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Pedro Martinez
Pedro Martinez
Born c. 1971

[Sports Illustrated]


Luis Alvarez
Luis Alvarez
Born: Jun 13, 1911

[Nobel Foundation]

Physics 1968 Nobel Laureate for Physics

Teaching - there can be no finer calling requiring the clearest demonstration of moral and ethical behavior.
Ira Shull, For the Love of Teaching
Why do you teach? Let Us Know. Tell Us about your most memorable teacher.

Gnus for Kidz

Who Am I?

5-Minute Quests Today's 5-Minute Quest

Answers to all questions can be found on this page or by using links provided on this page.
Good Luck!
5-Minute Quests

1. Who were the two candidates in the presidential debate that took place on this date in 1984? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

2. Who were the two candidates in the presidential debate that took place on this date in 1960? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

3. According to the Indiana Historical Society, what was James Whitcomb Riley's father's profession? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

Use all of these letters to spell the title of a work by James Whitcomb Riley:

1. On this date in 1993, who became the first African American to be selected for a Nobel Prize in literature? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

2. According to, in 1984 Desmond Tutu was the first black bishop of what South African city? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

3. According to the BBC, in what city was Yo-Yo Ma born? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

Use all of these letters to spell the name of a political or social leader born on this date:
(hint: all three questions will require you to use a link found on this page)

1. According to the Nobel Foundation, for what achievement was Niels Bohr awarded the 1922 Nobel Prize for Physics?

2. According to Stanford University, what group did Elijah Muhammad invite Dr. King to address in 1958?

3. According to the Commission on Presidential Debates, who was the moderator of the second Kennedy-Nixon Presidential Debate?

Use all of these letters to spell the title of an Amiri Baraka play that was produced in 1964 (according to Authors' Calendar):

Niels Bohr
Born on This Date 1885

[Nobel Foundation]

Physicist 1922 Nobel Laureate for Physics

Alice Dalgliesh
Born on This Date in 1893

The Junior Book of Authors, 1951

Young-adult Author

Elijah Muhammad
Born on This Date 1897

[Nation of Islam]

Religious & Civil Rights Leader

Desmond Tutu
Born on This Date 1931

[Nobel Foundation]

Catholic Bishop 1984 Nobel Laureate for Peace

YoYo Ma
Born on This Date 1955

[CMS of Minnesota]


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Libya: Jalau'tolian/Italian Fascist Evacuation Day
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Children's Authors & Illustrators
1849 James Whitcomb Riley (Indiana-born Poet, Children's Author) James Whitcomb Riley Primary Children's Author Poetry
1893 Alice Dalgliesh (Trinidad-American Children's Author) Alice Dalgliesh Young-adult Author
1929 Robert Westfall (English Children's Author) English Authors & Illustrators Young-adult Author
1942 Susan Jeffers (New Jersey-born Children's Author, Illustrator) New Jersey Authors & Illustrators Primary Children's Author American Artists
Authors, Poets, Playwrights and Journalists
1907 Helen Clark MacInnes (Scottish Author) Helen Clark MacInnes
1934 Amiri Baraka (New Jersey-born African-American Author, Playwright) Amiri Baraka Plays Famous African Americans
1935 Thomas Keneally (Australian Author) Thomas Keneally
1948 Diane Ackerman (Illinois-born Poet, Essayist) Illinois Authors Poetry Science Literature Writer's Almanac
1966 Sherman Alexie (Washington-born Native-American Poet, Essayist) Washington Authors and Illustrators Native American Authors & Illustrators Poetry Writer's Almanac
Artists, Architects and Designers
1887 Sargent Johnson (Massachusetts-born African-American Artist) Massachusetts Artists American Artists Famous African Americans African Americans Registry
1891 Archibald Motley, Jr. (New Orleans-born African-American Artist) New Orleans Artists American Artists African-American Artists African Americans Registry
Classical Composers & Performing Artists
1746 William Billings (Boston-born Composer of Hymns, Anthems) William Billings Religion
1955 Yo-Yo Ma (Asian-American Cellist) Yo-Yo Ma Classical Musicians Asian-American Studies
Scientists, Mathematicians & Inventors
1885 Niels Bohr (Danish Physicist; 1922 Nobel Laureate for Physics) Niels Bohr 1922 Nobel Laureate for Physics
1939 Harold W. Kroto (English Organic Chemist; 1996 Nobel Laureate for Chemistry) Harold W. Kroto Organic Chemistry 1996 Nobel Laureate for Chemistry
Philsopher, Educators, Religious Leaders
1866 Martha McChesney Berry (Georgia-born Educator) Georgia Political and Social Leaders Noted Educators Berry College
1897 Elijah Muhammad (Georgia-born African-American Religious Leader) Elijah Muhammad Islam U.S. Civil Rights African-American Political and Social Leaders
1912 Charleszetta "Mother" Waddles (Missouri-born African-American Religious Leader) Missouri Political and Social Leaders Detroit Political and Social Leaders Religious Leaders African-American Political and Social Leaders African Americans Registry
1931 Desmond Tutu (South African Religious Civil Rights Leader; 1984 Nobel Laureate for Peace) Desmond Tutu Catholicism Human Rights 1984 Nobel Laureate for Peace
Political & Social Leaders
1821 William Still (New Jersey-born African-American Abolitionist) New Jersey Political & Social Leaders Abolition African-American Political and Social Leaders
1888 Harry Wallace (Iowa-born Vice President of the United States) Iowa Political & Social Leaders President Franklin Roosevelt
1900 Heinrich Himmler (Head of Nazi SS) Heinrich Himmler World War II The Holocaust
1930 Edmond J. Gong (Florida-born Politician; First Chinese-American Elected to the Florida Legislature) Florida Political and Social leader Asian-American Political and Social Leaders
1952 Vladimir Putin (President of Russia) Vladimir Putin
Performing Artists
1911 Jonathan "Papa Jo" Jones (Chicago-born Jazz Musician) Chicago Performing Artists Jazz
1951 John Mellencamp (Indiana-born Popular Musician) John Mellencamp Popular Musicans
Sports Figures
1857 Moses Fleetwood Walker (Ohio-born African-American Baseball Player) Ohio Sports Figures Baseball African American Sports Figures
Notable Persons Who Have Died on This Date Persons of Historical Note Who Have Died on This Date
1849 Edgar Allan Poe (Massachusetts-born Author) Edgar Allan Poe American Authors
1883 Susanna Wilkerson Dickinson (Tennessee-born Survivor of the Alamo) Tennessee Explorer and Pioneers Texas Explorer and Pioneers The Alamo Texas State Historical Association
1950 Willis Haviland Carrier (New York-born Inventor of the First Practical Air Conditioner) Willis Carrier Inventors & Inventions Business Leader
1956 Clarence Birdseye (New York City-born Inventor of Frozen Foods) Clarence Birdseye Foods & Nutrition Inventors & Inventions
1991 Leo Durocher (Massachusetts-born Member of the Baseball Hall of Fame) Massachusetts Sports Figures Baseball Hall of Fame
2009 Irving Penn (New Jersey-born Photographer) Irving Penn Photography
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1691 New Charter Incorporates Maine and Plymouth into Massachusetts Colony Maine Massachusetts Colony Colonial History Massachusetts Archives
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1759 Indians Defeat Spanish Troops Along the Red River Spain Texas Native American Heritage Texas State Historical Association
1763 England's King George III Creates the Colonies of Quebec, East Florida, West Florida; Prohibiting Settlement West of the Appalachians England Canada Alabama Florida Virginia West Virginia King George III Colonial America Yale University Alabama State Archive Florida Historical Society Virginia Historical Society West Virginia State Archive
1765 The Colonial Stamp Act Congress Convenes in New York New York City The Stamp Act U.S. Treasury
1774 England's King George III Enacts the Quebec Act, Making Wisconsin Part of the Province of Quebec England Canada Wisconsin King George III Colonial America Wisconsin Historical Society
1777 The Second Battle of Saratoga Begins New York The Battle of Saratoga The Saratoga County Chamber of Commerce
1794 Construction Begins on Ash House, a Hudson's Bay Company Trading Post at the Mouth of Minnesota's Rainy River Minnesota Westward Expansion Minnesota Historical Society
Historical Events Occurring between 1800 - 1899
Travelling with Lewis and Clark

Clark: a Cloudy morning, Some little rain frost last night, we Set out early proceeded on 2 ½ miles to the mouth of a river [today, the Moreau River in Dewey County, South Dakota] on the Left Side and brackfast

this river whin full is 90 yards wide the water is at this time Confined within 20 yards, the Current appears jentle, this river throws out but little Sand at the mouth of this river we Saw the Tracks of White bear which was verry large, I walked up this river a mile— below the mouth of this river, is the remains of a Rickorrie [Recorees - Arikara Indians] Village or Wintering Camp fortified in a circular form of a bout 60 Lodges, built in the Same form of those passed yesterday This Camp appears to have been inhabited last winter, many of their willow & Straw mats, Baskets & Buffalow Skin Canoes [most likely bullboats] remain intire within the Camp

we proceeded on under a gentle Breeze from the S. W. at 10 oClock we Saw
2 Indians, on the S. S. they asked for Something to eate, & informed us they were part of the Beiffs De Medisons Lodge on their way to the Rickerreis

passd. a willow Island on the S. S.— wind hard from the South in the evening I walked on an Island nearly the middle of the river, one of the men killed a Shee Brarrow, another man killed a Black tail Deer, the largest Doe I ever Saw
(Black under her breast) this Island is nearly 1¼ ms. Squar no timbr high and Covered with grass wild rye and Contains Great numbers of Grouse, we proceeded on a Short distance above the Island and Camped on the S. S. a fine evening.

South Dakota Map: 10/06/04 Lewis & Clark Map: 09/01/04 Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery The Arikara Indians Sioux Indians Grouse Deer

The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Travelling with Lewis and Clark

Clark: I continu verry unwell but obliged to attend every thing all the Canoes put into the water and loaded, fixed our Canoes as well as possible and Set out as we were about to Set out we missd. both of the Chiefs who promised to accompany us; I also missed my Pipe Tomahawk which Could not be found.

The after part of the day Cloudy proceded on passed 10 rapids which wer danjerous the Canoe in which I was Struck a rock and Sprung a leak in the 3rd rapid, we proceeded on 20 miles and Encamped on a Stard point oppost a run. passed a Creek Small on the Lard. Side at 9 miles, a Short distanc from the river at 2 feet 4 Inches N. of a dead toped pine Treee had burid 2 Lead Canisters of Powder

Had the Canoes unloaded examined and mended a Small leake which we discovered in a thin place in her Side

passed Several old Camps of Indians to day

our Course and distance Shall be given after I get to the forks. &c.— which the Indians Say is the last of the bad water untill we get to the great falls 10 day below, where the white people live &c.

The Lodges are of Sticks set in a form of roof of a house & covered with mats and Straw

Whitehouse: This morning we had clear pleasant weather, all our party that were able were employed in getting the other three new Canoes into the River, which they effected. they got every thing in readiness on board of them and got them loaded. About 3 oClock P. M. we set out on our way to descend the River, & the 2 Indians of the Snake Nation, that came to Pilot us across the Mountains, agreed to continue with us.

We also had a chief & one Indian from the last Town we came through who also agreed to accompany us.— These two last Indians, set off down the River by land to go some distance, & intend to join our party again.

We then proceeded on our Voyage, and crossed a number of bad rapids, where our Canoes got fast, & obliged us to get out in the Water (that was cold) and hawl them off. we found the Water in some places deep, & the current running gentle for some distance.

The Rapids were very frequent & Shoal, the bottom of the River rockey, and the hills making close in to the River on both sides of it. There is some Clifts of rocks, lying along the Shore & a few scattering pine trees, growing on some of the hills which are mostly broken & covered with grass. We saw some few cotton wood Trees, growing on each side of the River along the Shore, We also found, that in some of the Rapids where we had plenty of water for our Canoes to pass, that the Waves ran so high that our Canoes took in a great deal of water, & we struck several Rocks, in passing over them, but the Rapidity of the stream forced us over them.—

We came about 27 Miles this day, and encamped on the North side of the River. The Canoe that our Officers went in, leaked so bad, that they were forced to unload it, & put their baggage into another Canoe, for fear of getting their Mathematical Instruments & baggage wet.

We passed this afternoon some old Indian Camps & saw a Canoe lying on the Shore. The Evening proved cloudy. One of our party was taken ill, this evening of a Cholic occasioned by being so much in the water.

Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery Native Americans
Lewis & Clark Map: 08/18/05 Clearwater County
The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska
1806 Britain's Ralph Wedgwood Secures the First Patent for Carbon Paper English Scientists, Mathematicians and Inventors Inventors & Inventions Patents & Trademarks Timelines Great Britain
1816 First Double-Decked Steamboat Washington Arrives in New Orleans New Orleans Steamboats Mississippi River History Channel
1840 King William I of the Netherlands Abdicates, Succeeded by His Son, William II The Netherlands The Dutch Monarchs
1844 Edgar Allan Poe Is Employed by the New York Evening Mirror As Critic and Subeditor New York City Edgar Allan Poe Journalism American Collection
1848 University of Wisconsin Board of Regents Meets Officially for the First Time in the State Capitol Wisconsin State Capitol Education Historic Firsts University of Wisconsin Wisconsin Historical Society
1854 In Eugene, Oregon, Mason Benson Is Indicted for Keeping a Grocery Open on Sunday Eugene, Oregon Business Religion Crime Separation of Church and State
1861 John Milton Becomes the Fifth Governor of Florida Florida Political and Social Leaders Florida Historical Society
In Tahlequah, Oklahoma, a Treaty Is Signed Aligning the Cherokee Nation with the Confederacy Tahlequah, Oklahoma Cherokee Historic U.S. Documents American Civil War Oklahoma State Library
1862 A Federal Army Transport Captures the Governor Milton on the St. Johns River near Enterprise, Florida Florida Naval Military History American Civil War Florida Historical Society
California Assembly Member Edward J. C. Kewen Is Arrested on Suspicion of Treasonous Language Disloyal to the Union California Political and Social Leaders Crime American Civil War LearnCalifornia
1864 Lee's Troops Are Repelled at Virginia's Darbytown Road Virginia Battle of Darbytown Road
Union Warship Wachusett Captures Confederate Ship Florida in Brazilian Port Brazil Naval Military History American Civil War History Channel Florida State Historical Society
1867 In Washington, the First Wagon Road Is Completed over Snoqualmie Pass through the Cascade Mountains Washington Westward Expansion Historic Firsts HistoryLink
1868 Andrew Dickson White Is Inaugurated As First President of Cornell University New York Education Cornell University Library of  Congress
Freedmen's Bureau Agent, William G. Kirkman, Is Assassinated in Boston, Texas Boston, Texas Racism Crime Reconstruction Death Texas State Historical Association
1872 The Cornerstone Is Laid for a Statue to Myles Standish in Duxbury, Massachusetts Massachusetts Plymouth Colony Massachusetts Foundation for the Humanities
1879 Germany & Austria Agree to Mutual Protection Alliance Germany Austria European History Brigham Young University
1884 Paragould Replaces Gainesville as the County Seat of Greene, County, Arkansas Greene, County, Arkansas Arkansas History Commission
1888 Georgia Tech University Is Formally Dedicated Georgia Education Georgia Tech University University of Georgia
1893 The Gilbert & Sullivan Operetta "Utopia Unlimited" Is First Performed at the Savoy Theatre in London London, England Composers Opera Historic Firsts American Public Media
1896 Wall Street Journal Begins Daily Publication of Dow Jones Industrial Average Markets & Investments Journalism Historic Firsts Chicago Board Options Exchange Wall Street Journal
Historical Events Occurring between 1900 - 1949
1904 Yankee Pitcher Jack Chesbro Records His 41st Season Win Massachusetts Sports Figures Baseball Hall of Fame USA Today
In Seattle, Washington's Moran Shipyard, the Battleship Nebraska Is Completed and Launched Seattle, Washington Nebraska Naval Military History HistoryLink
1910 In Minnesota, Forest Fires Destroy the Towns of Baudette and Spooner, Killing 21 People and Burning over 220,000 Acres of Land Minnesota Trees Fire Death Minnesota Historical Society
1911 The Ruby Record, a Weekly Newspaper, Is Established Ruby, Alaska Journalism Alaska Historical Society
1913 Henry Ford's Entire Automobile Factory Is First Run on a Moving Assembly Line Henry Ford Automobile Labor Firsts History Channel
1916 John W. Heisman's Georgia Tech Team Defeats Cumberland 222-0 College Football Hall of Fame USA Today
1918 Atlanta, GA Bans All Public Gatherings to Prevent Spread of Flu Epidemic Georgia Influenza University of Georgia
1920 Canadian Air Force Crew Leave Halifax on First trans-Canada Flight (10 days) Canada Aviation Royal Canadian Air Force
1922 World Series First Event Broadcast over a Network of Radio Stations Radio Baseball History of Technology Historic Firsts
1929 William Faulkner's Novel The Sound and the Fury Is Published William Faulkner American Authors American Collection
1931 Eastman Kodak Takes the First Short-Exposure Infrared Photograph Photography EMR Spectra Historic Firsts Center for Study of Technology and Society
1932 F. Scott Fitzgerald Publishes Save Me the Waltz F. Scott Fitzgerald American Authors American Collection
1935 Detroit Tigers Win Their First World Series Defeating the Cubs 4-3 in Game 6 Detroit Baseball Major League Baseball State of Michigan
Amelia Earhart Speaks to the Women's City Club in St. Paul, Minnesota St. Paul, Minnesota Female American Explorers and Aviators Amelia Earhart Aviation Minnesota Historical Society
1940 German Troops Enter Romania NAZI Germany Romania World War II History Channel
U.S. Postal Service Issues One-cent Stamp Commemorating Eli Whitney Eli Whitney USPS University of Georgia
1943 Japanese Execute 96 American Prisoners of War on Wake Island Japan World War II War Crimes Death History Channel
1949 The Republic of East Germany Is Formed Germany The Cold War New York Times
Historical Events Occurring between 1950 - 1999
1954 Marian Anderson Is First African-American Singer Hired by NYC Metropolitan Opera Metropolitan Opera Marian Anderson Opera African-American History Historic Firsts New York Times
IBM Displays the First All-transistor Calculator The Transistor History of Technology Historic Firsts ESD Journal
1955 Allen Ginsberg First Reads His Poem "Howl" at Six Gallery in San Francisco San Francisco New Jersey Authors & Illustrators Poetry History Channel
1958 Pakistan President Iskander Mirza Seizes Power, Imposes Martial Law Pakistan U.S. Department of State
1959 Soviet Luna 3 Takes First Photographs of the Far Side of the Moon Soviet Space Program The Moon Space Exploration Photography Historic Firsts NASA
1960 The Second Nixon-Kennedy Debate Is Held, Topic: Foreign Policy John F. Kennedy Richard Nixon The American Presidency The Kennedy-Nixon Debates History Channel
Route 66 First Airs Television The Internet Movie Database History Channel
1963 JFK Signs Nuclear Test Ban Treaty with Britain and the Soviet Union John F. Kennedy Great Britain Soviet Union Nuclear Arms Control Historic Documents New York Times
1964 U.S. Prints First $20 Federal Reserve Notes Bearing "In God We Trust" Currencies U.S. Treasury
1968 Motion Picture Association of America Adopts Rating System ( G to X) Film Motion Picture Association of America History Channel
1970 President Nixon Proposes 5-point Plan for Peace in Vietnam Richard Nixon Vietnam War History Channel
1975 Patent Granted to Ysidro M. Martinez for "Knee Implant Prosthesis" Medical Research Inventors & Inventions Patents & Trademarks USPTO
1981 Hosni Mubarak Selected to Succeed Assassinated Anwar Sadat Egypt New York Times
1982 Andrew Lloyd Webber-Tim Rice Cats Opens in New York City Andrew Lloyd Webber New York City Internet Broadway Database
1983 5.3 Magnitude Earthquake Rattles Upstate New York New York Earthquakes USGS
1984 Walter Payton Passes Jim Brown's NFL Career Rushing Record of 12,312 Yards Football Hall of Fame Football Hall of Fame New York Times
Ronald Reagan & Walter Mondale Meet in a Presidential Debate (Economics) Ronald Reagan The American Presidency History Channel
1985 Palestinians Hijack Italian Cruise Ship "Achille Lauro" Naval History War on Terrorism History Channel New York Times BBC
1989 Hungary's Communist Party Adopts Democratic Socialism Hungary Fall of Soviet Communism New York Times
1993 Toni Morrison Is First African-American Selected for the Nobel Prize in Literature Toni Morrison Famous African Americans Historic Firsts 1993 Nobel Laureate for Literature
Historical Events Occurring from 2000 to Present
2000 Vojislav Kostunica Is Yugoslavia's First Popularly elected President Yugoslavia New York Times
2001 U.S., Britain Launch Air Strikes Against Taliban & Terrorist Training Camps in Afghanistan Afghanistan War on Terrorism BBC
2003 Actor Arnold Schwarzenegger Ousts California Governor Gray Davis in Historic Recall Election California Political and Social Leaders Elections CNN