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Separation Bar

Placido Domingo
Born 1941


Tina Ramírez



Antonia Hernandez
Born 1948


Law and Legal Resources

Gary Soto
Born 1951


Young-adult Authors

Anthony Muńoz
Born 1958


Football Hall of Fame

Teaching - there can be no finer calling requiring the clearest demonstration of moral and ethical behavior.
Ira Shull, For the Love of Teaching
Why do you teach? Let Us Know. Tell Us about your most memorable teacher.

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5-Minute Quests Today's 5-Minute Quest

Answers to all questions can be found on this page or by using links provided on this page.
Good Luck!
5-Minute Quests

1. What holiday is celebrated on this date in the countries of Ethiopia and Eritrea? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

2. What song did Bing Crosby and the Andrews Sisters record on this date in 1943? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

3. According to the U.S. Congress, on what date did Hiram Rhodes Revels take the oath of office for the United States Senate? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

Use all of these letters to spell the name of a political or social leader born on this date:

1. This date marks the birth of one famous female athlete from Texas and the death of another. Who are these two women? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

2. According to the University of Groningen, what are three jobs Sam Adams held as a public servant? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

3. According to the New York Times, Alfred Thayer Mahan was the world's greatest authority on what? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

Use all of these letters to spell the name of an author, writer or poet born on this date:
(hint: all three questions will require you to use a link found on this page)

1. According to the Library of Congress, how old was Kathy Whitworth when she first began playing golf?

2. According to the Nobel Foundation, for what achievement was Martin Ryle awarded the 1974 Nobel Prize for Physics?

3. According to, what political icons were created by cartoonist Thomas Nast?

Use all of these letters to spell the title of a 1957 work by Jim Thompson (according to the Authors' Calendar):

Sam Adams
Born on This Date 1722

[Independence Hall Foundation]

U.S. Government

Hiram Rhodes Revels
Born on This Date in 1822

[Harper's Weekly]

U.S. Government

Martin Ryle
Born on This Date 1918

[Nobel Foundation]

Nobel Foundation

Kathy Whitworth
Born on This Date 1939

[Women's Senior Golf Tour]

Golf Hall of Fame

Martin Hanford
Born on This Date 1956

[Candlewick Press]

Young-adult Authors

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts
Michigan Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma
Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming
Ethiopia & Eritrea: Meskel
(Observed annually on this date (September 28 in Leap Years) to celebrate the finding of the true cross of Christ and construction of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher)
Meskel Eritrea Church of the Holy Sepulcher Wikipedia
Children's Authors & Illustrators
1924 Bernard Waber (Pennsylvania-born Children's Author, Illustrator) Pennsylvania Authors & Illustrators Primary Children's Authors Artists
1933 Paul Goble (English Children's Author, Illustrator, Native-American Folklorist) English Authors Young-Adult Authors English Artists Native-American Heritage
1956 Martin Handford (Pennsylvania-born Artist, Illustrator: "Where's Waldo?") Martin Handford Young-Adult Authors English Artists
1871 Grazia Deledda (Italian-born 1926 Nobel Laureate for Literature) Grazia Deledda 1926 Nobel Laureate for Literature
1906 Jim Thompson (Oklahoma-born Crime Novelist) Jim Thompson Film
1917 Louis Auchincloss (New York-born Attorney, Novelist) Louis Auchincloss
1935 Joyce Johnson (New York City-born Author) Joyce Johnson Jack Kerouac
1942 Mark Vinz (North Dakota-born Poet) Mark Vinz Poetry
1943 Ray DiPalma (Pennsylvania-born Poet) Ray DiPalma Poetry
1945 Kay Ryan (California-born Poet) California Authors Poetry Christian Science Monitor Writer's Almanac
1840 Thomas Nast (German-born American Political Cartoonist) Thomas Nast Journalism Political Cartoons Santa Claus
Songwriters, Classical Composers, Conductors and Performing Artists
1898 Vincent Youmans (New York City-born Composer, Songwriter) New York City Composers American Composers
1824 Benjamin Gould (Massachusetts-born Astronomer) Massachusetts Scientists and Mathematicians Astronomy & Space 1974 Nobel Laureate for Physics
1876 Earle Raymond Hedrick (Indiana-born Scientist or Mathematician) Earle Raymond Hedrick American Mathematicians & Scientists
1918 Martin Ryle (English Astronomer Awarded the 1974 Nobel Prize for Physics) Martin Ryle Astronomy & Space 1974 Nobel Laureate for Physics
1925 Robert Edwards (English Physiologist Awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize for Medicine & Physiology) Robert Edwards Invitro Fertilization 2010 Nobel Laureate for Medicine & Physiology
1830 William B. Hazen (Vermont-born Union General) Vermont Military Figures American Civil War Ohio Historical Society
1840 Alfred Thayer Mahan (New York-born Naval Strategist/Historian) Alfred Thayer Mahan Naval History New York Times
1696 St. Alfonso Liguori (Italian Theologian) Italian Political and Social Leaders Theologians and Religious Leaders Catholic Saints
1389 Cosimo de Medici (Italian Florentine Ruler) Italian Political and Social Leaders
1722 Samuel Adams (Massachusetts-born Patriot) Samuel Adams American Revolution
1822 Hiram Rhodes Revels (North Carolina-born African-American Member of the U.S. Congress) Hiram Rhodes Revels United States Senator African American Poltical and Social Leaders
1831 John Winans (New Jersey-born U.S. Congressman from Wisconsin) New Jersey Political and Social Leaders Wisconsin Political and Social Leaders United States Senator Wisconsin Historical Society
1833 Madison Davis (Georgia-born African-American Slave, Politician, State Congressman) Georgia Political and Social Leaders Slavery Georgia Republican Party Reconstruction African American Poltical and Social Leaders University of Georgia
1850 William Leake Terry (North Carolina-born Member of the U.S. Congress from Arkansas) North Carolina Political and Social Leaders Arkansas Political and Social Leaders U.S. Congress Arkansas History Commission
1862 Louis Botha (First President of South Africa) Louis Botha
1896 Sam Ervin (North Carolina-born U.S. Senator; Chairman of the Watergate Committee) North Carolina Political and Social Leaders U.S. Congress Watergate Conspiracy
1950 Gerhard Schroeder (Chancellor of Germany) Germany
1885 Harry Blackstone (Chicago-born Magician) Harry Blackstone American Performing Artists
1920 William Conrad (Kentucky-born Radio, Film and Television Actor and Producer) ) Kentucky Performing Artists American Performing Artists Filmmakers Television Radio Internet Movie Database
1922 Arthur Penn (Pennsylvania-born Film Producer) Pennsylvania Performing Artists Filmmakers Internet Movie Database
1924 Bud Powell (New York City-born African-American Jazz Pianist, Composer) New York City Performing Artists Jazz African-American Performing Artists African American Registry
1934 Greg Morris (Ohio-born African-American Actor); Mission Impossible Ohio Performing Artists American Performing Artists Television African-American Performing Artists Internet Movie Database
1947 Meat Loaf (Texas-born Popular Musician) Texas Performing Artists American Performing Artists Internet Movie Database
Cheryl Tiegs (Minnesota-born Fashion Model) Minnesota Performing Artists Biography
1935 Mamie Johnson (South Carolina-born African-American Female Professional Baseball Player) South Carolina Sports Figures Baseball Female Sports Figures African-American Sports Figures Nego league Baseball Players Association African American Registry
1939 Kathy Whitworth (Texas-born Member of the Golf Hall of Fame) Kathy Whitworth World Golf Hall of Fame Women
1949 Mike Schmidt (Ohio-born Member of the Baseball Hall of Fame) Ohio Sports Figures Baseball Hall of Fame
1959 Beth Heiden (Wisconsin-born Olympic Speed Skater) Wisconsin Sports Figures Speedskating The Olympic Games Wisconsin Historical Society
Notable Persons Who Have Died on This Date Notable Persons Who Have Died on This Date
1660 St. Vincent de Paul (French-born Catholic Saint) French Political and Social Leaders Catholicism Concordia
1871 James H. Clanton (Georgia-born Confederate General) Georgia Military Figures American Civil War University of Georgia
1876 Braxton Bragg (North Carolina-born Confederate General) North Carolina Military Figures American Civil War
1921 Engelbert Humperdinck (German Composer) Engelbert Humperdinck Composers"
1944 Aimee Semple McPherson (Canadian-American Pentecostal Evangelist) Aimee Semple McPherson Religion Notorious Canadians Concordia
Aristide Maillol (French Sculptor) Aristide Maillol
1956 Babe Didrikson Zaharias (Texas-born Professional Golfer, Member of the Track & Field Hall of Fame) Babe Didrikson Zaharias Women Golf USA Track & Field Hall of Fame
1960 Sylvia Pankhurst (English Women's Rights Advocate) English Political and Social Leaders Women Women's Suffrage History Channel
1991 Oona Chaplin (English-born Wife of Charlie Chaplin/Daughter of Eugene O'Neill) Charlie Chaplin History Channel
2009 William Safire (New York City-born Columnist, Author Awarded the 1978 Pulitzer Prize for Distinguished Commentary) William Safire Journalism 1978 Pulitzer Prize for Distinguished Commentary
2011 Wilson Greatbatch (New York-born Inventor of the Pacemaker, Member of the Inventors Hall of Fame) Wilson Greatbatch Pacemaker Inventors & Inventions
Historically Notable Events Historically Notable Events
1514 Spanish Crown Grants Juan Ponce de Leon Title of Military Governor of Florida  Juan Ponce de Leon  Florida Explorers Library of Congress
1777 A Company of Militia from Hampshire County, Virginia Is Ambushed by Native Americans in the "Narrows," South of Wheeling Hampshire County, West Virginia Native-American Heritage Revolutionary War West Virginia State Archives
1779 John Adams Chosen to Negotiate Revolutionary War's Peace Terms with Britain Great Britain John Adams Revolutionary War New York Times
1787 Text of the Proposed U.S. Constitution Is Printed for Public View in New York Journal Constitutional Convention Journalism University of Georgia
1791 Jews in France Are Given French Citizenship France Judaism European History George Mason University
Travelling with Lewis and Clark

Clark: I rose early aftr a bad nights Sleep found the Chief all up, and the bank as usial lined with Spectators we gave the 2 great Cheifs a Blanket a peace, or rethr they took off agreeable to their Custom the one they lay on and each one Peck of Corn after Brackfast Capt. Lewis & the Chiefs went on Shore, as a verry large part of their nation was Comeing in, the Disposition of whome I did not know one of us being Suffcent on Shore, I wrote a letter to Mr. P. Durion & prepared a meadel & Some Comsns. [Certificates] & Sent to Capt. Lewis at 2 oClock Capt. Lewis returned with 4 Chiefs & a Brave man named War cha pa or on his Guard. when the friends of those people die they run
arrows through their flesh above and below their elbous as a testimony of their Greaf

after Staying about half an hour, I went with them on Shore, Those men left the boat with reluctience, I went first to the 2d Chiefs Lodge, where a Croud Came around after Speeking on various Subjects I went to a princpal mans
lodgefrom there to the grand Chiefs lodge, after a fiew minits he invited me to a Lodge within the Circle in which I Stayed with all their principal men untill the Dance began, which was Similer to the one of last night performed by
their womn which poles on which Scalps of their enemies were hung, Some with the Guns Spears & war empliments taken by their husbands in their hands

Capt. Lewis came on Shore and we Continued untill we were Sleepy & returned to our boat, the 2nd Chief & one principal man accompanid us, those two Indians accompanied me on board in the Small Perogue, Capt. Lewis with a guard Still on Shore, the man who Steered not being much acustomed to Steer, passed the bow of the boat & Perogue Came broad Side against the Cable & broke it which obliged me to order in a loud voice all hands all hands up & at their ores, my preempty order to the men and the bustle of their getting to their ores allarmd the Cheifs, togethr with the appearance of the men on Shore, as the boat turnd. The Cheif hollowered & allarmed the Camp or Town informing them that the Mahars was about attacting us. in about 10 minits the bank was lined with men armed the 1st Cheif at their head, about 200 men appeared and after about ˝ hour returned all but about 60 men who Continued on the bank all night, the Cheifs Contd. all night with us— This allarm I as well as Capt. Lewis Considered as the Signal of their intentions (which was to Stop our proceeding on our journey and if Possible rob us) we were on our Guard all night, the misfortune of the loss of our Anchor obliged us to Lay under a falling bank much exposd. to the accomplishment of their hostile intentions P. C [Cruzatte]—our Bowman who Could Speak Mahar informed us in the night that the Maha Prisoners informed him we were to be Stoped— we Shew as little Sighns of a Knowledge of their intentions as possible all prepared on board for any thing which might hapen, we kept a Strong guard all night in the boat no Sleep

South Dakota Map Lewis & Clark Map: 09/24/04 Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery The Sioux Keelboat Tobacco Carrot
The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Kentucky University of Nebraska
Travelling with Lewis and Clark

Clark: all the men able to work comened building 5 Canoes, Several taken Sick at work, our hunters returned Sick without meet. J. Colter returned he found only one of the lost horses, on his way killed a deer, half of which he gave the Indians the other proved nourishing to the Sick

The day verry hot, we purchase fresh Salmon of them Several Indians Come up the river from a Camp Some
distance below Capt Lewis very Sick nearly all the men Sick.

our Shoshonee Indian Guide employed himself makeing flint points for his arrows

Gass: A fine warm morning. All the men, who were able were employed in making canoes.

About 10 o'clock the man came in who had gone to look for the horses, he had found one of them and killed a deer.
I feel much relieved from my indisposition.

In the evening the greater part of the war party came in, and some of the principal men came down to our camp. We could not understand what they had done, as we could only converse by signs. Medals were given by the Commanding Officers to 3 or 4 of them as leading men of their nation; and they remained about our camp.

The river below the fork is about 200 yards wide; the water is clear as crystal, from 2 to 5 feet deep, and abounding with salmon of an excellent quality. The bottom of the river is stony and the banks chiefly composed of a round hard species of stone.

Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery Native Americans
Lewis & Clark Map: 08/18/05 Clearwater County
The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska
1809 Canadian Explorer David Thompson First non-Indian to Reach Pend Oreille River Region Washington Idaho Explorers Historic Firsts HistoryLink
1825 England's George Stephenson Engineers the First Train to Haul Passengers Great Britain Railroads Historic Firsts New York Times
1829 Dr. J. J. Parrot Is First Person to Climb Turkey's Mount Ararat in Modern Times Turkey Religion Mountain Climbing Historic Firsts Concordia
1830 Choctaw Indians Sign "Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek" Ceding All Land East of the Mississippi Alabama Choctaw Historic U.S. Documents Oklahoma State University Alabama State Archives
1842 Milwaukee Wisconsin's First Public Music Hall Opens Milwaukee Wisconsin Music Historic Firsts Wisconsin Historical Society
1851 Land Is purchased for a Poor Farm to be Located in the Town of Yorkville, Near Racine, Wisconsin Racine Wisconsin Community Services Wisconsin Historical Society
1854 The Arctic Is First Ocean Liner to Sink in the Atlantic: 300 Die Naval History Death Historic Firsts New York Times
1858 Britain's William Usherwood Takes First Photograph of a Comet (Donati's) Great Britain Photography Comets Historic Firsts NASA
1862 First Federal Black Regiment Mustered in at New Orleans New Orleans American Civil War African-American History Historic Firsts HistoryNet
Minnesota's Legislature Passes the State's First Absentee Ballot Law to Allow Civil War Soldiers to Vote Minnesota State Legislature American Civil War Voting Historic Firsts Minnesota Historical Society
1864 Jesse James & Others Massacre 20 Unarmed Union Soldiers in Centralia, Missouri Jesse James American Civil War Death History Channel
1867 Worcester, Massachusetts Announces the Opening of a Freedman's Bureau to Help White Employers Hire African Americans Newly Arrived from the South Worcester, Massachusetts Labor Reconstruction African-American Heritage Massachusetts Foundation for the Humanities
1880 Rutherford B. Hayes Is the First U.S. President to Visit Oregon Oregon President Rutherford B. Hayes Historic Firsts
1888 John Ireland Is Named Archbishop of Minnesota Irish Political and Social Leaders Minnesota Political and Social Leaders Catholicism Religious Leaders and Tehologians Minnesota Historical Society
1892 Czech Composer Antonin Dvorák Arrives in New York City to Take Up a Position at the National Conservatory New York City Antonin Dvorák Composers American Public Media
1894 Aqueduct Race Track Opens in New York City New York City Horse Racing Aqueduct
1902 New Orleans Streetcar Employees Go on Strike for an 8-Hour Work Day and a 25-Cent-per-Hour Minimum Wage New Orleans Labor Louisiana Secretary of State
1906 A Powerful Hurricane Kills Dozens in the Mobile, Alabama Area Mobile, Alabama Hurricanes Death Alabama State Archives
1909 Earthquake Centered in Southwest Indiana Is Felt in 30,000 Square Mile Area Iowa Indiana Illinois Kentucky Missouri Arkansas Earthquake USGS
1918 Allied Troops Break through German Fortifications at the Hindenburg Line France Germany World War I PBS
1925 Construction Begins on the 13-mile Nurburgring Racing Circuit Germany Auto Racing Nurburgring
William Faulkner Publishes "Yo Ho and Two Bottles of Rum," in New Orleans Times Picayune William Faulkner New Orleans American Authors Journalism American Collection
1929 Ernest Hemingway's A Farewell to Arms Is Published - First Run of 31,500 Copies Ernest Hemingway American Authors Literature American Collection
1930 Bobby Jones Wins the U.S. Amateur and Golf's Grand Slam Bobby Jones Golf Hal of Fame New York Times University of Georgia
1935 Judy Garland Signs Contract with MGM Judy Garland Film MGM History Channel
1939 Warsaw, Poland Is Surrendered to the Nazis after Weeks of Resistance Poland Nazi Germany World War II European History History Channel
1940 Germany, Italy, Japan Form the Axis Powers Signing Tripartite Pact in Berlin Nazi Germany Italy Japan World War II History Channel
1942 Japanese Begin Withdrawal from New Guinea Australia Japanese New Guinea World War II Australian Department of Defence
Glenn Miller and His Orchestra Perform Together for Last Time Glenn Miller Popular Music World War II New York Times
1943 Bing Crosby and the Andrews Sisters Record Jingle Bells Christmas Music Popular Music History Channel
1948 Texas' First Television Station, WBAP-Fort Worth, Begins Broadcasting Texas Television Historic Firsts Texas State Historical Association
William Faulkner's Intruder in the Dust Is Published William Faulkner American Authors American Collection
1950 U.S. Forces Take Seoul, Korea Korean War Truman Library
Heavyweight Champ Ezzard Charles Knocks Out Joe Louis in 15 rounds in New York City for the Heavyweight Boxing Championship Georgia Sports Figures Joe Louis Boxing Hall of Fame African-American Sports Figures University of Georgia
1951 William Faulkner's Requiem for a Nun Is Published William Faulkner American Authors American Collection
1954 In Delaware, the First 11 African-American Students Enter Milford High School Milford, Delaware Education Racism African-American Heritage Historic Firsts Milford High School State of Delaware
The Tonight Show Debuts with Steve Allen Television New York Times
1956 U.S. Bell X-2, World's Fastest Highest-flying Plane Crashes Aviation The Cold War NASA
1957 The Richfield Oil Company Completes Its Well No. 1 Near the Swanson River on Alaska's Kenai Peninsula Alaska Business Business and Economics Alaska Historical Society
1959 Soviet Leader, Nikita Khrushchev, Ends His Visit to the U.S. Nikita Khrushchev The Cold War History Channel
Typhoon Vera Batters Japan's Honshu Island: Almost 5,000 Die Japan Hurricanes & Typhoons Death New York Times
1960 Igor Stravinsky Conducts the Premiere of His "Monumentum pro Gesualdo di Venosa ad CD annum" in Venice, Austria Venice, Austria Igor Stravinsky Composers Historic Firsts American Public Media
1962 Rachel Carson's Silent Spring Is First Published Rachel Carson <I>Silent Spring</I> Earth & Environment PBS
1964 Warren Commission Report Concludes Lee Harvey Oswald Acted Alone Assassinating JFK Assassination of President Kennedy Cold War New York Times
"The Beach Boys" Appear on "The Ed Sullivan Show" for First Time Television Popular Musicians Internet Movie Database
1966 Santa Fe Junior College Opens for First Classes in Gainesville, Florida Florida Education Sante Fe Junior College Florida State Historical Society
1970 Jordan and the PLO Agree to Ceasefire Jordan BBC
1977 Anacleto Montero Sanchez Receives Patent for a Hypodermic Syringe Medical Research Patents & Trademarks Hispanic Heritage U.S. Patent & Trademark Office
1983 A Chorus Line Becomes the Longest-running Broadway Musical Musical Theater Interrnet Broadway Database History Channel
1985 Hurricane Gloria Shuts Down Wall Street Wall Street Investment Markets Hurricanes History Channel
1988 Canadian Sprinter Ben Johnson Fails Drug Test, Stripped of Olympic Gold Medal Canadian Sports Figures Illegal Drugs Track & Field 1988 Summer Olympics BBC
1989 SONY Buys Columbia Pictures Business & Economics Film Sony Pictures History Channel
1990 Senate Judiciary Committee Approves Supreme Court Nomination of David H. Souter U.S. Congress U.S. Supreme Court New York Times
1991 Senate Judiciary Committee Votes 7-7, on Nomination of Clarence Thomas to U.S. Supreme Court U.S. Congress U.S. Supreme Court African-American Heritage Congressional Record
1995 U.S. Treasury Issues New $100 Bills Business & Economics Bureau of Engraving History Channel
1996 The Taliban Islamic Conservatives Take Control of Kabul, Afghanistan Afghanistan Islam War on Terrorism BBC
U.S. Postal Service Issues an F. Scott Fitzgerald Commemorative Stamp F. Scott Fitzgerald American Authors Stamps History Channel
A Statue of Author F. Scott Fitzgerald Is Unveiled in St. Paul, Minnesota's Rice Park F. Scott Fitzgerald American Authors Minnesota Historical Society
1998 Social Democrat Gerhard Schroeder Is Elected Chancellor of Germany Germany Elections CNN
Mark McGwire Becomes First to Hit 70 Home Runs in One Season Baseball Sports Illustrated
1999 Detroit's Tiger Stadium Closes After 87 Years Detroit Baseball Major League Baseball State of Michigan
2001 President Bush Announces Increased Security Measures for Air Travel President George W. Bush Aviation CNN