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Separation Bar
Tony Gonzalez
Tony Gonzalez
Born c. Feb 27, 1976

[Sports Illustrated]


Oscar Arias Sánchez
Oscar Arias Sánchez
Born: Sep 13, 1941

[Nobel Foundation]

1987 Nobel Laureate for Peace

Teaching - there can be no finer calling requiring the clearest demonstration of moral and ethical behavior.
Ira Shull, For the Love of Teaching
Why do you teach? Let Us Know. Tell Us about your most memorable teacher.

Gnus for Kidz

Who Am I?

5-Minute Quests Today's 5-Minute Quest

Answers to all questions can be found on this page or by using links provided on this page.
Good Luck!
5-Minute Quests

1. Who scored a goal with his first NHL shot on this date in 1984? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

2. Who did the Confederate Congress exempt from military duty on this date in 1862? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

3. According to the U.S. Military Academy, Roscoe Robinson, Jr. was the first African American to achieve what rank? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

Use all of these letters to spell the title of a 1980s research book by Russell Freedman (according to the University of Southern Mississippi):

1. Which Indians ceded all lands west of the Mississippi on this date in 1842? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

2. According to the Library of Congress, how were Eleanor Roosevelt and Franklin Roosevelt related before they were married? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

3. According to National Public Radio, how large was the band used by Coleman Hawkins when he recorded "Body and Soul" on this date in 1939? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

Use all of these letters to spell the title of a novel by Elmore Leonard (according to the Writer's Almanac):
(hint: all three questions will require you to use a link found on this page)

1. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, what is Fausto de Elhuyar's most celebrated work?

2. Henry John Heinz was the founder of the F.J. Heinz Company, and, according to the company, what was their first product?

3. Who was selected for the Nobel Prize for Literature the same year that Pioneer I failed to reach the Moon?

Use all of these letters to spell the title of a Will Rogers film:

Fausto Elhuyar
Born on This Date 1755

[University of Pennsylvania]


Eleanor Roosevelt
Born on This Date 1884

[The White House]

Franklin Roosevelt

Roscoe Robinson, Jr.
Born on This Date 1928

[Father Ryan High School]

American Military Leaders

Russell Freedman
Born on This Date 1929

[Houghton Mifflin]

Young-adult Authors

Orlando Hernandez
Born on This Date 1929



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1759 Mason Locke Weems (Maryland-born Clergyman, Author of Fictional Tale of George Washington and the Cherry Tree) Maryland Authors & Illustrators George Washington Writer's Almanac
1929 Russell Freedman (San Francisco-born Children's Author: 1988 Newbery Medal Winner) Russell Freedman Young-adult Authors 1988 Newbery Medal Winner
1817 John Thadeus Delane (English Editor) English Authors & Illustrators
1881 Stark Young (Mississippi-born Playwright, Poet) Mississippi Authors & Illustrators Plays Poetry
1885 François Mauriac (French Novelist, 1952 Nobel Laureate for Literature) François Mauriac 1952 Nobel Laureate for Literature
1910 Joseph Alsop (Connecticut-born Journalist) Connecticut Authors & Illustrators Journalism
1925 Elmore Leonard (New Orleans-born Crime Novelist) Elmore Leonard
1967 Ben Marcus (Chicago-born Short Story Writer, Novelist) Chicago Authors & Illustrators Official Website Writer's Almanac
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1755 Fausto Elhuyar (Spanish Chemist, Geologist) Fausto Elhuyar Chemistry Mineralogy Tungsten
1855 James Gayley (Pennsylvania-born Metallurgist/Engineer) Pennsylvania Scientists and Mathematicians Center for Study of Technology and Society
1844 Henry John Heinz (Pennsylvania-born Founder of Heinz Foods) John Henry Heinz Foods and Nutrition
1906 Charles Revson (Massachusetts-born Business Entrepreneur; Founded Revlon Cosmetics Line) Massachusetts Business Leaders Revlon
1928 Roscoe Robinson Jr. (Missouri-born African-American Military Leader) Roscoe Robinson, Jr. U.S. Military Leaders Famous African Americans
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1814 Jean Baptiste Lamy (French-American Archbishop in New Mexico) French Political and Social Leaders New Mexico Political and Social Leaders Religious Leaders and Theologians Catholicism New Mexico Magazine
1820 George Williams (English-born Founder of the YMCA) George Williams YMCA
1872 Harland Fiske Stone (New Hampshire-born Associate Justice (1925-41) and Chief Justice (1941-5) of the U.S. Supreme Court) New Hampshire Political & Social Leaders U.S. Supreme Court Oyez
1884 Eleanor Roosevelt (New York-born Humanitarian, Wife of U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt) Eleanor Roosevelt Franklin Roosevelt
1918 Jerome Robbins (New York City-born Choreographer) Jerome Robbins Dance
1919 Art Blakey (Pennsylvania-born African-American Jazz Musician) Pennsylvania Performing Artists Jazz Famous African Americans African American Registry
1932 Dottie West (Tennessee-born Country and Western Singer) Tennessee Performing Artists Country & Western Musicians
1936 Billy Higgins (Los Angeles-born African-American Jazz Musician) Los Angeles Performing Artists Jazz African American Performing Artists African American Registry
1941 Lester Bowie (Maryland-born African-American Jazz Trumpeter) Maryland Performing Artists Jazz African American Performing Artists African American Registry
1949 Daryl Hall (Pennsylvania-born Popular Musician) Pennsylvania Performing Artists Popular Musicians Internet Movie Database
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1966 Luke Perry (Ohio-born Actor) Ohio Performing Artists American Performing Artists Television Film Internet Movie Database
1961 Steve Young (Utah-born Member of the Professional Football Hall of Fame) Utah Professional Football Hall of Fame
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1303 Pope Boniface VIII (Italian-born Pope of the Catholic Church) Italian Political and Social Leaders Religion Catholic Popes
1531 Huldreich Zwingli (Swiss Militant Religious Reformer) Swiss Political and Social Leaders Religion
1779 General Casimir Pulaski (Polish Nobleman, Killed Fighting for American Independence During the Revolutionary War Battle of Savannah, GA) General Casimir Pulaski American Revolution
1809 Meriwether Lewis (Virginia-born Explorer (Lewis and Clark Corps of Discovery): Possibly Murdered) Meriwether Lewis Lewis and Clark Expedition Virginia Historical Association
1878 Satanta (Texas-born Kiowa Chief) Texas Satanta Native-American Studies Westward Expansion Handbook of Texas
1896 Anton Bruckner (Austrian Composer) Anton Bruckner Composers
1926 Henry L. Fuqua (Governor of Louisiana: 1924-1926) Louisiana Political and Social Leaders
1965 Dorothea Lange (New Jersey-born Photographer) Dorothea Lange Photography
1982 Edith Quimby (Illinois-born Pioneer in the Study of Radiation) Illinois Scientists and Mathematicians Radiation Intellihealth
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1776 Benedict Arnold Suffers Heavy Losses on Lake Champlain Benedict Arnold The American Revolution Naval History New York Times
1779 Casimir Pulaski Is Killed at the Battle of Savannah, Georgia General Casimir Pulaski Georgia American Revolution Death New York Times
Travelling with Lewis and Clark

Clark: a fine morning the wind from the S. E. at 11 oClock we met the Grand Chief in Council & and he made a Short Speech thanking us for what we had Given him & his nation promisseing to attend to the Council we had given him & informed us the road was open & no one dare Shut it, & we might Departe at pleasure,

At 1 oClock we Set out for the upper villages 3 miles distant, the Grand Chief & nephew on board, proceeded on at 1 mile took in the 2d Chief & Came too off the first Second village Seperated from the 3rd by a Creek after arrangeing
all matters we walked up with the 2d Chief to his village, and Set talking on various Subjects untile late we also visited the upper or 3rd Village each of which gave us Something to eate in their way, and a fiew bushels of Corn Beens

After being treated by everry civility by those people who are both pore & Durtey we returned to our boat at about 10 oClk. P M. informing them before we Departed that we would Speek to them tomorrow at there Seperate Villages. Those people gave us to eate bread made of Corn & Beens, also Corn & Beans boild. a large Been which they rob
the mice of the Prarie which is rich & verry nurrishing also squashes all Tranquillity.

[*The bean is the product of the hog peanut or ground bean plant, Amphicarpa bracteata The Arikaras obtained them from the underground stores of the meadow mouse or vole, Microtus pennsylvanicus. It is said that they always left some other food in its place for the mice.]

Lewis: we met in Council to hear what the Grand Chief Ka kaw issassa had to Say in answer to the Speech of yesterday The Grand Chief rose and spoke as follows —

My Fathers—! My heart is glader than it ever was before to See my fathers.— a repetition.

If you want the road open no one Can provent it it will always be open for you.

Can you think any one Dare put their hands on your rope of your boat. No! not one dar

When you Get to the mandans we wish you to Speak good words with that Nation for us. we wish to be at peace with them.

It gives us pain that we do not Know how to work the Beaver, we will make Buffalow roabs the best we Can.

when you return if I am living you will See me again the same man. The Indian in the prarie know me and listen to my words, when you [come] they will meet to See you.

We Shall look at the river with impatienc for your return. Finished

South Dakota Map: 10/08/04 Lewis & Clark Map: 10/08/04 Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery The Arikara Indians
Meadow Vole Hog Peanut

The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Travelling with Lewis and Clark

Clark: a cloudy morning wind from the East

We Set out early and proceeded on passed a rapid at two miles, at 6 miles we came too at Some Indian lodges and took brackfast, we purchased all the fish we could and Seven dogs of those people for Stores of Provisions down the river.

at this place I saw a curious Swet house under ground, with a Small whole at top to pass in or throw in the hot Stones, which those in threw on as much water as to create the temporature of heat they wished—

at 9 mile passed a rapid at 15 miles halted at an Indian Lodge, to purchase provisions of which we precred some of
the Pash-he-quar roots five dogs and a few fish dried, after takeing Some dinner of dog &c we proceeded on.

Came to and encamped at 2 Indian Lodges at a great place of fishing here we met an Indian of a nation near the mouth of this river. we purchased three dogs and a fiew fish of those Indians,

we Passed today nine rapids all of them great fishing places, at different places on the river saw Indian houses and Slabs & Spilt timber raised from the ground being the different parts of the houses of the natives when they reside on this river for the purpose of fishing at this time they are out in the Plain on each side of the river hunting the antilope
as we are informed by our Chiefs, near each of those houses we observe Grave yards picketed, or pieces of wood stuck in permiscuesly over the grave or body which is Covered with earth,

The Country on either Side is an open plain leavel & fertile after assending a Steep assent of about 200 feet not a
tree of any kind to be Seen on the river The after part of the day the wind from the S. W. and hard. The day worm.

Gass: We set out early in a fine morning; proceeded on about 6 miles, and halted at some lodges of the natives, where we got fish and several dogs. We continued here about an hour and then went on. No accident happened to
day though we passed some bad rapids.

In the evening we stopped at some Indian camps and remained all night, having come 30 miles. Here we got more
fish and dogs. Most of our people having been accustomed to meat, do not relish the fish, but prefer dog meat;
which, when well cooked, tastes very well.

Here we met an Indian of another nation, who informed us we could get to the falls in 4 days: which I presume are not very high as the salmon come above them in abundance.

The country on both sides is high dry prairie plains without a stick of timber. There is no wood of any kind to be seen except a few small willows along the shore; so that it is with difficulty we can get enough to cook with. The hills on the river are not very high, but rocky; the rocks of a dark colour. The bed and shores of the river are very stony; and the stones of a round smooth kind.

Whitehouse: We saw among these Indians some pieces of a fishing Seine, which we supposed must have come
from some Civilized nation. We also saw among them a Copper Teakettle.

We continued on our way, & saw a number of fishing Camps, where the Natives come to fish in the Spring of the
Year. We also saw Stones piled up in Rows, so that when the River is high the Salmon lies along side the Rocks, at which place the Natives kill them with a Gig.—

Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery Native Americans
Lewis & Clark Map: 10/10/05 Whitman County
The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska
1811 Juliana, First Steam-powered Ferry, Put into Operation Steam Engines Naval History New York Times
The New Orleans, the First Steamboat to Travel on the Ohio River, Passes Madison, Indiana Madison, Indiana Steamboats Ohio River Indiana Historical Society
1841 Boston-Area Utopians Purchase Brook Farm in West Roxbury Boston, Massachusetts Great Brook Farm State Park Massachusetts Foundation for the Humanities
Patent Granted for the Collapsible Toothpaste Tube Patents & Trademarks Inventors & Inventions USPTO
1842 Sauk and Fox Indians Cede All Lands West of the Mississippi Sauk Indians Fox Indians Historic Documents University of Tulsa University of Tulsa
1853 Cornerstone Is Set for Monument to Casimir Pulaski in Savannah, Georgia General Casimir Pulaski Georgia American Revolution Iowa State Historical Society
1861 Confederate Forces in Tampa Capture Sloops William Batty and Lyman Dudley Florida American Civil War Naval History Florida State Historical Society
1862 Confederate Congress Exempts from Military Duty Anyone Owning More Than 20 Slaves American Civil War PBS
Federal Forces Evacuate the City of Jacksonville, Florida Florida American Civil War Florida State Historical Society
J.E.B. Stuart's Confederate Cavalry Raids Chambersburg, PA Pennsylvania Chambersburg History Channel
1865 President Andrew Johnson Paroles Confederate Vice President Alexander Stephens President Andrew Johnson American Civil War University of Georgia
1878 Kiowa Leader Satanta Commits Suicide Rather Than Face Life in Prison Texas Satanta Native-American Studies Westward Expansion Handbook of Texas
1880 Rutherford B. Hayes Visits Seattle as the First President to Travel West of the Rocky Mountains Seattle, Washington President Rutherford B. Hayes Historic Firsts HistoryLink
1881 David Henderson Houston Is Granted a Patent for Roll Film Scottish Scientists & Inventors Patents & Trademarks Inventors & Inventions Photography State of North Dakota
1887 Cincinnati's Granville T. Woods Receives Patent for a Telephone System Granville T. Woods Patents & Trademarks Inventors & Inventions African-American Scientists and Inventors African American Registry
Alexander Miles Patents an Improved Elevator Patents & Trademarks Inventors & Inventions African-American Scientists and Inventors St. Louis Public  Library
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Kentucky State University Opens Its Doors with 3 Teachers and 55 Students Kentucky Education Education African-American Heritage Kentucky State University
1890 Daughters of the American Revolution Founded The American Revolution Women Daughters of the American Revolution
1906 San Francisco School Board Orders Segregation of "Orientals" San Francisco Asian-American Studies Harpers Weekly
1915 At Anchorage, Alaska, All 10 Persons on Board Escape as the River Steamboat Tyconda Burns Anchorage, Alaska Steamboats Fire Safety Alaska Historical Society
1918 7.5 Magnitude Earthquake and Tsunami Kill 116 in Puerto Rico Puerto Rico Earthquake Tsunami Death USGS
1919 The Chesapeake and Delaware Canal Is Transferred from Private Ownership to Federal Control Delaware Canals U.S. Army Corps of Enigneers State of Delaware
1923 C.T. Davis Is Named the Poet Laureate of Arkansas Arkansas Authors Poetry Arkansas History Commission
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1927 Charles Lindbergh Arrives in Atlanta, GA in the "Spirit of St. Louis" Georgia Charles Lindbergh University of Georgia
1929 Will Rogers Appears in His First "Talkie" Will Rogers Film History Channel
1939 President Roosevelt Considers Einstein's Letter Urging Development of U.S. Atomic Program President Franklin Roosevelt Albert Einstein Nuclear Weapons U.S. Department of Energy
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Coleman Hawkins Records "Body and Soul" Coleman Hawkins Jazz & Blues African-American Performing Artists National Public Radio
1941 Macedonian Resistance Units Begin Combating Fascist Occupation Macedonia Germany Italy Bulgaria Albania History of Macedonia
1942 U.S. Ships Defeat Japanese in Battle of Cape Esperance World War II Naval History History Channel
1944 To Have and Have Not Premieres Humphrey Bogart Film History Channel
1946 Roy Lee Harmon Is Appointed West Virginia's Poet Laureate for the Second Time West Virginia Authors & Illustrators Poetry West Virginia State Archives
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1954 Viet Minh Take Control of Hanoi & North Vietnam Vietnam History Channel
1958 Pioneer I Fails to Reach the Moon - Falls Back to Earth Lunar Exploration Space Exploration New York Times
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1979 U.S. Postal Service Issues Post Card Commemorating Death of Casimir Pulaski General Casimir Pulaski American Revolution U.S. Postal Service University of Georgia
1980 Second Earthquake in Three Hours Hits Algeria Algeria Earthquake Death BBC
1982 The Sunken (1545) Mary Rose Is Raised to the Surface Mary Rose King Henry VIII of England Naval History Official Website BBC
1983 Last U.S. Phone Call Using a Hand-crank Phone, Made in Bryant Pond, ME Maine Telephone
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1986 U.S. President Ronald Reagan and Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev Meet in Reykjavik, Iceland Iceland Mikhail Gorbachev Ronald Reagan The Cold War History Channel
1988 Computer Successfully Factors 100-digit Number Mathematics History of Technology Center for Study of Technology and Society
1991 Confirmation Hearings Begin for Justice Clarence Thomas U.S. Congress U.S. Supreme Court African-American History New York Times
1996 The Red Cliff Tribe of Wisconsin Is the First Native American Tribe to File a Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF)Plan Wisconsin Native-American Heritage Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF)Plan Red Cliff Band Wisconsin Historical Society
1998 Pope John Paul II Canonizes Jewish-born Edith Stein, Catholic Nun Killed at Auschwitz Pope John Paul II Judaism Holocaust New York Times
2002 Former President Jimmy Carter Announced As 2002 Nobel Laureate for Peace Jimmy Carter Nobel Foundation New York Times