for

Canada Canada

OCTOBER 18

Canada Canada
 
 

Person's Day in Canada

Canada

 
 
 
Teaching - there can be no finer calling requiring the clearest demonstration of moral and ethical behavior.
Ira Shull, For the Love of Teaching
 
Why do you teach? Let Us Know. Tell Us about your most memorable teacher.
 
 










Gnus for Kidz

Who Am I?









 
5-Minute Quests Today's 5-Minute Quest

Answers to all questions can be found on this page or by using links provided on this page.
Good Luck!
5-Minute Quests
BEGINNERS

1. For what purpose was a monument dedicated at Arlington National Cemetery on this date in 1997? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

2. Which Space Shuttle was used to launch the Galileo probe on this date in 1989? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

3. According to the International Tennis Hall of Fame, on what date did Martina Navratilova become a U.S. citizen? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

Use all of these letters to spell the title of a Joyce Hansen book (According to her Scholastic booklist):
CAVET PITHE
INTERMEDIATE

1. In what year on this date were Canadian women first recognized as persons of legal status? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

2. According to the College Football Hall of Fame, how long were the touchdown runs that Illinois' Red Grange scored on against Michigan on this date in 1924? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

3. According to Lincoln Center, for what work did Wynton Marsalis win a Pulitzer Prize in April 1997? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

Use all of these letters to spell the title of a movie starring George C. Scott (according to Biography.com):
TAP NOT
EXPERT
(hint: all three questions will require you to use a link found on this page)

1. According to the African American Literature Book Club, For Colored Girls Who Have Considered Suicide, by Ntozake Shange, is a group of how many poems for how many actors?

2. According to the Stevens Institute of Technology, Robert Livingston Stevens was a practical engineer who was responsible for technical improvements in what two kinds of watercraft?

3. According to San Jose State University, Charles Babbage is best known for his ideas about building an "analytical engine" that would be the predecessor of what modern device?

Use all of these letters to spell the title of a book by A.J. Liebling (according to Viking Phoenix):
SCENIC EWES TEETH
 
 

Robert Livingston Stevens
Born on This Date 1787.

[Stevens Inst of Tech]

Railroad Steamboats


Joyce Hansen
Born on This Date 1942

[University of South Carolina]

Young-adult Authors


Ntozake Shange
Born on This Date 1948

[Rutgers University]

Poetry Plays


Martina Navratilova
Born on This Date 1956

[Int'l Tennis Hall of Fame]

International Tennis Hall of Fame


Wynton Marsalis
Born on This Date 1961

[WyntonMarsalis.net]

Jazz

 
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Canada: Persons Day
(Commemoration of Canadian women being granted legal status as persons 10/18/1929)
Great Britain Persons Day Law & Legal Resources Women Canadian Government
Calendar
Children's Authors & Illustrators
1917 Florence Engel Randall (New York City-born Children's Author) New York City Authors & Illustrators Young-adult Authors
1930 Esther Hautzig (Polish Children's Author) Polish Authors & Illustrators Young-adult Authors Judaism
Nancy Winslow Parker (New Jersey-born Children's Author, Illustrator) New Jersey Authors & Illustrators Primary Children's Authors New Jersey Artists
1942 Joyce Hansen (New York City-born African-American Children's Author) Joyce Hansen Young-adult Authors Famous African Americans
Susan Jeschke (Ohio-born Children's Author, Illustrator) Susan Jeschke Primary Children's Authors Ohio Artists
Colin Thompson (English Children's Author, Illustrator) English Authors & Illustrators Primary Children's Authors English Artists
1944 Katherine Kurtz (Florida-born Children's Author) Florida Authors & Illustrators Young-adult Authors
1889 Fanny Hurst (Ohio-born Author) Fanny Hurst
1894 H.L. Davis (Oregon-born Cowboy, Poet, Novelist) Oregon Authors & Illustrators Poetry Oregon Cultural Heritage Commission Writer's Almanac
1904 A(bbott) J(oseph) Liebling (New York City-born Journalist) A(bbott) J(oseph) Liebling Journalism
1948 Ntozake Shange (New Jersey-born Poet, Playwright) Ntozake Shange Poetry Plays
1950 Wendy Wasserstein (New York City-born Playwright: Awarded the 1989 Pulitzer Prize for Drama) Wendy Wasserstein Plays 1989 Pulitzer Prize for Drama
1951 Terry McMillan (Michigan-born African-American Novelist: Waiting to Exhale, How Stella Got Her Groove Back) Terry McMillan Famous African Americans
1961 Rick Moody (New York City-born Novelist) New York City Authors & Illustrators Writer's Almanac
Artists, Architects and Designers
1632 Luca Giordano (Italian Painter) Henri Bergson Artists
1697 Canaletto (Italian Painter) Henri Bergson Artists
1787 Robert Livingston Stevens (New Jersey-born Engineer, Naval Architect, and Inventor) Robert Livingston Stevens Inventors & Inventions Railroad Steamboats
1799 Christian Friedrich Schonbein (German Chemist) German Scientists & Mathematicians Chemistry
1844 Harvey W. Wiley (Indiana-born Chemist; Chief Author of the U.S. Pure Food and Drug Act) Indiana Scientists & Mathematicians Chemistry Foods and Nutrition Law and Legal Resources
1787 Pope Pius II (Italian Pope of the Roman Catholic Church: 1458-64) Italian Political and Social Leaders Catholic Popes Religion
1831 Thomas Hunter (Irish-American Educator; Namesake of Hunter College) Irish Political and Social Leaders New York Political and Social Leaders Educators of Note Hunter College
1852 David Crenshaw Barrow (Georgia-born Educator) Georgia Political and Social Leaders Educators of Note University of Georgia University of Georgia
1859 Henri Bergson (French Philosopher) Henri Bergson Philosophy
1595 Edward Winslow (English Founder of Plymouth Colony) English Political and Social Leaders Plymouth Colony
1829 Charles Grandison Williams (New York-born Wisconsin Member of the U.S. Congress) New York Political and Social Leader Wisconsin Political and Social Leader U.S. Congress Wisconsin Historical Society
1903 Lewis Dominic Thill (Wisconsin-born Member of the U.S. Congress) Wisconsin Political and Social Leader U.S. Congress Wisconsin Historical Society
1919 Pierre Trudeau (Prime Minister of Canada) Pierre Trudeau
1939 Lee Harvey Oswald (New Orleans-born Assassin of U.S. President John F. Kennedy) Lee Harvey Oswald Assassination of John F. Kennedy
1900 Lotte Lenya (Austrian Classical Dancer, Singer and Actress) Austrian Performing Artists Dance Popular Musicians Internet Movie Database
1920 Melina Mercouri (Greek Actress) Greek Performing Artists Actors Film Internet Movie Database
1926 Chuck Berry (Missouri-born African-American Member of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame) Chuck Berry Rock and Roll Hall of Fame African Americans Performing Artists
1927 George C. Scott (West Virginia-born Actor) George C. Scott Stage & Theater Film
1960 Jean Claude Van Damme (Belgian Actor) Belgian Performing Artists Actors Film Internet Movie Database
1961 Wynton Marsalis (New Orleans-born Trumpeter) Wynton Marsalis Popular Musicians African Americans Performing Artists
Erin Moran (California-born Actress: Happy Days) California Performing Artists Actors Television Internet Movie Database
1984 Esperanza Spalding (Oregon-born Jazz Musician) Esperanza Spalding Jazz Latin-American Performing Artists African Americans Performing Artists
1928 Keith Jackson (Georgia-born Sports Broadcaster) Georgia Sports Figures Football Television Internet Movie Database
1933 Forrest Gregg (Texas-born Member of the Professional Football Hall of Fame) Texas Sports Figures Professional Football Hall of Fame
1939 Mike Ditka (Pennsylvania-born Member of the Professional Football Hall of Fame) Pennsylvania Sports Figures Professional Football Hall of Fame
1942 Willie Horton (Detroit-born African-American Professional Baseball Player) Detroit Sports Figures Baseball Major League Baseball African-American Sports Figures State of Michigan
1956 Martina Navratilova (Czech Republic-born American Member of the Tennis Hall of Fame) Martina Navratilova International Tennis Hall of Fame
Persons of Historic Significance Who Have Died on This Date Persons of Historic Significance Who Have Died on This Date
1871 Charles Babbage (English Inventor, Computing Pioneer) Charles Babbage Inventors & Inventions History of Technology
1886 Charles Whittlesey (Connecticut-born Attorney, Geologist in Ohio) Connecticut Scientists & Mathematicians Ohio Scientists & Mathematicians Geology Ohio Historical Society
1911 Alfred Binet (French Psychologist) French Scientists & Mathematicians Psychology
1928 Charles Siringo (Texas-born Western Author) Texas Authors & Illustrators American Authors & Illustrators Westward Expansion Texas State Historical Association
1931 Thomas Edison (Ohio-born Inventor) Thomas Edison Inventors & Inventions History of Technology
1976 James A. Noe (Governor of Louisiana: 1936) Louisiana Political and Social Leaders
1982 Bess Truman (Missouri-born Wife of U.S. President Harry Truman) Missouri Political and Social Leaders Bess Truman
2005 Hal Lebovitz (Ohio-born Sports Writer Member of the Baseball Hall of Fame) Ohio Authors and Illustrators Journalism Baseball Hall of Fame
Historically Significant Events Historically Significant Events
Historic B.C. Events that Occurred on this Date
1469 Ferdinand of Aragon Marries Isabella of Castile Spain Queen Isabella University of Calgary
1512 Martin Luther Is Awarded Doctor of Theology Degree from Wittenberg University Martin Luther Education Concordia
1540 de Soto's Conquistador's Kill Thousands of Chief Tuscaloosa's Tribe de Soto Alabama Native American Heritage Death Alabama State Archives
1645 English Physician Daniel Whistler Is the First to Describe the Bone-Deformity Disease Rickets English Scientists and Mathematicians Rickets Historic Firsts Intellihealth
1648 "Shoemakers of Boston" Form North America's First Labor Union Massachusetts Colony Labor Unions Historic Firsts Friends of Business History
1685 Louis XIV Lifts Edict of Nantes Leading to Mass Exodus of French Huguenots French Political and Social Leaders Religion Concordia
1733 British Trustees Ratify Settlement Treaty with Lower Creeks for Georgia's Yamacraw Bluff Great Britain Georgia Colonial Georgia Creek Indians University of Georgia
1735 135 Scot Highlands Depart Inverness Aboard the Prince of Wales Bound for Georgia Scotland Georgia Colonial Georgia Immigration University of Georgia
1748 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen, Germany) Ends the War of Austrian Succession England France Germany Spain War Britannica
With Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, Britain and Spain End Georgia's War of Jenkins' Ear Great Britain Spain Georgia Colonial Georgia War University of Georgia
1767 The Mason-Dixon Line Is Agreed Upon U.S. History New York Times
1786 Massachusetts Indigent Woman Auctioned to Lowest Bidder Massachusetts Community Service Massachusetts Foundation for the Humanities
1804
Travelling with Lewis and Clark

Clark: Set out early proceeded on at 6 mes. passed the mouth of la Boulet (or Cannon Ball River) about 140 yards wide on the L. S. Great numbers of Stone perfectly round with fine Grit are in the Bluff and on the Shore, the river takes its name from those Stones which resemble Cannon Balls. The water of this river is Confined within 40 yards. We met 2 french men in a perogue Desending from hunting, & complained of the Mandans robing them of
4 Traps ther fur & Seeveral othr articles Those men were in the imploy of our Ricaree
[Recorees - Arikara Indians] interpeter Mr. Gravelin they turned & followered us.

Saw Great numbers of Goats on the S. S. Comeing to the river our hunters Killed 4 of them Some run back and others crossed & prosceed on their journey. passed a Small creek on the L. S. 1 mile abov the last, and Camped on a Sand bar on the L. S. opposit to us we Saw a Gangue of Buffalow bulls which we did not think worth while to kill our hunters Killd. 4 Goats 6 Deer 4 Elk & a pelican & informs that they Saw in one Gang 248 Elk, (I walked on Shore, in the evining with a view to See Some of those remarkable places mentioned by Evins*, none of which I could find,) The Countrey in this quarter is Generally leavel & fine Some high Short hills, and some ragid ranges of Hills at a Distans

[*Evins -John Evans, young man from Wales, was an employee of James Mackay. He had made the most formidable effort before Lewis & Clark to explore the Upper Missouri. The expedition was using a copy of his drawn map, which was sent to Lewis by Jefferson]

North Dakota Map: 10/18/04 Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04 Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery Native American Tribes French Language Smithsonian Pronghorn Elk Buffalo Deer Pelican

The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

1805
Travelling with Lewis and Clark

Clark: This morning Cool and fare wind from the S. E. Six of the large Prarie cock killed this morning.

Several canoes of Indians Came down and joined those with us, we had a council with those in which we informed of our friendly intentions towards them and all other of our red children; of our wish to make a piece between all of our red Children in this quarter &c. &c. this was conveyed by Signs thro: our 2 Chiefs who accompanied us, and was understood, we made a 2d Chief and gave Strings of wompom to them all in remembrance of what we Said

four men in a Canoe came up from a large encampment on an Island in the River about 8 miles below, they delayed but a fiew minits and returned, without Speaking a word to us.

The Great Chief and one of the Chim-n pum nation drew me a Sketch of the Columbia above and the tribes of his nation, living on the bank, and its waters, and the Tpe ttt river which falls in 18 miles above on the westerly side

We thought it necessary to lay in a Store of Provisions for our voyage, and the fish being out of Season, we purchased forty dogs for which we gave articles of little value, Such as bells, thimbles, knitting pins, brass wire & a few beeds all of which they appeared well Satisfied and pleased.

every thing being arranged we took in our Two Chiefs, and Set out on the great Columbia river, haveing left our guide and the two young men two of them enclined not to proceed on any further, and the 3rd could be of no Service to us as he did not know the river below

Took our leave of the Chiefs and all those about us and proceeded on down the great Columbia river passed a large Island at 8 miles about 3 miles in length, a Island on the Stard. Side the upper point of which is opposit the center of the last mentioned Island and reaches 3 miles below the 1st. Island and opposit to this near the
middle of the river nine Lodges are Situated on the upper point at a rapid which is between the lower point of the 1st Island and upper point of this;

great numbers of Indians appeared to be on this Island, and emence quantites of fish Scaffold we landed a few minits to view a rapid which Commenced at the lower point, passd this rapid which was verry bad between 2 Small Islands

on the Stard. Side is 2 Lodges of Indians Drying fish, at 2 miles lower and 14 below the point passed an
Island Close under the Stard. Side on which was 2 Lodges of Indians drying fish on Scaffolds as above at 16 miles

from the point the river passes into the range of high Countrey at which place the rocks project into the river from the high clifts the Countrey rises here about 200 feet above The water and is bordered wth black rugid rocks,

Saw a mountain bearing S. W. conocal form Covered with Snow.

[Probably Mt. Hood, in the Cascade Range in Hood River County, Oregon, named for the British admiral Sir Samuel Hood by Lieutenant William Robert Broughton of George Vancouer's exploring expedition in 1792.]

passed 4 Islands, at the upper point of the 3rd is a rapid, on this Island is two Lodges of Indians, drying fish, on the fourth Island Close under the Stard. Side is nine large Lodges of Indians Drying fish on Scaffolds as above at this place we were called to land, as it was near night and no appearance of wood, we proceeded on about 2 miles lower to Some willows, at which place we observed a drift log formed a Camp on the Lard Side under a high hill nearly opposit to five Lodges of Indians;

Soon after we landed, our old Chiefs informed us that the large camp above "was the Camp of the 1st Chief of all the tribes in this quarter, and that he had called to us to land and Stay all night with him, that he had plenty of wood for us &" This would have been agreeable to us if it had have been understood perticelarly as we were compelled to Use drid willows for fuel for the purpose of cooking, we requested the old Chiefs to walk up on the Side we had landed and call to the Chief to come down and Stay with us all night which they did;

late at night the Chief came down accompanied by 20 men, and formed a Camp a Short distance above, the chief brought with him a large basket of mashed berries which he left at our Lodge as a present. I saw on the main land opposit those Lodges a number of horses feeding, we made 21 miles to day.

Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery Native Americans
Lewis & Clark Map: 10/16/05 Walla Walla County
USGS The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska
1820 Federal Treaty Relocates Choctaw Indians Onto 13M Acres in Western Arkansas in Exchange for 5M Acres of Choctaw Land in Mississippi Arkansas Mississippi Choctaw Historic U.S. Documents SouthShore First People Unversity of Oklahoma Arkansas History Commission
Arkansas' Governor Approves Act Moving the State Capital From Arkansas Post to Little Rock Arkansas Arkansas History Commission
Crawford County, Arkansas Is Created Crawford County, Arkansas Arkansas History Commission
1838 Henry Thoreau Is Elected to Serve As Secretary of the Concord Lyceum Henry David Thoreau American Authors American Collection
1839 Burton's Gentleman's Magazine Publishes "William Wilson" by Edgar Allen Poe Edgar Allen Poe American Authors American Collection
1843 The Dial Publishes Ralph Waldo Emerson's "Ode to Beauty" Ralph Waldo Emerson American Authors American Collection
1848 Land in Central Minnesota Is Set Aside for the Menominee Tribe Minnesota Wisconsin Native-American Heritage Minnesota Historical Society
1850 Californians First Learn That California Has Been Admitted as a State California LearnCalifornia
1858 The First Racine, Wisconsin Police Force Is Established by the City Council Racine, Wisconsin Law Enforce Agencies Racine Police Department Wisconsin Historical Society
1859 U.S. Marines Commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Robert E. Lee Storm the Harpers Ferry Armory, Capturing John Brown and His Raiding Party Harpers Ferry John Brown Robert E. Lee U.S. Marines West Virginia State Archives
1862 The 33rd Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry Is Mustered into Service at Camp Utley Near Racine Racine, Wisconsin American Civil War Wisconsin Historical Society
1867 U.S. Accepts Possession of Alaska from Russia with a Formal Transfer Ceremony in Sitka Russia Sitka, Alaska History Channel Alaska Historical Society
1869 The Jewish Congregation Emanu-El Is Founded in Milwaukee, Wisconsin Milwaukee, Wisconsin Judaism Congregation Emanu-El Wisconsin Historical Society
1870 State of Georgia Creates McDuffie and Rockdale Counties Georgia University of Georgia
1881 St. Luke's Hospital Is Founded in St. Paul, Minnesota St. Paul, Minnesota Health Care Minnesota Historical Society
1888 The University of Minnesota School of Agriculture Opens with 47 Students Minnesota Education Education Farming & Agriculture Historic Firsts University of Minnesota School of Agriculture Minnesota Historical Society
1892 First Long Distance Telephone Line Is Opened between Chicago and New York Chicago New York City The Telephone New York Times
1895 A Sand Blizzard with Winds of 50 mph Spreads Fires Across Western Minnesota Minnesota Education Wind Fire Minnesota Historical Society
1896 St. Agnes Hospital Opens for African Americans in Raleigh, North Carolina North Carolina Health Care African American Heritage African American Registry UNC-TV
1898 U.S. Troops Capture Puerto Rico Puerto Rico Spanish-American War Library of Congress
1899 60' Totem Pole Unveiled in Seattle's Pioneer Square Washington Native-American Heritage HistoryLink
1906 Hurricane with 120 mph Winds Hits Key West, Florida, Killing 130 Florida Hurricanes Death Florida State Historical Society
1913 Edith Wharton's The Custom of the Country Is Published Edith Wharton American Authors American Collection
1916 5.1 Magnitude Earthquake Is Largest Ever Recorded in Alabama Alabama Earthquakes USGS
1918 State of Georgia Reports 2,749 New Flu Cases and 48 Deaths within Last 24 Hours Georgia 1918 Influenza Flu Pandemic University of Georgia
1919 Rolls-Royce America Is Established Automobiles Rolls Royce History Channel
1921 The Soviet Union Establishes the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic The Soviet Union University of Maryland
1922 Robin Hood Opens at Grauman's Egyptian Theater in Hollywood Los Angeles Douglas Fairbanks Film Internet Movie Database
1924 Red Grange Scores the First 4 Times He Has the Ball: Illinois 39 Michigan 14 College Football Hall of Fame University of Illinois Football University of Michigan Football New York Times
1929 Britain's Privy Council Rules Canadian Women Are Persons of Legal Status Great Britain Persons Day Law & Legal Reosurces Women Canadian Government
Thomas Wolfe's First Novel Look Homeward, Angel Is Published Thomas Wolfe American Authors American Collection
1933 Route 13 in Delaware Is Opened as the First Divided Highway in the United States Delaware Transportation Historic Firsts State of Delaware
1942 Vice Admiral Halsey Assumes Command of the South Pacific William F. Halsey Naval History World War II History Channel
1943 Paul Robeson Selected for the Spingarn Medal: NAACP's Highest Award Paul Robeson African-American History NAACP
1944 Soviets Invade Czechoslovakia Soviet Union Czech Republic Slovakia World War II New York Times
1950 John Steinbeck's Play Burning Bright Opens in New York New York John Steinbeck Plays American Collection
1961 Film Version of West Side Story Opens in New York City New York City Leonard Bernstein <I>West Side Story</I> Internet Movie Database
1962 Francis Crick, James Watson and Maurice Wilkins Are Selected for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine DNA 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Intellihealth
1963 Lord Home Is Chosen As Britain's New Prime Minister Great Britain Politics BBC
1967 Soviet Probe Is the First to Penetrate Venus Cloud Cover Venus Soviet Space Program Space Exploration BBC
65 People Are Injured When Police Clash with Antiwar Demonstrators on the Campus of the University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, Wisconsin Crime First Amendment Vietnam War Wisconsin Historical Society
1968 Bob Beamon and Lee Evans Smash World Records at Mexico City Olympics Mexico City Olympics Afican-American Sports Figures New York Times
Tommie Smith and John Carlos Suspended for Black Power Salute on Olympic Medals Stand Mexico City Olympics Civil Rights/Human Rights Afican-American Sports Figures New York Times
John Lennon and Yoko Ono Are Arrested for Drug Possession John Lennon The Beatles Law & Legal Resources Crime Illegal Drugs History Channel
1972 The U.S. Clean Water Act Is Reorganized to Clean Up America's Waterways Earth and Environmental Sciences Rivers Law and Legal Resources Historic U.S. Documents University of Arizona
1976 Mafia Boss Carlo Gambino Is Buried in New York New York City Crime Notorious Americans BBC
1977 Commandos Storm Plane Hijacked by Palestinian Terrorists: All Hostages Freed Germany Aviation Terrorism
1981 5.4 Magnitude Earthquake Kills 15, Creates Landslides in Venezuela Venezuela Earthquakes Death USGS
1984 5.3 Magnitude Earthquake Kills 3 in Turkey, Damages 75,000 Homes Turkey Earthquakes Death USGS
1989 Hungarian Constitution Amended for Open and Free Elections Hungary Fall of Soviet Communism Cold War Elections History Channel
Erich Honecker Is Removed as Head of East Germany Germany Fall of Soviet Communism Cold War History Channel BBC
Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-34) Is Launched with Galileo Probe Aboard The Space Shuttle NASA
6.9 Magnitude California Earthquake Kills 62, Cancels Game 3 of the World Series California Earthquakes Major League Baseball Death USGS
5.3 Magnitude Earthquake Kills 29 in China China Earthquakes Death USGS
1990 A Tornado Damages 30 Homes in Greenville, Delaware Greenville, Delaware Tornado State of Delaware
1991 Parliament of Azerbaijan Adopts the Constitutional Act on Independence Azerbaijan Fall of Soviet Communism Embassy of Azerbaijan, Washington, D.C.
1992 7.3 Magnitude Colombian Earthquake Triggers Mud Volcano and Landslides Colombia Earthquakes Death USGS
1993 Space Shuttle STS 58 Is Launched The Space Shuttle NASA
1997 Monument to U.S. Servicewomen Is Dedicated at Arlington National Cemetery Arlington National Cemetery Women Death U.S. Army
Guggenheim Museum Is Inaugurated in Bilbao, Spain Spain Museums UNESCO
2001 Four Convicted in New York for 1998 Bombings of Two U.S. Embassies in Africa Africa New York City Terrorism Law and Legal Resources New York Times