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Separation Bar
Nilo Cruz
Nilo Cruz
Born 1961

[South Coast Repertory]

Plays 2003 Pulitzer Prize for Drama

Salvadore Dali
Salvadore Dali
Born May 11, 1904



Teaching - there can be no finer calling requiring the clearest demonstration of moral and ethical behavior.
Ira Shull, For the Love of Teaching
Why do you teach? Let Us Know. Tell Us about your most memorable teacher.

Gnus for Kidz

Who Am I?

5-Minute Quests Today's 5-Minute Quest

Answers to all questions can be found on this page or by using links provided on this page.
Good Luck!
5-Minute Quests

1. In which country was Aleksis Kivi born? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

2. What Academy opened for its first term on this date in 1845? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

3. According to the U.S. Army, what school of nursing did Hazel Johnson attend? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

Use all of these letters to spell the title of an opera by Giuseppe Verdi (according to the Classical Net):

1. Who was selected as the Nobel Laureate for Economics on this date in 1995? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

2. According to PBS, where did Thelonious Monk's family move to when he was four? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

3. According to the Children's Book Council, Robert D. San Souci has a lifelong interest in what? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

Use all of these letters to spell the title of a work by Ken Saro-Wiwa (according to the Authors' Calendar):
(hint: all three questions will require you to use a link found on this page)

1. According to the BBC, in what year was Henry Cavendish elected to the Royal Academy?

2. According to the National Inventors Hall of Fame, for what invention did Elijah McCoy receive his first patent in 1872?

3. According to the Internet Broadway Database, for how many total performances did Porgy and Bess run after opening on Broadway on this date in 1935?

Use all of these letters to spell the title of a play by Harold Pinter (according to

Henry Cavendish
Born on This Date 1731

[Smithsonian Institution]


Giuseppe Verdi
Born on This Date 1813

Classical Composer

Thelonious Monk
Born on This Date 1917

[University of La Verne]

Jazz Musician

Hazel Winfred Johnson-Brown
Born on This Date 1927

[U.S. Army]

Military Nurse

Robert D. San Souci
Born on This Date 1946

[Official Website]

Primary Children's Literature

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Fiji: Independence Day
(Commemoration of independence from Great Britain: 10/10/1970)
Fiji Great Britain
Finland: Aleksis Kivi Birthday
(School holiday in celebration of the birth date of author Aleksis Kivi: 10/10/1834)
Finland Finnguide
Kenya: Moi Day
(Celebration of Daniel Arap Moi becoming President of Kenya: 10/1978)
Kenya World Travel Guide
Taiwan: National Day
(Observed in commemoration of the 10/10/1911 start of revolution that toppled the Manchu dynasty)
Taiwan Expedia
Oklahoma: Historical Day
(Observed in commemoration of the birth date of Pierre Chouteau, Sr.: 10/10/1758)
Oklahoma History Oklahoma State University
Children's Authors & Illustrators
1941 Ken Saro-Wiwa (Nigerian Children's Author, Rights Activist) Ken Saro-Wiwa Primary Children's Authors Human Rights
1946 James Marshall (Texas-born Children's Author) James Marshall Young-adult Authors
Robert D. San Souci (San Francisco-born Children's Author) Robert D. San Souci Primary Children's Authors
1948 Evelyn Gallardo (Los Angeles-born Photographer, Children's Author) Evelyn Gallardo Young-adult Author Photography Primates
Authors, Poets, Playwrights and Journalists
1834 Aleksis Kivi (Finnish Author) Finnish Authors
1892 Ivo Andric (Yugoslavian-born 1961 Nobel Laureate for Literature) Ivo Andric 1961  Nobel Laureate for Literature
1908 R.K. Narayan (Indian Author) R.K. Narayan
1913 Claude Simon (French-born 1985 Nobel Laureate for Literature) Claude Simon 1985 Nobel Laureate for Literature
1917 Robert N. Dow, Jr., (Florida-born Journalist; Managing Editor of the Jacksonville Journal ) Florida Authors and Illustrators Journalism Jacksonville Journal
1924 James Clavell (Australian Author) James Clavell
1930 Harold Pinter (English-born 2005 Nobel Laureate for Literature) Harold Pinter Plays 2005 Nobel Laureate for Literature
1963 Daniel Pearl (New Jersey-born Journalist) New Jersey Authors & Illustrators Journalists CNN Writer's Almanac
Artists, Architects and Designers
1684 Jean-Antoine Watteau (French Painter) ) French Artists Artists
1738 Benjamin West (Pennsylvania-born Painter) ) Benjamin West American Artists
1859 Maurice Prendergast (Canadian-born American Painter) Maurice Prendergast American Artists
1900 Alberto Giacometti (Swiss Sculptor) Swiss Artists
Classical Composers & Performing Artists
1813 Giuseppe Fortunino Frencesco Verdi (Italian Composer) Giuseppe Verdi Composers Opera
1906 Paul Creston (New York City-born Composer) New York City Composers American Composers
1938 Gloria Coates (Wisconsin-born Composer) Wisconsin Composers American Composers Wisconsin Historical Society
Scientists, Mathematicians & Inventors
1731 Henry Cavendish (English Chemist) Henry Cavendish Chemistry Hydrogren Water
1770 Benjamin Wright (Connecticut-born Engineer; Directed Construction of Erie Canal) Connecticut Scientists & Mathematicians Erie Canal
1892 Earle Dickson (Tennessee-born Inventor of the Band-Aid) Tennessee Scientists & Inventors Inventors & Inventions Health Care Johnson and Johnson
1908 Min-Chueh Chang (Chinese Pioneer in Human Anatomy & Reproduction) Min-Chueh Chang Human Anatomy & Reproduction
1936 Gerhard Ertl (German Physical Chemist; 2007 Nobel Laureate for Chemistry) Gerhard Ertl Catalysis 2007 Nobel Laureate for Chemistry
1829 Dandridge McRae (Arkansas-born Confederate General) Arkansas Military Figures American Civil War Arkansas History Commission
1927 Hazel Johnson (Pennsylvania-born African-American Military Leader) Hazel Johnson Famous American Military Leaders Famous African Americans
Political & Social Leaders
1758 Pierre Chouteau, Sr. (New Orleans-born Native-American Leader) Pierre Chouteau, Sr. Osage Indians Westward Expansion
1825 Paul Kruger (Former President of South Africa) South Africa
1830 Isabella II (Queen of Spain: 1833-1868) Spanish Political and Social Leaders
1901 Frederick Patterson (Washington, D.C.-born African-American Founder of the United Negro College Fund) Washington, D.C. Political and Social Leaders Educators of Note African-American Political and Social Leaders United Negro College Fund African American Registry
Performing Artists
1900 Helen Hayes (Washington, D.C.-born Actress) Helen Hayes Stage and Theater Film
1915 Harry "Sweets" Edison (Ohio-born African-American Jazz Trumpeter) Ohio Performing Artists American Performing Artists African-American Performing Internet Movie Database African American Registry
1914 Dorothy Lamour (New Orleans-born Actress) New Orleans Performing Artists Film
1917 Thelonious Monk (North Carolina-born African-American Jazz Pianist, Composer) Thelonius Monk Jazz Musicians Composers Famous African Americans
1926 Oscar Brown Jr. (Chicago-born African-American Actor, Director, Playwright, Songwriter, Lyricist, Activist, Essayist, Television Host) Chicago Performing Artists Film Television American Authors African-American Performing Artists Internet Movie Database
1941 Peter Coyote (New York City-born Actor) New York City Performing Artists Film
1946 Ben Vereen (Florida-born African-American Actor) Florida Performing Artists Stage and Theater Film Famous African Americans
1954 David Lee Roth (Indiana-born Popular Musician) Indiana Performing Artists Popular Musicians Internet Movie Database
1958 Tanya Tucker (Texas-born Country & Western Singer) Tanya Tucker Country & Western Musicians
1959 Bradley Whitford (Wisconsin-born Actor) Wisconsin Performing Artists American Performing Artists Television Internet Movie Database Wisconsin Historical Society
1963 Rebecca Pidgeon (Massachusetts-born Popular Musician) Massachusetts Performing Artists American Performing Artists Popular Musicians Internet Movie Database
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1920 Frank Sinkwich (Pennsylvania-born 1942 Heisman Trophy Winner) Pennsylvania Sports Figures College Football Hall of Fame 1942 Heisman Trophy Winner New Georgia Encyclopedia
1937 Bruce Devlin (Professional Golfer) Golf
1969 Brett Favre (Mississippi-born Professional Football Player) Mississippi Sports Figures Football Wisconsin Historical Society
Persons of Historic Significance Who Have Died on This Date Persons of Historic Significance Who Have Died on This Date
1929 Elijah McCoy (Canadian-born African-American Inventor) Elijah McCoy Steam Engine African American Scientists & Inventors
1985 Orson Welles (Wisconsin-born Actor, Writer, Director: "Citizen Kane") Orson Welles Radio Film
1998 Clark Clifford (Kansas-born Statesman, U.S. Presidential Advisor) Kansas Political and Social Leaders The American Presidency U.S. Goverment
2010 Solomon Burke (Pennsylvaniai-born African-American Member of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame) Solomon Burke rock and Roll Hall of Fame African-American Performing Artists
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Historical Events Occurring between 1502 - 1502
1502 University of Wittenberg, Germany, Opens and Classes Begin Germany Education Concordia
Historical Events Occurring between 1700 - 1799
1765 British Take Control of the French Fort de Chartres in the Illinois Territory Great Britain France Illinois Forts French & Indian War State of Illinois Illinois Historic Preservation Agency Indiana Historical Society
1774 The Battle of Point Pleasant Is Fought Great Britain Virginia West Virginia Ohio American Revolution West Virginia State Archives Ohio Historical Society
1794 Russians Crush Kosciuszko's Rebel Army at Maciejowice, Poland Russia Poland War Catholic Encyclopedia
1795 The United States Mint Hires Its First Two Female Employees U.S. Government Women Historic Firsts U.S. Treasury
Historical Events Occurring between 1800 - 1899
1804 Snow Hurricane Buries Massachusetts Masachusetts Hurricane Snow Massachusetts Foundation for the Humanities
1805 Members of the Corps of Discovery Are the First Euro-Americans to Enter What Will be the State of Washington Washington Lewis & Clark Westward Expansion Historic Firsts HistoryLink
Travelling with Lewis and Clark

Clark: a find Morning loaded and Set out at 7 oClock at 2½ miles passed a run on the Stard. Side haveing passed 2 Islands and two bad rapids at 3 miles lower passed a Creek on the Lard. with wide Cotton willow bottoms

haveing passed an Island and a rapid an Indian Camp of three Lodgs below the Creek at 8½ miles lower we arrived at the heade of a verry bad riffle at which place we landed near 8 Lodges of Indians on the Lard Side to view the riffle, haveing passed two Islands & six rapids Several of them verry bad—

after view'g this riffle two Canoes were taken over verry well; the third Stuck on a rock which took us an hour to get her off which was effected without her receving a greater injurey than a Small Split in her Side which was repared in a Short time, we purchased fish & dogs of those people, dined and proceeded on—

here we met with an Indian from the falls at which place he Sais he Saw white people, and expressd an inclination to accompany us,

we passd a fiew miles above this riffle 2 Lodges and an Indian batheing in a hot bath made by hot Stones thrown into a pon of water...... at this I can observe at a distance on the lower Stard. Side a high ridge of Thinly timbered Countrey the water of the South fork is a greenish blue, the north as clear as cristial Imediately in the point is an Indian Cabin & in the South fork a Small Island, we came to on the Stard. Side

The Indians Came down all the Couses of this river on each Side on horses to view us as we were desending,— The man whome we saw at the ruged rapid and expressed an inclination to accompany us to the great rapids, came up with his Son in a Small Canoe and procisted in his intentions—

worthey of remark that not one Stick of timber on the river near the frks and but a fiew trees for a great distance up the River we decended

[They had arrived at the junction of the Clearwater and Snake rivers, on the Washington-Idaho boundary, between Lewiston, Nez Perce County, Idaho, and Clarkston, Asotin County, Washington. The captains first called the Snake the Kimooenem, then called it Lewis's River, considering it the continuation of the Lemhi and Salmon river, to which they had given this name]

a miss understanding took place between Shabono one of our interpreters, and Jo. & R Fields which appears to have originated in just—

our diet extremely bad haveing nothing but roots and dried fish to eate, all the Party have greatly the advantage of me, in as much as they all relish the flesh of the dogs, Several of which we purchased of the nativs for to add to our Store
of fish and roots &c. &c.—

The Cho-pun-nish or Pierced nose Indians are Stout likeley men, handsom women, and verry dressey in their way, the dress of the men are a white Buffalow robe or Elk Skin dressed with Beeds which are generally white, Sea Shells—i e the Mother of Pirl hung to ther hair & on a pice of otter Skin about their necks hair Cewed in two parsels hanging forward over their Sholders, feathers, and different Coloured Paints which they find in their Countrey Generally white, Green & light Blue. Some fiew were a Shirt of Dressed Skins and long legins, & Mockersons Painted, which appears to be their winters dress, with a plat of twisted grass about their necks

The women dress in a Shirt of Ibex, or Goat Skins which reach quite down to their anckles without a girdle, their heads heads are not ornemented, their Shirts are ornemented with quilled Brass, Small peces of Brass Cut into different forms, Beeds, Shells & curios bones &c. The men expose those parts which are generally kept from few by other nations but the women are more perticular than any other nation which I have passed in Screting the parts

Their amusements appear but fiew as their Situation requires the utmost exertion to prcure food they are generally employed in that pursute, all the Summer & fall fishing for the Salmon, the winter hunting the deer on Snow Shoes in the plains and takeing care of ther emence numbers of horses, & in the Spring cross the mountains to the Missouri to get Buffalow robes and meet &c. at which time they frequent meet with their enemies & lose their horses & maney of ther people

Ther disorders are but fiew. they make great use of Swetting. The hot and cold baethes, They are verry Selfish and Stingey of what they have to eate or ware, and they expect in return Something for everything give as presents or the Survices which they doe let it be however Small, and fail to make those returns on their part.

Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery Native Americans
Lewis & Clark Map: 10/10/05 Whitman County
The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska
1835 The First Issue of the Telegraph and Texas Register Is First Published Texas Journalism Texas State Historical Society
1845 United States Naval Academy Opens for Its First Term Maryland Education Naval. History Library of Congress
1848 Residents of Santa Fe Meet to Petition the U.S. Congress to Organize a New Mexico Territorial Government Santa Fe, New Mexico U.S. Congress Westward Expansion New Mesxico Magazine
1850 Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Completed: D.C. to Cumberland, MD Maryland Washington, D.C. Chesapeake & Ohio Canal
1851 Benjamin R. Curtis Is Sworn In As Associate Justice of U.S. Supreme Court Massachusetts Political and Social Leaders U.S. Supreme Court Oyez
1861 General Edmund Kirby Smith, a Native of St. Augustine, Is Named to Command the Confederate Districts of Middle and Eastern Florida St. Augustine, Florida The American Civil Florida Historical Society
1862 The Augustana Synod of the Lutheran Church Gives Permission to Open an Academy That Will Become Gustavus Adolphus College Minnesota Education Education Religion Gustavus Adolphus College Minnesota Historical Society
1863 Denver's First Telegraph Office Opens for Business Colorado The Telegraph Rootsweb
A Company of 8th U.S. Colored Troops Is Raised in Delaware's Kent and Sussex Counties Delaware American Civil War African-American Military Figures State of Delaware
1864 Canada's Fathers of Confederation Convene in Quebec City for 17 Days The British North America Act Founders' Hall
1868 Cuba Begins 10-year War with Spain When Carlos Manuel de Céspedes Frees His Slaves Cuba Spain Slavery War Thinkquest
1877 Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer Is Buried at West Point, New York George Armstrong Custer History Channel
1881 Charles Darwin Publishes Work on Mold and Worms Charles Darwin Literature Worms History Channel
1886 Tuxedo Dinner Jacket First Worn in America in Tuxedo Park, NY New York Art & Design Historic Firsts New York Times
1890 The First Bloys Camp Meeting Is Held in Skillman's Grove, TX Texas Religion Texas State Historical Society
1892 George Shiras, Jr. Is Sworn In As Associate Justice of U.S. Supreme Court Pennyslvania Political and Social Leaders U.S. Supreme Court Oyez
1896 Cuban Patriot Leaders L. Figueredo and Martin Herrera Speak at a Benefit Ball for Cuban Refugees in Tampa, Florida Cuba Tampa, Florida Latin-American Heritage Florida Historical Society
1899 African-American Inventor, I.R. Johnson, Patents a Bicycle Frame Patents & Trademarks Bicycling Inventors & Inventions African-American Scientists & Inventors St/ Louis Public Library
Historical Events Occurring between 1900 - 1949
1901 Henry Ford Defeats Alexander Winton in Grosse Point, Michigan Auto Race Michigan Henry Ford Auto Racing Henry Ford Museum
1905 President Theodore Roosevelt Designates Passage Key in Florida's Tampa Bay as a Protected Breeding Reservation for Water Birds Florida Parks President Theodore Roosevelt Birds Earth Science Passage Key Florida Historical Society
1908 Edith Wharton's A Motor-Flight through France Is Published Edith Wharton American Authors American Collection
1910 Charles Evans Hughes Is Sworn In As Associate Justice of U.S. Supreme Court New York Political and Social Leaders U.S. Supreme Court Oyez
Forrmer President Theodore Roosevelt Speaks at the Arkansas State Fair in Hot Springs Hot Springs, Arkansas Theodore Roosevelt Arkansas History Commission
1911 Revolutionaries Under Sun Yat-sen Overthrow China's Manchu Dynasty Sun Yat-sen New York Times
California Women Win the Right to Vote California Women Women's Suffrage LearnCalifornia
Henry Ford Receives Transmission Patent Henry Ford Automobiles Patents & Trademarks U.S. Patent and Trademark Office
1913 Via Telegraph, President Wilson Ignites Charge to Join Atlantic & Pacific in Panamá The Panamá Canal President Woodrow Wilson Rivers, Streams & Canals The Telegraph CNN
1917 In Minnesota, the St. Paul Public Library Opens Its New Building St. Paul, Minnesota Libraries and Reference Resources St. Paul Public Library Minnesota Historical Society
1918 In Minnesota, a Forest Fire Begins That Will Burn 38 Communities and Kill 435 People Minnesota Trees Fire Safety Death Minnesota Historical Society
1923 Ernest and Hadley Hemingway's First Child, John Hadley Nicanor Is Born Ernest Hemingway American Authors American Collection
A Special Session of the Arkansas General Assembly Passes the Harrelson Road Law Creating a 6,700-mile State Highway System Arkansas Government Transportation Encyclopedia  of Arkansas History and Culture Arkansas History Commission
1926 St. Louis Cardinals Defeat the New York Yankees Game Seven of the World Series Missouri New York City Baseball Major League Baseball New York Times
1931 St. Louis Cardinals' Spitball Pitcher Burleigh Grime Beats the Philadelphia Athletics, 4-2, in the 7th Game of the World Series Missouri Sports Figures Pennsylvania Sports Figures Major League Baseball Baseball Hall of Fame Wisconsin Historical Society
1933 Waldo Lonsbury Semon Patents Vinyl Alabama Scientists & Inventors Patents and Trademarks Inventors & Inventions Organic Chemistry Center for Technology and Society
Western Hemisphere Nations Sign Non-aggression Treaty World History Yale University
1935 George Gershwin's Porgy and Bess Opens on Broadway New York City George Gershwin Musical Theater History Channel Internet Broadway Database American Public Media
1938 Nazi Germany Completes Its Annexation of Czechoslovakia's Sudetenland Czech Republic Slovakia Nazi Germany Munich Pact New York Times
Forest Fire Kills 21 People in Minnesota's Arrowhead Region Minnesota Trees Fire Safety Death Minnesota Historical Society
1943 Chiang Kai-shek Takes Oath of Office as President of China Chiang Kai-shek New York Times
1944 800 Gypsy Children Gassed to Death at Auschwitz Adolph Hitler The Holocaust World History Death History Channel
1949 A Wind Storm Sweeps through Minnesota, Causing $10M Damage to Corn Crops and $1M Property Damage in St. Paul St. Paul, Minnesota Wind Farming & Agriculture Economics Minnesota Historical Society
Historical Events Occurring between 1950 - 1999
1951 Fire Destroys the Lathrop Building in Cordova, Alaska - a $500,000 Loss Cordova, Alaska Fire Safety Business Alaska Historical Society
1957 Ayn Rand's Atlas Shrugged is Published Ayn Rand's Authors American Collection
President Eisenhower Apologizes to Ghanian Diplomat Refused Restaurant Service in Delaware Ghana Delaware President Dwight Eisehower Racism History Channel
1963 Emory Bennett Causeway Opens Across Florida's Indian River Florida Automobiles Bridges Florida Historical Society
Residents of Rock County, Wisconsin Visit Clinics to Receive the Sabin Oral Vaccine Against Polio Rock County, Wisconsin Polio Wisconsin Historical Society
1965 The Supremes First Appear on Ed Sullivan Show Popular Music Television Famous African Americans Internet Movie Database
1966 The Beach Boys Release "Good Vibrations" Popular Music
1968 Detroit Tigers Win World Series Game Seven Against St. Louis Detroit Missouri Major League Baseball State of Michigan
1970 Fiji Gains Its Independence from the United Kingdom Fiji Great Britain New York Times
The FLQ French Separatists Kidnap Quebec's Labor Minister Québec Terrorism BBC
1973 Vice-President Spiro Agnew Resigns, Pleads No Contest to Federal Tax Evasion Richard Nixon Crime History Channel New York Times Merriam-Webster
1975 Richard Burton and Liz Taylor Remarry Liz Taylor Film BBC
1978 President Jimmy Carter Signs Bill Authorizing Susan B. Anthony $1 Coin President Jimmy Carter Currency U.S. Treasury
1979 Film 'The Rose,' Loosely Based on the Life of Janis Joplin, Premieres in Los Angeles Los Angeles Janis Joplin Film Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
1980 7.7 Magnitude Earthquake Kills 5,000, Injures 9,000 in Algeria Algeria Earthquake Death USGS
Martin Luther King, Jr. National Historic Site and Preservation District Is Established in Atlanta Georgia Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. National Park Service University of Georgia
"Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front" (FMLN) Founded in El Salvador El Salvador War on Terror Britannica
1982 Milwaukee Brewers Are the First Team to Win a League Championship Series After Trailing 2 Games to 0 Wisconsin Sports Figures Major League Baseball Historic Firsts Wisconsin Historical Society
1985 Hijacking of the Italian Cruise Ship Achille Lauro Ends Italy Naval History War on Terrorism History Channel
1986 5.5 Magnitude Earthquake Kills 10,000, Injures 9,000 in El Salvador El Salvador Earthquake Death USGS
1995 Robert E. Lucas Jr. Selected as Nobel Prize Laureate for Economics Robert E. Lucas Jr Economics The 1995 Nobel Prize for Economics History Channel
Historical Events Occurring from 2000 to present
2001 President George W. Bush Releases List of 22 Most-wanted Terrorists President George W. Bush Terrorism New York Times
2002 U.S. House Votes to Give President Bush Authority to Attack Iraqi U.S. Congress President George W. Bush War in Iraq New York Times
2003 Minnesota Dedicates Memorial to Three African-Americans Hanged in Duluth Minnesota African-American Heritage Racism African American Heritage
2004 Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed Is Elected President of Somalia Somalia U.S. Department of State
2007 German Physical Chemist Gerhard Ertl Is Selected as the 2007 Nobel Laureate for Chemistry on His 71st Birthday Gerhard Ertl Catalysis 2007 Nobel Laureate for Chemistry