin American Sports Figures Minnesota Historical Society
1969 San Francisco's Willie Mays Hits 600th Career Home Run in San Diego Alabama Sports Figures Baseball Hall of Fame New York Times
1971 Samuel Barber's "The Lovers" for Solo Voice and Chorus Is First Performed in Philadelphia Samuel Barber Composers Historic Firsts American Public Media
1975 Sara Jane Moore Fails in Attempt to Shoot President Ford in San Francisco San Francisco President Gerald Ford New York Times
1980 Delegates of 36 Polish Trade Unions Meet in Gdansk and Form Solidarity Poland Labor Britannica
The Persian Gulf Conflict Between Iran and Iraq Erupts into Full-scale War Iran Iraq War BBC
1985 80,000 Attend First Farm Aid Concert at Memorial Stadium, University of Illinois Illinois Farming and Agriculture Community Service Farm Aid
French Government Admits to July 7 Bombing of Greenpeace Rainbow Warrior France Environmental Organizations Radford University
1988 Canadian Government Apologizes for WWII Internment of Japanese-Canadians Canada World War II Asian-American Studies New York Times
1995 Time Warner Agrees to Buy Turner Broadcasting for $7.5 Billion Ted Turner Business & Economics Film Television History Channel