Hispanic Artists

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Hispanic Authors and Illustrators Hispanic Chronology
Hispanic Explorers, Pioneers and Astronauts Education, Libraries & Museums
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National Hispanic Heritage Month


Separation Bar

Minerva Bernardino
Born 1907


Rights Activist

Israel Lopez
Born 1918



Jose Antonio Burciaga
Born 1940



Raul Julia
Born 1944



Ellen Ochoa
Born 1958



Teaching - there can be no finer calling requiring the clearest demonstration of moral and ethical behavior.
Ira Shull, For the Love of Teaching
Why do you teach? Let Us Know. Tell Us about your most memorable teacher.

Gnus for Kidz

Who Am I?

5-Minute Quests Today's 5-Minute Quest

Answers to all questions can be found on this page or by using links provided on this page.
Good Luck!
5-Minute Quests

1. Who invented synthetic penicillin and what state was he from? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

2. Why did 9 black students have to leave Little Rock Central High School on this date in 1957? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

3. According to the Smithsonian Institution, from what college did Mary Church Terrell graduate? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

Use all of these letters to spell the name of a children's author/illustrator born on this date.

1. What planet was discovered on this date in 1846? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

2. What was the real name of Caesar Augustus? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

3. According to Johns Hopkins University, what years did William Stewart Halsted serve as Surgeon-in-chief at Johns Hopkins Hospital? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

Use all of these letters to spell the name of a performing artist born on this date:
(hint: all three questions will require you to use a link found on this page)

1. According to the Independence Hall Association, what bounty did Benedict Arnold offer the British in return for 10,000 pounds and a commission in the British military?

2. According to the BBC, what are the five Olympic Games in which Steve Redgrave won his five gold medals?

3. According to PBS, at what Philadelphia school of music did John Coltrane study?

Use all of these letters to spell the name of a scientist, mathematician or inventor born on this date:

Caesar Augustus
Born on This Date in 63 B.C.


The Roman Empire

William Holmes McGuffey
Born on This Date 1800

[University of Cincinnati]


William Stewart Halsted
Born on This Date 1852

[Johns Hopkins University]

Medical Research

Mary Church Terrell
Born on This Date 1863

[Smithsonian Institution]


John Coltrane
Born on This Date 1926



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Checkers Day
(Observed annually on this date - the anniversary of Richard Nixon's "Checkers" speech: 09/23/1952)
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(Observed annually on this date)
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(Commemoration of revolutionaries' declaration independence from Spain: 09/23/1868)
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(Commemorates unification of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: 09/23/1932)
Saudi Arabia Saudi-US Relations Information Service
Children's Authors & Illustrators
1922 Sonia Gidal (German Children's Author) German Authors
1946 Jan Ormerod (Australian Children's Author, Illustrator) Australian Authors Artists
1950 Bruce Brooks (Washington, D.C.-born Children's Author) Washington, D.C. Authors Young-adult Authors
Authors, Poets, Playwrights and Journalists
480 B.C. Euripides (Greek Poet) Ancient Greece Poetry Writer's Almanac
1865 Emmuska Orczy (Hungarian Author) Hungarian Authors
1867 John Avery Lomax (Texas-born Folklorist) Mississippi Authors Texas History Folktales and Folklore Texas State Historical Asociation
1889 Walter Lippmann (New York City-born Journalist) New York City Writers Journalism
1954 George C. Wolfe (Kentucky-born Playwright) Kentucky Writers Plays Stage & Theater
Songwriters, Classical Composers, Conductors and Performing Artists
1928 Robert Helps (New Jersey-born Composer, Pianist, Educator) New Jersey Composers American Composers Classical Musicians Educators of Note
Scientists, Mathematicians & Inventors
1819 Armand-Hippolyte-Louis Fizeau (French Physicist, First to Correctly Measure the Speed of Light) French Mathematicians & Scientists Physics Light
1852 William Stewart Halsted (New York City-born Medical Researcher) William Steward Halsted Medical Research Cardiovascular System
1861 Robert Bosch (German Engineer, Industrialist) German Mathematicians & Scientists
1863 Alexandre Yersin (Swiss Bacteriologist) Swiss Mathematicians & Scientists Disease
1880 John Boyd Orr (Scottish Physician; 1949 Nobel Laureate for Peace) Scottish Mathematicians & Scientists Foods and Nutrition 1949 Nobel Laureate for Peace
1915 Clifford G. Shull (Pennsylvania-born Physicist; 1994 Nobel Laureate for Physics) Pennsylvania Mathematicians & Scientists Sub-atomic Particles 1994 Nobel Laureate for Physics
John C. Sheehan (Michigan-born Inventor of Synthetic Penicillin) Michigan Mathematicians & Scientists Medical Research Inventors Hall of Fame
1800 William Holmes McGuffey (Pennsylvania-born Educator, Author of the "McGuffey Reader") William Holmes McGuffey Educators of Note Reading
Political & Social Leaders
63 B.C. Caesar Augustus (Roman Emperor) Caesar Augustus The Roman Empire
1838 Victoria Woodhull (Ohio-born Women's Suffragist, Rights Advocate; First Woman to Run for President of the United States) Victoria Clafin Woodhull Women's Suffrage Women's Rights American Women Political and Social Leaders
1839 Helen Almira Shafer (New Jersey-born Educator; President of Wellesley College) New Jersey Political and Social Leaders Educators of Note
1863 Mary Church Terrell (Tennessee-born African-American Educator, Women's Suffragist) Mary Church Terrell Educators of Note Women's Suffrage African-American Political and Social Leaders
George W. Hays (24th Governor of Arkansas) Arkansas Political and Social Leaders Arkansas History Commission
1891 William Henry Stevenson (Wisconsin-born Member of the U.S. Congress) Wisconsin Political and Social Leaders U.S. Congress Wisconsin Historical Society
1899 Tom C. Clark (Texas-born Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court) Texas  Political and Social Leaders U.S. Supreme Court Oyez
1916 Aldo Moro (Premier of Italy) Italy
1941 George Jackson (Chicago-born African-American Member of the Soledad Brothers) Chicago's Notorious Notorious African Americans African American Registry
Performing Artists
1907 Albert Ammons (Chicago-born African-American Popular Musician) Chicago Performing Artists Popular Musicians African American Performing Artists
1920 Mickey Rooney (new York City-born Actor) New York City Performing Artists Film
1926 John Coltrane (Chicago-born African-American Jazz Musician) John Coltrane Jazz Musicians African American Performing Artists
1928 Frank Foster (Ohio-born African-American Popular Musician) Ohio Performing Artists Popular Musicians African American Performing Artists
1930 Ray Charles (Georgia-born African-American Member of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame) Georgia Performing Artists Rock and Roll Hall of Fame African American Performing Artists
1943 Julio Iglesias (Spanish Popular Singer) Spanish Performing Artists Popular Musicians
1949 Bruce Springsteen (New Jersey-born Member of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame) Bruce Springsteen Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
1959 Jason Alexander (New Jersey-born Actor) New Jersey Performing Artists Television Musical Theater
Sports Figures
1958 Larry Mize(Georgia-born Winner of the 1987 Masters Championship) Georgia Sports Figures Golf The Masters Sports Illustrated
Notable Persons Who Have Died on This Date Persons of Historical Note Who Have Died on This Date
1928 Erik Lindblom (Alaskan Gold Prospector) Alaska Gold
1939 Sigmund Freud (Austrian Psychologist) Sigmund Freud Psychology
2007 Marcel Marceau (French Mime) Marcel Marceau Stage & Theater
Historically Notable Events
Historically Notable Events
Historical Events Occurring between 1600 - 1699
1642 Harvard College Holds Its First Commencement Massachusetts Education Harvard University New York Times
Historical Events Occurring between 1700 - 1799
1779 John Paul Jones Declares "I have not yet begun to fight!" John Paul Jones American Revolution Naval History U.S. Navy
1780 Spy John André Is Captured and His Papers Reveal Benedict Arnold as Traitor Benedict Arnold American Revolution Notorious Americans University of Michigan
Historical Events Occurring between 1800 - 1899
Travelling with Lewis and Clark

Clark: Set out under a gentle breeze from the S. E, passed a Small Island Situated in a bend to the L. S. Called Goat Island, a Short distance above the upper point a Creek of 12 yards wide coms in on the S. S. we observed a great Smoke to the S W.— I walked on Shore & observed Buffalow in great Herds at a Distance passed two Small willow Islands with large Sand bars makeing out from them, passed (3) Elk Island about 2½ miles long & ¾ mile wide Situated near the
L. S. covered with Cotton wood the read Current Called by the French Gres de Butiff & grapes &c. &c. the river is nearly Streight for a great distance wide and Shoal. passed a Creek on the S. S. 16 yards wide we Call Reubens Creek, as R Fields found it Camped on the S. S. below the mouth of a Creek on the L. S. three Souex boys Came to us Swam the river and informd that the Band of Soauex called the Teton of 80 Lodges were Camped at the next Creek above, & 60 Lodges more a Short distance above, we gave those boys two Carrots
of Tobacco to Carry to their Chiefs, with derections to tell them that we would Speek to them tomorrow

Capt Lewis walked on Shore this evening, R. F Killed a Doe Goat,—

South Dakota Map Lewis & Clark Map: 09/20/04 Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery The Sioux Tobacco Carrot Buffalo Pronghorn Cottonwood Tree The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Kentucky University of Nebraska
Travelling with Lewis and Clark

Clark: We assembled the principal Men as well as the Chiefs and by Signs informed them where we came
from where bound our wish to inculcate peace and good understanding between all the red people &c. which appeared to Satisfy them much, we then gave 2 other Medals to other Chefs of bands, a flag to the twisted hare, left a flag & Handkerchief to the grand Chief gave, a Shirt to the Twisted hare & a knife & Handkerchif with a Small pece of Tobacco to each.

Finding that those people gave no provisions to day we deturmined to purchase with our Small articles of merchindize, accord we purchased all we could, Such as roots dried, in bread, & in ther raw State, Berris of
red Haws & Fish and in the evening Set out and proceeded on to the 2d Village 2 miles dist. where we also purchased a few articles all amounting to as much as our weak horses Could Carry to the river

Capt. Lewis & 2 men verry Sick this evening, my hip verry Painfull,

the men trade a few old tin Canisters for dressed Elk Skin to make themselves Shirts,

at dark a hard wind from The S W accompaned with rain which lasted half an hour. The twisted hare envited Capt. Lewis & myself to his lodge which was nothin more than Pine bushes & bark, and gave us Some broiled dried Salmon to eate,

great numbers about us all night at this village the women were busily employed in gathering and drying the Pas-she co root of which they had great quantites dug in piles

Ordway: a fair morning. we purchased considerable of sammon and commass roots from the natives. these Savages are now laying up food for the winter and in the Spring they are going over on the medicine River and Missourie River to hunt the buffalow.

Some of them have fine copper kittles and different kinds of trinkets hanging about them. also they are
fond of any kind of marchandize, but the blue beeds they want mostly. our officers gave the chiefs of this nation a flag a meddle and Some other Small articles their is another village about 2 miles further down the plain they gave the chief of that village a flag and meddle also.

these natives have a great many horses and live well. are well dressed in Elk deer and Mountain Sheep Skins. well dressed they have but a fiew buffalow Robes. the most of them have leather lodges and are now makeing flag lodges &C.

we got up our horses towards evening all except one which we could not find. we loaded up left one man to look for his horse and proceed. on down to the other village and Camped. had a Thunder Shower this evening. we bought Some more Sammon and Commass, Some dressed Elk Skins &C. from these villages who live like other.

Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery Native Americans
Lewis & Clark Map: 08/18/05 Clearwater County
The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska
1805 The Dakota, Sell 100,000 Acres of Land to Lieutenant Zebulon M. Pike for $2,000 and Sixty Gallons of Whiskey Minnesota Zebulon Pike American Explorers Dakota Indians Minnesota Historical Society
Aaron Burr Meets with Territorial Governor William Henry Harrison at Vincennes Vincennes, Indiana Aaron William Henry Harrison Indiana Historical Society
Travelling with Lewis and Clark

Clark: we rose early took the Chief to the publick store & furnished him with Some clothes &c. took an early breckfast with Colo. Hunt and Set out

decended to the Mississippi and down that river to St. Louis at which place we arived about 12 oClock.

we Suffered the party to fire off their pieces as a Salute to the Town. we were met by all the village and received a harty welcom from it's inhabitants &. here I found my old acquaintance Majr. W. Christy who had Settled in this town in a public line as a Tavern Keeper. he furnished us with Store rooms for our baggage and we accepted of the invitation of Mr. Peter Choteau and took a room in his house of Mr. Peter Cadeaus Choteaus we payed a friendly visit to Mes. Choteau and Mr Ogustus Chotau and Some of our old friends this evening.

as the post had departed from St. Louis Capt Lewis wrote a note to Mr. Hay in Kahoka to detain the post at that place untill 12 tomorrow which was reather later than his usial time of leaveing it

Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery Lewis & Clark Map: 09/22/1906 St. Louis, Missouri Native American Heritage

The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

1806 The Lewis and Clark Corps of Discovery Returns to St. Louis Missouri The Lewis and Clark Expedition New York Times
1845 Levi Woodbury Is Sworn in as Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court New Hampshire  Political and Social Leaders U.S. Supreme Court Oyez
1846 German Astronomer Johann Galle Discovers the Planet Neptune German Scientists & Mathematicians Space & Astronomy Neptune New York Times
1851 Aaron Rose Trades a Horse for a Land Claim That Will Become Roseburg, Oregon Roseburg, Oregon
1857 William Markoe Makes Minnesota's First Balloon Ascension, Traveling from St. Paul to Cannon Falls Minnesota Hot Air Balloons Historic Firsts Minnesota Historical Society
1862 The U.S.–Dakota War Effectively Ends with the Defeat the Dakota at the Battle of Wood Lake in Minnesota's Yellow Medicine County Yellow Medicine County, Minnesota Dakota Indians War Minnesota Historical Society
34-year-old Leo Tolstoy Marries a Russian Teenager Leo Tolstoy Russian Authors History Channel
1863 Lincoln Plans Relief for Union Forces at Chattanooga Tennessee Abraham Lincoln Battle of Chattanooga History Channel
Union Troops Raid Northern Florida, Capture 600 Slaves, 81 Prisoners, 200 Horses, 400 Cattle Florida American Civil War Florida State Historical Society
1868 Puerto Rican Rebels Declare Independence, Spanish Immediately Defeat Them Puerto Rico Spain El Boricua
1869 University of California Opens in Oakland California Education University of California LearnCalifornia
1875 15-year-old Billy the Kid Is Arrested for the First Time Billy the Kid Notorious Americans History Channel
1884 Seattle, Washington's First Horse-Drawn Streetcars Are Placed into Service Seattle, Washington Transportation Horses Historic Firsts History Link
Herman Hollerith Patents a Punch Card Adding Machine Trademarks & Patents History of Technology CIO Magazine
1897 The Library of the Ramsey County Minnesota Medical Society Is Established by a Donation From Dr. Eduard Boeckmann Ramsey County, Minnesota Medicine Libraries and Reference Resources Minnesota Historical Society
9-year-old Stephen Kempton Is First Recorded Traffic Fatality in Great Britain Great Britain Automobile Death Historic Firsts London's History
Historical Events Occurring between 1900 - 1949
1905 Louisville's Western Library Opens for the City's African-American Community Kentucky Libraries African-American Heritage Louisville Public Library African American Registry
1909 A Luxurious Sanitary Toilet Comfort Station Opens in Seattle, Washington's Pioneer Square Seattle, Washington Health Care History Link
1929 The Cornerstone for Mitchell Hall Is Laid on the Campus of the University of Delaware, Newark Newark, Delaware Education University of Delaware State of Delaware
1930 Johann Ostermeyer Patents First Modern Photographic Safety Flash Bulb German Scientists & Inventors Trademarks & Patents Photography Historic Firsts U.S. Patent and Trademark Office
1932 Ernest Hemingway's Death in the Afternoon Is Published - First Run of 10,300 Copies Ernest Hemingway American Authors Literature American Collection
1934 The Detroit Lions Play Their First Game in the NFL Detroit NFL Football Historic Firsts State of Michgan
Eudora Welty's Story "A Memory" Accepted for Publication by Southern Review Eudora Welty American Authors The Southern Review American Collection
1938 In West Virginia, the Mingo County Oak, Estimated to Date Before the Arrival of Christopher Columbus in the Americas, Is Cut Down Mingo County, West Virginia Oak Trees Christopher Columbus West Virginia State Archive
1940 Vancouver, Washington's Alcoa Plant Produces the First Aluminum Ingots in the Western United States Vancouver, Washington Aluminum Historic Firsts Alcoa History Link
1943 Former Dictator Benito Mussolini Reestablishes Fascist Regime in Northern Italy Benito Mussolini European History World War II History Channel
Eudora Welty's The Wide Net and Other Stories Is Published Eudora Welty American Authors Literature American Collection
1949 President Truman Announces Soviets Have Exploded a Nuclear Bomb Soviet Union Harry Truman The Cold War Nuclear Weapons PBS
Historical Events Occurring between 1950 - 1999
1951 Britain's King George VI Has Operation to Remove Part of His Lung Great Britain George VI Health Care BBC
1952 VP Candidate Richard M. Nixon Delivers His "Checkers" Speech on Television Richard Nixon Television New York Times
Rocky Marciano KOs Jersey Joe Walcott for World Heavyweight Championship Rocky Marciano Boxing Hall of Fame New York Times Massachusetts Foundation for the Humanities
Charlie Chaplin Returns to Native England after 21 Years in US Great Britain Charlie Chaplin Film BBC
1954 President Dwight D. Eisenhower Dedicates the McNary Dam on the Columbia River Oregon Washington President Dwight D. Eisenhower Columbia River McNary Dam History Link
An Emergency Session of the Delaware State Board of Education Is Held in Milford to Consider School Integration Milford, Delaware Education Racism African-American Heritage State of Delaware
1957 In Arkansas, a White Mob Forces 9 African-American Students to Leave Little Rock Central High School Arkansas U.S. Civil Rights Education African-American History New York Times
1958 Igor Stravinsky Conducts the First Performance of His "Threni," at San Rocco in Venice, Italy Venice, Italy Igor Stravinsky Composers Historic Firsts American Public Media
1962 Maury Wills Breaks Ty Cobb's Record with 97th Stolen Base Baseball Famous African Americans New York Times
Aaron Copland's "Connotations" for Orchestra," Is First Performed by the New York Philharmonic Conducted by Leonard Bernstein Aaron Copland Leonard Bernstein Composers Historic Firsts American Public Media
1964 Paris Opera Unveils Stunning New Ceiling Painted as a Gift by Marc Chagall Marc Chagall Art Paris Opera History Channel
1966 Rolling Stones Concert Interrupted When Fans Mob Mick Jagger Rolling Stones Popular Musicians History Channel
1969 Chicago 8 Trial Begins Chicago The Chicago 8 Vietnam War Law and Legal Resources History Channel
1970 Virginia Slims Professional Tour for Women's Tennis Is Established Women Tennis USA Today
The Delaware Motor Vehicle Division Begins Vehicle Inspections Delaware Government Automotives State of Delaware
1971 Associate Justice John M. Harlan Retires from the U.S. Supreme Court Illinois Political and Social Leaders U.S. Supreme Court Oyez
1973 Former President Juan Perón Returns to Power in Argentina Argentina New York Times
1976 Jimmy Carter Meets Gerald Ford in Presidential Election Debate on Economics Gerald Ford Jimmy Carter The American Presidency Elections Economics History Channel
Blaze Kills 8 Aboard British Warship Great Britain Naval History Fire Safety Death BBC
1979 Lou Brock Is Undisputed Stolen Base King with 892nd Career Steal Arkansas Sports Figures Baseball Hall of Fame Famous African Americans USA Today
1980 Iran & Iraq Begin Eight-year War Iran Iraq War U.S. Department of Energy
1983 Katherine D. Ortega Begins Her Term as Treasurer of the United States U.S. Goverrnment Hispanic Heritage U.S. Treasury
1986 U.S. Congress Adopts the Rose as the National Flower U.S. Symbols U.S. Department of Defense
1988 Jose Conseco Is Baseball's First 40-40 Man (homeruns & steals) Baseball Famous Latin Americans New York Times
1990 Iraq Threatens to Destroy Oil Fields and Attack Israel if Forced from Kuwait. Iraq Kuwait Israel Gulf War New York Times
1992 Manon Rheaume Is First Woman to Play in the NHL Women Hockey Historic Firsts USA Today
1998 Trisha Yearwood Wins 2nd Consecutive Country Music Association's Female Vocalist of the Year Trisha Yearwood Country & Western Music University of Georgia
1999 NASA's Mars Climate Observer Burns Up As It Goes into Planet Orbit Mars Exploration Space Exploration NASA New York Times
Historical Events Occurring from 2000 to present
2000 British Rower Steve Redgrave Wins Fifth Consecutive Gold Medal at Sydney Olympic Games British Sports Figures Rowing at Sydney Olympic Games BBC