The United Nations


The United Nations
Teaching - there can be no finer calling requiring the clearest demonstration of moral and ethical behavior.
Ira Shull, For the Love of Teaching
Why do you teach? Let Us Know. Tell Us about your most memorable teacher.

Gnus for Kidz

Who Am I?

5-Minute Quests Today's 5-Minute Quest

Answers to all questions can be found on this page or by using links provided on this page.
Good Luck!
5-Minute Quests

1. In what year was the United Nations: International Day for the Eradication of Poverty first observed on this date? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

2. In what year did Albert Einstein immigrate to the United States on this date? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

3. According to Houghton Mifflin, on what estate was Jupiter Hammon born a slave? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

Use all of these letters to spell the name of a children's author born on this date:

1. Who opened the world's first full-scale nuclear power plant on this date in 1956? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

2. According to Superman through the Ages, in what year did Jerry Siegel come up with the idea of Superman? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

3. According to the Nobel Foundation, in what city was Mother Teresa the leader of Missionaries of Charity? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

Use all of these letters to spell the title of a work by Alan Garner (according to Suite 101):
(hint: all three questions will require you to use a link found on this page)

1. According to the Authors' Calendar, Arthur Miller's plays often depict how families are ruined by what?

2. What are the five occupations/activities/interests that CNN says make Mae Jemison a 21st Century Renaissance woman?

3. According to the BBC, what was Eva Perón's responsibility after her husband Juan Perón was elected President of Argentina in 1946?

Use all of these letters to spell the title of a 1987 work by Arthur Miller (according to Authors' Calendar):

Jupiter Hammon
Born on This Date 1711.

[Long Island, Our Story]


Jerry Siegel
Born on This Date 1914


Arthur Miller
Born on This Date 1915



Alan Garner
Born on This Date 1934

[Writing and Writers]

Young-adult Authors

Mae Jemison
Born on This Date 1956



Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts
Michigan Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma
Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming
United Nations: International Day for the Eradication of Poverty
(Observed annually on October 17 since 1993)
The United Nations Economics United Nations Development Programme
Haiti: Anniversary of the Death of Dessalines
(Commemoration of the assassination of the Father of Haiti: 10/17/1806)
Haiti U.S. Department of State
United States: Black Poetry Day
(Observed in honor of the birth date of Jupiter Hammon, first published African-American poet: 10/17/1711)
American Authors Jupiter Hammon Poetry Famous African-Americans Read Write Think
Children's Authors & Illustrators
1926 Naomi J. Karp (New York City-born Children's Author) New York City Authors & Illustrators Young-adult Author
1932 Lee Lorenz (New Jersey-born Children's Author, Illustrator) New Jersey Authors & Illustrators American Artists
1934 Alan Garner (British Children's Author) Alan Garner Young-adult Author
1951 Judith Caseley (New Jersey-born Children's Author, Illustrator) New Jersey Authors & Writers Primary Children's Author American Artists
Authors, Poets, Playwrights and Journalists
1711 Jupiter Hammon (New York-born African-American Poet) Jupiter Hammon Poetry Famous African Americans
1903 Nathanael West (New York City-born Novelist: The Day of the Locust) Nathanael West
1915 Arthur Miller (New York City-born Playwright: Death of a Salesman, The Crucible) Arthur Miller Plays
1928 Lerone Bennett, Jr. (Mississippi-born African-American Author, Journalist) Mississippi Authors & Illustrators Journalism Famous African Americans African American Registry
1930 Jimmy Breslin (New York-born Columnist) New York Authors & Illustrators Journalism Writer's Almanac
Artists, Architects and Designers
1821 Alexander Gardner (Scottish Photographer) Scotland Photography
1859 Childe Hassam (Massachusetts-born Artist) Childe Hassam
1914 Jerry Siegel (Ohio-born Cartoonist; Creator of Superman) Jerry Siegel Cartoons & Comics
Explorers, Pioneers & Astronauts
1956 Mae Jemison (Alabama-born African-American Astronaut) Mae Jemison Astronauts Famous African Americans
Scientists, Mathematicians and Inventors
1886 Ernest Goodpasture (Tennessee-born Immunologist Credited with Isolating the Mumps Virus) Tennessee Scientists & Mathematicians Mumps Intellihealth
1582 Johann Gerhard (German Theologian) German Political and Social Leaders Religion
1912 Pope John Paul I (Italian-born Catholic Pope) Italy Catholicism
Political & Social Leaders
1817 Samuel Ward (Maryland-born African-American Abolitionist) Maryland Political and Social Leaders Abolition African-American Political and Social Leaders African American Registry
1825 William R. Marshall (Missouri-born 5th Governor of Minnesota) Missouri Political and Social Leaders Minnesota Political and Social Leaders
1871 Thaddeus Caraway (Missouri-born Member of the U.S. Congress from Arkansas) Missouri Political and Social Leaders Arkansas Political and Social Leaders U.S. Congress Arkansas History Commission
1873 Thomas Riggs (Maryland-born 9th Governor of Alaska) Maryland Political and Social Leaders Alaska Political and Social Leaders
Performing Artists
1895 Doris Humphrey (Illinois-born Dancer) Illinois Performing Artists Dance
1900 Jean Arthur (Pennsylvania-born Actress) Pennsylvania Performing Artists American Performing Artists Film Internet Movie Database
1903 Irene Ryan (Texas-born Actress: Granny in The Beverly Hillbillies) Texas Performing Artists American Performing Artists Television Internet Movie Database
1909 Cozy Cole (New Jersey-born African-American Jazz Drummer) New Jersey Performing Artists Jazz African-American Performing Artists African American Registry
1918 Rita Hayworth (New York City-born Actress) Rita Hayworth American Performing Artists Film
1920 Montgomery Clift (Nebraska-born Actor) Montgomery Clift American Performing Artists Film
1938 Evel Knievel (Montana-born Daredevil) Montana Performing Artists
1947 Michael McKean (New York City-born Actor) New York City Performing Artists American Performing Artists Film Internet Movie Database
1948 Margot Kidder (Canadian Actress) Canadian Performing Artists Actors Film Internet Movie Database
George Wendt (Chicago-born Actor: Norm in Cheers) Chicago Performing Artists American Performing Artists Television Internet Movie Database
1950 Howard Rollins (Maryland-born African-American Actor) Maryland Performing Aritsts American Performing Artists African American Performing Artists Internet Movie Database African American Registry
1958 Alan Jackson (Georgia-born Country & Western Musician) Alan Jackson Country & Western Musicians
1962 Mike Judge (American Actor) American Performing Artists Film Internet Movie Database
1968 Ziggy Marley (Jamaican Popular Musician) Jamaican Performing Artists Popular Musicians Internet Movie Database
1972 Eminem (Missouri-born Popular Singer) Missouri Performing Artists Popular Musicians Internet Movie Database
Sports Figures
1946 Bob Seagren (California-born Member of the Track and Field Hall of Fame) California Sports Figures The Olympic Games National Track and Field Hall of Fame
Persons of Historic Significance Who Have Died on This Date Persons of Historic Significance Who Have Died on This Date
1806 Jean Jacques Dessalines (Father of Haiti: Assassination) Haiti
1849 Frédéric Chopin (Polish Composer) Frédéric Chopin Composers
1887 Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (Russian Chemist) Gustav Robert Kirchhoff Spectroscopy Cesium Rubidium
1910 Julia Ward Howe (New York City-born Author of "The Battle Hymn of the Republic") Julia Ward Howe American Composers and Songwriters American Civil War
2008 Levi Stubbs (Detroit-born African-American Member of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame) Detroit Performing Artists Rock and Roll Hall of Fame African-American Performing Artists National Public Radio
Historically Significant Events Historically Significant Events
Historical Events Occurring between 1400 - 1499
1483 Pope Appoints Tomás de Torquemada Grand Inquisitor of Castile and Aragon Catholicism Spain Law and legal Resources Cathlic Encyclopedia
Historical Events Occurring between 1600 - 1699
1683 New York's General Assembly Meets for the First Time in a Fort at New York City's Bowling Green New York City Historic Firsts New York Historical Society
Historical Events Occurring between 1700 - 1799
1707 22-year-old Johann Sebastian Bach Marries His Cousin, Maria Barbara Bach (Age 23) Johann Sebastian Bach Composers American Public Media
1777 British Surrender at Saratoga, New York Battle of Saratoga New York Times
Historical Events Occurring between 1800 - 1899
Travelling with Lewis and Clark

Clark: A fair morning

the principal Chief came down with Several of his principal men and Smoked with us. Several men and woman offered Dogs and fish to Sell, we purchased all the dogs we could, the fish being out of Season and dieing in great numbers in the river, we did not think prper to use them,

[Clark was seeing the end of the annual salmon migration up the rivers from the sea; the fish were dying after having
laid and fertilized their eggs. They were probably either coho (silver) salmon.]

Send out Hunters to Shute the Prarie Cock a large fowl which I have only Seen on this river; Several of which I have killed, they are the Size of a Small turkey, of the pheasant kind, one I killed on the water edge to day measured from the Beek to the end of the toe 2 feet 6 & ¾ Inches; from the extremities of its wings 3 feet 6 inches; the tale feathers
is 13 inches long: they feed on grasshoppers and the Seed of the wild plant which is also peculiar to this river and the upper parts of the Missoury somewhat resembling the whins—.

Capt. Lewis took a vocabelary of the Language of those people who call themselves So kulk, and also one of the language of a nation resideing on a Westerly fork of the Columbia which mouthes a fiew miles above this place who Call themselves Chim nâ pum Some fiew of this nation reside with the So kulks nation, Their language differ but little from either the Sokulks or the Chô-pun-nish (or pierced nose) nation which inhabit the Koskoskia river below.

I took two men in a Small Canoe and assended the Columbia river 10 miles to an Island near the Stard. Shore on
which two large Mat Lodges of Indians were drying Salmon, (as they informed me by Signs for the purpose of food and fuel, & I do not think at all improbable that those people make use of Dried fish as fuel,

The number of dead Salmon on the Shores & floating in the river is incrediable to Say and at this Season they have only to collect the fish Split them open and dry them on their Scaffolds on which they have great numbers,

how far they have to raft their timber they make their Scaffolds of I could not lern; but there is no timber of any Sort except Small willow bushes in Sight in any direction—

from this Island the natives showed me the enterance of a large Westerly fork which they Call Tâpetêtt at about 8
miles distant, the evening being late I deturmined to return to the forks, at which place I reached at Dark. on the Lard Side opposite to this rapid is a fishing place 3 Mat Lodges, and great quants. of Salmon on Scaffolds drying. Saw
great numbers of Dead Salmon on the Shores and floating in the water, great numbers of Indians on the banks viewing me and 18 canoes accompanied me from the point—

The Waters of this river is Clear, and a Salmon may be Seen at the deabth of 15 or 20 feet. West 4 miles to the lower point of a large island near the Stard. Side at 2 Lodges, passed three large lodges on the Stard Side near which great number of Salmon was drying on Scaffolds one of those Mat lodges I entered found it crouded with men women and children and near the enterance of those houses I saw maney Squars engaged Splitting and drying Salmon.

I was furnished with a mat to Sit on, and one man Set about prepareing me Something to eate, first he brought in a piece of a Drift log of pine and with a wedge of the elks horn, and a malet of Stone curioesly Carved he Split the log
into Small pieces and lay'd it open on the fire on which he put round Stones, a woman handed him a basket of water and a large Salmon about half Dried, when the Stones were hot he put them into the basket of water with the fish
which was Soon Suficently boiled for use. it was then taken out put on a platter of rushes neetly made, and Set before me they boiled a Salmon for each of the men with me, dureing those preperations, I Smoked with those about me who Chose to Smoke which was but fiew, this being a custom those people are but little accustomed to and only Smok
thro form.

after eateing the boiled fish which was delicious, I Set out & halted or came too on the Island at the two Lodges. Several fish was given to me, in return for Which I gave Small pieces of ribbond from those Lodges the natives
Showed me the mouth of Tap teel River about 8 miles above on the west Side this western fork appears to beare
nearly West, The main Columbia river N W.— a range of high land to the S W and parralal to the river and at the distance of 2 miles on the Lard. Side, the countrey low on the Stard. Side, and all Coverd. with a weed or plant about 2 & three feet high and resembles the whins. I can proceive a range of mountains to the East which appears to bare N.
& South distant about 50 or 60 miles. no wood to be Seen in any derection—

On my return I was followd. by 3 canoes in which there was 20 Indians I shot a large Prairie Cock Several Grouse, Ducks and fish. on my return found Great Numbr. of the nativs with Capt. Lewis, men all employd in dressing ther Skins mending their clothes and putting ther arms in the best order the latter being always a matter of attention with

The Dress of those natives differ but little, except the women who dress verry different in as much as those above ware long leather Shirts which highly ornimented with beeds Sheels &c. &c. and those on the main Columbia river only ware a truss or pece of leather tied around them at their hips and drawn tite between ther legs and fastened before So as barly to hide those parts which are So Sacredly hid & Scured by our women. Those women are more inclined to Copulency than any we have yet Seen, with low Stature broad faces, heads flatened and the forward compressed so as to form a Streight line from the nose to the Crown of the head, their eyes are of a Duskey black, their hair of a corse black without orniments of any kind braded as above.

[Here was their first encounter with a custom and its results which for whites were among the most striking cultural traits of the Columbia and Northwest Coast peoples. These lower Columbia tribes placed infants in a special cradleboard with an angled board compressing the forehead; in some cases a tight headband was apparently used instead. Later, Clark sketched the headboard apparatus and examples of the results. The eventual effect on the soft skull of the child was the shape noted by Clark, the head becoming decidedly pointed. Many whites applied the term "flathead" to those who practiced head deformation, although the Indians themselves apparently reserved the term for tribes in the interior who left their heads naturally "flat" on top. The deformed head shape was considered a mark of distinction, beauty, and superior status. Slaves were not allowed to deform the heads of their children. ]

The orniments of each Sect are Similar, Such as large blue & white beeds, either pendant from their ears or encircling their necks, or wrists & arms. They also ware bracelets Of Brass, Copper & horn, and trinkets of Shells, fish bones and curious feathers. Their garments Conists of a short Shirt of leather and a roabe of the Skins of Deer or the
Antilope but fiew of them ware Shirts all have Short robes.

Those people appears to live in a State of comparitive happiness: they take a greater Share labor of the woman, than
in common among Savage tribes, and as I am informd. Content with one wife (as also those on the Ki moo e nim river) Those people respect the aged with veneration, I observed an old woman in one of the Lodges which I entered She was entirely blind as I was informed by Signs, had lived more than 100 winters, She occupied the best position in the
house, and when She Spoke great attention was paid to what She Said—.

Those people as also those of the flat heads which we had passed on the Koskoske and Lewis's rivers are Subject to Sore eyes, and maney are blind of one and Some of both eyes. this misfortune must be owing to the reflections of the Sun &c. on the waters in which they are continually fishing during the Spring Summer & fall, & the Snows dureing the, winter Seasons, in this open countrey where the eye has no rest. I have observed amongst those, as well in all other tribes which I have passed on these waters who live on fish maney of different Sectes who have lost their teeth about middle age, Some have their teeth worn to the gums, perticelar hose of the upper jaws, and the tribes generally have bad teeth the cause of it I cannot account sand attachd. to the roots &c the method they have of useing the dri'd Salmon, which is mearly worming it and eating the rine & Scales with the flesh of the fish, no doubt contributes to it

The House or Lodges of the tribes of the main Columbia river is of large mats made of rushes, Those houses are from 15 to 60 feet in length generally of an Oblong Squar form, Suported by poles on forks in the iner Side, Six feet high,
the top is covered also with mats leaveing a Seperation in the whole length of about 12 or 15 inches wide, left for the purpose of admitting light and for the Smok of the fire to pass which is made in the middle of the house.— The
roughfs are nearly flat, which proves to me that rains are not common in this open Countrey

Those people appeare of a mild disposition and friendly disposed— They have in their huts independant of their nets gigs & fishing tackling each bows & large quivers of arrows on which they use flint Spikes. Theire ammusements are Similar to those of the Missouri. they are not beggerley and receive what is given them with much joy.

I saw but fiew horses they appeared make but little use of those animals principally useing Canoes for their uses of procureing food &c.

Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery Native Americans
Lewis & Clark Map: 10/16/05 Franklin County
USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska
1806 Haiti's Jean Jacques Dessalines (Emperor Jacques I) Assassinated in Revolt Haitian Political and Social Leaders Death United Haitians Home Page
1823 The Pepin and Barnet Circus Performs in Vincennes, Indiana Vincennes, Indiana Circus Indiana Historical Society
1828 Sevier County, Arkansas Is Created Sevier County, Arkansas Arkansas History Commission
1835 Texans Passes Resolution to Create the Texas Rangers Texas Crime & Law Enforcement History Channel
1839 President and Cabinet of the Republic of Texas Arrive at New Capital of Austin Republic of Texas Texas State Historical Association
1856 Emily Dickinson's Bread Wins Second Prize at the Agricultural Fair Emily Dickinson American Authors American Collection
1863 While on a Train from Cairo, Illinois to Louisville< Kentucky, Ulysess S. Grant Is Given Union Command in the West Ulysses S. Grant American Civil War PBS
Union Ships and Troops Attack Tampa, Florida Florida American Civil War Naval History Florida Historical Society
1870 Douglas County, Georgia Is Created from Portions of Campbell and Carroll Counties Georgia University of Georgia
1879 Governor Colquitt Signs Legislation Creating Georgia's First Official State Flag Georgia University of Georgia
1887 Federal Court Settles 1M-acre Land Dispute with Georgia in Favor of Florida Florida Georgia Law Florida Historical Society
1889 The Seattle Fire Department Is Created Washington Fire Safety HistoryLink
1899 President McKinley Dedicates Spanish-American War Canon in Three Oaks, Michigan Michigan President McKinley Spanish-American War State of Michigan
Historical Events Occurring between 1900 - 1949
1907 First Commercial Transatlantic Wireless Telegraph Service Is Officially Inaugurated The Telegraph Historic Firsts Centers for Technology and Society
1914 Iowa's Billy Robinson Sets American Record Flying 390 Miles Non-Stop Iowa Indiana Chicago Aviation History Early Aviators
1918 209 New Cases of Spanish Influenza Are Reported in Atlanta, Georgia Georgia 1918 Flu Pandemic University of Georgia
1919 Radio Corporation of America (RCA) Is Formed Radio Businesses & Corporations Baruch College
1920 Canadian Air Force Crew Completes First trans-Canada Flight (11 days, 45 hours airborne, 3,265 miles) Canada Aviation Historic Firsts Royal Canadian Air Force
1924 The Phyllis Wheatley Settlement House (Phyllis Wheatley Community Center) Opens in Minneapolis, Minnesota Minneapolis, Minnesota African-American Heritage Phyllis Wheatley Community Center Minnesota Historical Society
1929 Giant Soviet Tupolev ANT-4 Airplane Lands at Washington's Sand Point Naval Air Station Soviet Union Washington Aviation History HistoryLink
1931 Al Capone Jailed for Tax Evasion Al Capone Taxes Notorious Americans History Channel New York Times
1933 Albert Einstein Immigrates to the United States Albert Einstein Judaism Immigration New York Times
1935 Texas Negro Peace Officers Association Is First Such Organization Texas African-American Heritage Law Enforcement Historic Firsts Texas State Historical Association
1941 Prince Fumimaro Konoye's Government Collapses in Japan Japan World War II History Channel
1943 Humble Oil Company Announces First Discovery of Oil in Florida Florida Business Historic Firsts Florida Historical Society
1945 Coup Places Colonel Juan Perón As Dictator of Argentina Juan Perón New York Times
Historical Events Occurring between 1950 - 1999
1956 Queen Elizabeth II Opens World's First Full-Scale Nuclear Power Station Great Britain Nuclear Power Historic Firsts BBC
1957 French Author Albert Camus Is Selected for the Nobel Prize in Literature Albert Camus Authors 1957 Nobel Prize for Literature New York Times
Place in Fiction by Eudora Welty Is Published Eudora Welty American Authors American Collection
Jailhouse Rock, Starring Elvis Presley, Premieres in Memphis, TN Tennessee Elvis Presley Film Internet Movie Database
1966 8.1 Magnitude Earthquake Kills 125, Injures 3,000 in Peru Peru Earthquake Death USGS
President Johnson Leaves on 17-day Asia-Pacific Trip President Lyndon Johnson The American Presidency History Channel
1970 Quebec Cabinet Minister Found Murdered by FLQ Terrorists Canada Terrorism Death
President Richard Nixon Travels to Green Bay, Wisconsin for a Dinner in Honor of Green Bay Packers Quarterback Bart Starr Green Bay, Wisconsin President Richard Nixon The American Presidency Football Hall of Fame Wisconsin Historical Society
1973 Arab-dominated Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) Cuts U.S. Oil Exports International Trade Business History Channel
The Movie The Way We Were Opens in Theaters Barbra Streisand Film History Channel
1974 The Oakland A's Win Third Straight World Series California Baseball Major League Baseball New York Times
1975 Rochester, Minnesota Declares an Air Pollution Alert Due to High Carbon Monoxide Levels Rochester, Minnesota Air Quality Organic Chemistry Minnesota Historical Society
1977 West German Commandos Free All 86 Hostages from Hijacked Jetliner in Somalia Somalia Germany Aviation Terrorism New York Times
6.9 Magnitude Earthquake Is Centered 800km North of New Zealand New Zealand Earthquake USGS
1978 President Jimmy Carter Restores U.S. Citizenship for Jefferson Davis Jefferson Davis President Jimmy Carter New York Times
President Jimmy Carter Presents a Special Congressional Medal to Singer Marian Anderson Marian Anderson President Jimmy Carter Opera African-American Performing Artists University of California Santa Barbara
Mashpee Indians Sue for Tribal Recognition Massachusetts Native American Heritage Law and Legal Resources Massachusetts Foundation for the Humanities
1979 Mother Teresa Selected for the Nobel Peace Prize Mother Teresa 1979 Nobel Peace Prize New York Times
1980 Queen Elizabeth II Is First British Monarch to Make State Visit to the Vatican Queen Elizabeth II Catholicism Historic Firsts BBC
1986 U.S. Congress Approves $100M Aid for Nicaraguan Contras U.S. Congress Iran-Contra Scandal Economics History Channel
1989 7.1 Magnitude Earthquake Kills 63 People in the San Francisco Area - $5B Damages San Francisco Earthquakes Death BBC
1991 Wayne Peterson's Pulitzer Prize-Winning "Face of the Night, The Heart of the Dark" Is First Performed by the San Francisco Symphony Minnesota Composers San Francisco American Composers Historic Firsts 1992 Pulitzer Prize for Music American Public Media
1997 ''Che'' Guevara Remains Buried in Cuba, 30 Years after His Execution in Bolivia Cuban Political and Social Leaders 'Che Guevara Hispanic Heritage New York Times
Historical Events Occurring between 2000 - present
2000 Goalie Patrick Roy's 448th Win (NHL Record) Ice Hockey Daily Camera
2001 U.S. House of Representatives Closes after 31 People Test Positive for Anthrax Exposure U.S. Congress Disease Terrorism CNN
Palestinians Assassinate Israel's Tourism Minister, Rehavam Zeevi Israel Terrorism Death BBC