The Mexican Flag The Mexican Flag


The Mexican Flag The Mexican Flag

(Day 1 of 9)
Teaching - there can be no finer calling requiring the clearest demonstration of moral and ethical behavior.
Ira Shull, For the Love of Teaching
Why do you teach? Let Us Know. Tell Us about your most memorable teacher.

Gnus for Kidz

Who Am I?

5-Minute Quests Today's 5-Minute Quest

Answers to all questions can be found on this page or by using links provided on this page.
Good Luck!
5-Minute Quests

1. From what country did Kazakhstan gain its independence on this date in 1991? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

2. Which country was admitted to the United Nations on this date in 1963? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

3. According to the biography provided at his official web site, in what Saturday program did E. B. Lewis participate from the time he was in sixth grade until he began college? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

Use all of these letters to spell the name of a children's author or illustrator born on this date:

1. In what year did the British House of Commons permanently abolish the death penalty on this date? (hint: the answer is found on this page)

2. According to Mexico Connect, during Las Posadas what brings each posada to a happy end? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

3. According to the New York Times, at what museum was Margaret Mead curator emeritus? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

Use all of these letters to spell the title of a book illustrated by E.B. Lewis (according to the book section provided at the official E.B. Lewis web site):

(hint: all three questions will require you to use a link found on this page)

1. According to the Literary Traveler, how many different places did Ludwig van Beethoven live in during his 35 years in Vienna?

2. According to the Gale Group, how many brothers did Jane Austen have? (hint: you will need to use a link found on this page)

3. According to the Library of Congress, which general led the Union troops at the Battle of Nashville?

Use all of these letters to spell the title of a 1920 work by George Santayana (according to the Authors' Calendar)

Ludwig van Beethoven
Born on This Date 1770

[Classical Music Page]


Jane Austen
Born on This Date 1775

[The Gale Group]


George Santayana
Born on This Date 1863

[Born Today]


Margaret Mead
Born on This Date 1901

[University of Rochester]


E.B. Lewis
Born on This Date 1956

[Official Website]

Young-adult Author

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Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma
Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming
Bahrain: National Day (Day 1 of 2)
(Celebration of independence from Britain: 12/16/1971)
Bahrain Britain
Bangladesh: Victory Day
(Commemoration of the Bangladesh resistance defeat of the Pakistan Army: 12/16/1971)
Bangladesh Pakistan India
Kazakhstan: Independence Day
(Celebration of independence from Russia: 12/16/1991)
Kazakhstan Russia
Mexico: Las Posadas (Day 1 of 9)
(Commemoration of journey of Mary and Joseph to Bethlehem)
Mexico Catholicism Christmas Mexico Connect
Republic of the Philippines: Misa de Gallo/Simbang Gabi/Misa de Aguinaldo
(Day 1 of 9: Early morning Christmas masses)
The Republic of the Philippines Catholicism Christmas
South Africa: Day of Reconciliation
(Observance of a traditional holiday renamed in 1994 with the end of Apartheid)
South Africa South African History
Children's Authors & Illustrators
1893 Marie Hall Ets (Wisconsin-born Children's Author, Illustrator Awarded the 1960 Caldecott Medal for Nine Days to Christmas) Wisconsin Authors & Illustrators Primary Authors Artists 1960 Caledcott Award for
1912 Jane Andrews Lee Hyndman (Lee Wyndham: Russian-American Children's Author) Russian Authors & Illustrators Young-adult Authors
1917 Arthur C. Clarke (English Science Fiction Novelist, Children's Author) Arthur C. Clarke Young-adult Authors
1921 John T. Carter (Mississippi-born Children's Author) Mississippi Authors & Illustrators Primary Authors
1927 Peter Dickinson (English Children's Author) English Authors & Illustrators Young-adult Authors Official Web Site University of Calgary University of Rochester
Sandol Stoddard Warburg (Alabama-born Children's Author) Alabama Authors & Illustrators Primary Authors
1930 Bill Brittain (New York-born Children's Author) New York Authors & Illustrators Young-adult Authors Harpers Children James Madison University
1932 Quentin Blake (English Children's Author, Illustrator; 3-time Winner of the Hans Christian Andersen Award for Illustration) English Authors & Illustrators Primary Authors Artists
1936 Karleen Bradford (Canadian Children's Author) Canadian Authors & Illustrators Young-adult Authors Official Website Canadian Society of Children's Authors, Illustrators and Performers
1938 Judith Gorog (Wisconsin-born Author of Short Stories for Children) Wisconsin Authors & Illustrators Young-adult Authors
1945 Laurene Krasny Brown (New York City-born Children's Authors, Illustrator, Broadcaster) New York City Authors & Illustrators Primary Authors Artists
1956 E. B. (Earl Bradley) Lewis (Pennsylvania-born African-American Children's Author, Illustrator) E.B. Lewis American Artists Young-adult Authors African-American Authors
Authors, Poets, Playwrights and Journalists
1775 Jane Austen (English Novelist) Jane Austen
1863 George Santayana (Spanish-American Philosopher, Poet) George Santayana Poetry Latin-American Studies
1899 Noël Coward (English Playwright) Noël Coward Plays
1900 V.S. Pritchett (English Author) V.S. Pritchett Journalism
1928 Philip K. Dick (Chicago-born Science Fiction Novelist) Philip K. Dick
Artists, Architects and Designers
1814 Horace W. S. Cleveland (Massachusetts-born Landscape Architect) Massachusetts Artists and Designers Minnesota Historical Society
Classical Composers & Performing Artists
1770 Ludwig van Beethoven (German Classical Composer) Ludwig van Beethoven Composers
1775 Francois Boieldieu (French Composer) French Composers Composers
1926 James McCracken (Indiana-born Operatic Tenor) Indiana Performing Artists Opera
Scientists, Mathematicians & Inventors
1850 Hans Buchner (German Bacteriologist) German Scientists and Mathematicians Bacteria
1857 Edward Emerson Barnard (Tennessee-born Astronomer) Edward Emerson Barnard Astronomy Jupiter
1901 Margaret Mead (Pennsylvania-born Anthropologist) Margaret Mead Anthropology & Archaeology
1872 Anton Ivanovich Denikin (Polish-Russian General. Military Dissident) Anton Ivanovich Denikin Soviet Union
Philsopher, Educators, Religious Leaders
1714 George Whitefield (English Anglican Minister; Namesake of Whitfield County, Georgia) English Political and Social Leaders Whitfield County, Georgia Religious Leaders and Theologians University of Georgia
1769 Jesse Mercer (North Carolina-born Clergyman; Founder of Georgia's Mercer College) North Carolina Political and Social Leaders Georgia Education Religious Leaders and Theologians Education Mercer College University of Georgia
Political & Social Leaders
1485 Catherine of Aragon (Queen of England) English History British Royalty
1808 Kingsley S. Bingham (New York-born Governor of Michigan) New York Political and Social Leaders Michigan Political and Social Leaders State of Michigan
1843 Josephine Shaw Lowell (Massachusetts-born Philanthropist, Social Reformer Who Helped Create Modern Programs for the Poor and Needy) Massachusetts Political and Social Leaders Philanthropy
1861 Oscar Branch Colquitt (Georgia-born Governor of Texas) Georgia Political and Social Leaders Texas Political and Social Leaders Texas State Historical Association
1930 C. W. "Bill" Young (Pennsylvania-born Member of the U.S. Congress From Florida) Pennyslvania Political and Social Leaders Florida Political and Social Leaders U.S. Congress Florida Historical Society
Performing Artists
1938 Liv Ullmann (Norwegian Actress) Norwegian Performing Artists Actors Film Internet Movie Database
1943 Steven Bochco (New York City-born Television Writer, Producer) Steven Bochco American Authors Television
Sports Figures
1882 Jack (John Berry) Hobbs (First English Cricket Player to be Knighted) English Sports Figures Cricket
Persons of Historic Significance Who Have Died on This Date Persons of Historic Significance Who Have Died on This Date
1859 Wilhelm Grimm (German Author of Folktales; The Brothers Grimm) The Brothers Grimm Folktales
1860 Charles J. McDonald (South Carolina-born Governor of Georgia) South Carolina Political and Social Leaders Georgia Political and Social Leaders University of Georgia
1916 Gregory Rasputin (Russian Mystic: Murdered) Gregory Rasputin Religion
1921 Camille Saint-Saëns (French Composer, Pianist) Camille Saint-Saëns Composers
1922 James Davidson (Norwegian-American Governor of Wisconsin: 1906-1911) Norwegian Political and Social Leaders Wisconsin Political and Social Leaders Wisconsin Historical Society
1945 Fumimaro Konoe (Japanese Prince: Suicide) Japan War Crimes
1965 W. Somerset Maugham (English Novelist) W. Somerset Maugham Adult Authors
Historically Significant Events Historically Significant Events
Historical Events Occurring between 1400 - 1499
1431 Henry VI Is Crowned King of France French Political and Social Leaders Greenwich Guide
Historical Events Occurring between 1600 - 1699
1653 Oliver Cromwell Takes on Dictatorial Powers As Lord Protector of Britain Oliver Cromwell Writer's Almanac
Historical Events Occurring between 1700 - 1799
1773 The Sons of Liberty Dump 342 Cases of Tea into Boston Harbor to Protest Tea Tax The Boston Tea Party Colonial Massachusetts Taxes The American Revolution Historic UK History Channel
1783 George Washington Passes through Wilmington, Delaware on His Way to Annapolis, Maryland to Resign His Military Commission Before Congress Wilmington, Delaware Annapolis, Maryland George Washington The American Revolution State of Delaware
Historical Events Occurring between 1800 - 1899
Travelling with Lewis and Clark

Clark: Friday - Continuing to raise cabins. Sent Floyd and Cahokia off with letters to Captain Lewis to put in post office. Several boats came down the
river today. A Pierogue came too, a Mr. Samuel Griffeth lives nine miles up the Missouri as well as a Mr. Gilbert, a trader in salt. The winds were high today, it was cloudy. We raised one cabin last night. I wrote a speech.
Illinois Missouri Camp DuBois University of Kentucky
Travelling with Lewis and Clark

Clark: a clear Cold morning, the Thermtr. at Sun rise Stood at 22° below 0, a verry Singaler appearance of the Moon last night, as She appeared thro: The frosty atmispear—

Mr. Henny, from the Establishment on River Ossinnniboin, with a letter from,
Mr Charles Chaboillez arrived in 6 Days, Mr. C in his letters expressed a great anxiety to Serve us in any thing in his power—

Mr. Le rock [Larocque] a Clerk, of the N W Company and Mr. George Bunch a Clerk of the Hudsons bay Compy accompanied Mr. Henny from the Village—

Ordway: Some of our men went up to the Mandan Village

4 men came here which belonged to the N W. Compy. of Traders, which are
now at the Mandans & Grovantiaus. came for the purpose of tradeing for their Robes & furs, &.C. Some of our men got Some Tobacco from them. they remained with all night.

Gass: A clear cold day;

I went up with some of the men to the 1st and 2nd village of the Mandans, and we were treated with much kindness.

Three of the traders from the N. W. Company came to our fort, and brought a letter to our commanding officers. They remained with us all night. The object of the visits we received from the N. W. Company, was to ascertain our
motives for visiting that country, and to gain information with respect to the change of government.

Hugh Heney and Franois-Antoine Larocque of the North West Company and George Bunch, or Budge, of the Hudson's Bay Company. Heney and Larocque delivered a letter from Charles Chaboillez of the North West Company on the Assiniboine River

The North West Company was first formed in the winter of 1783–4, by the merchants of Canada engaged in the fur trade, uniting their interests in a commercial association agreeing among themselves to carry on the fur trade, founded on a more solid basis. This and Hudson's Bay Company, would carry on almost the whole of the fur trade in the northwest portion of North America.

Hugh Heney, or Hené, was supposedly an employee of Régis Loisel on the Missouri. In 1804 he entered the service of the North West Company. At some point he traded with the Minniconjou Sioux near the mouth of Cheyenne River in South Dakota. The captains questioned him extensively about this tribe, and they later sought his aid in persuading Teton Sioux chiefs to go to Washington.

George Bunch could speak the Hidatsa language well, an indication that he had been to their villages before. This gave him an advantage in trading over Larocque, whose journal indicates that the two were more concerned with competing with each other than with spreading British influence among the Indians.

Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04 North Dakota Map: 10/26/04
Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery Fort Mandan Native American Tribes Temperature The Moon


The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

1806 Two Boatloads of Men Leave Jeffersonville, Indiana to Join Aaron Burr in His Quest To Take Over a Large Segment of the Southwest U.S. Jeffersonville, Indiana Aaron Burr Notorious Americans Indiana Historical Society
1809 Napoleon Bonaparte Divorces Empress Josephine by Act of the French Senate France Napoleon Bonaparte New York Times
1811 The Greatest Series of Earthquakes in U.S. History Begins with an 8.6 Magnitude Earthquake Near New Madrid, Missouri New Madrid, Missouri Earthquakes History Channel USGS Arkansas History Commission
1815 William Cullen Bryant Writes the Poem, "To a Waterfowl" William Cullen Bryant American Authors Poetry American Collection
1826 Benjamin Edwards Seizes a Fort in Mexican-Controlled Nacogdoches, Texas and Proclaims Himself Ruler of the Texas Republic of Fredonia Mexico Nacogdoches, Texas History Channel Texas State Historical Society
1835 New York City Fire Destroys 600 Buildings New York City Fire Safety City University of New York New York Historical Society
1836 The Republic of Texas Charters the Texas Railroad, Navigation, and Banking Company Republic of Texas Railroad Economics Texas State Historical Society
1838 South African Boers Kill 3,000 Zulus at the Battle of Blood River South Africa African History Death South African History
1847 Georgia's Governor Signs Legislation Authorizing Construction of a State School for the Deaf Georgia Education Education Deafness University of Georgia
1853 Kinchafoonee County Is Created as Georgia's 104th County (Later Renamed Webster County in Honor of Daniel Webster) Webster County, Georgia Daniel Webster University of Georgia
1857 6.9 Magnitude Earthquake Leaves 11,000 Dead in Naples, Italy Naples, Italy Earthquakes Death USGS
1859 2 of 5 African-Americans Participants Are Hanged for the Harper's Ferry Raid John Brown Capital Punishment Death African-American Heritage African American Heritage
1861 Georgia Legislation Allows Married Women to Have Bank Accounts of Less Than $1000 Separate From Their Husbands Georgia Government Women Economics Law and Legal Resources University of Georgia
1863 General Joseph Johnston Is Named Commander of the Army of Tennessee Joseph Johnston American Civil War History Channel
Iowa-born Confederate Colonel Sul Ross Merges Four Texas Cavalry Regiments into Ross's Brigade Iowa Military Figures Texas Military Figures American Civil War Texas State Historical Association
1864 Union Troops Devastate Confederate Forces at Nashville, Tennessee Tennessee Battle of Nashville Library of Congress History Channel
1865 Mark Twain's "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County" Is Printed in the San Francisco Californian San Francisco Mark Twain American Authors Journalism American Collection
1871 George A. Edes Is Appointed Collector of Customs for Alaska with Headquarters at Sitka Sitka, Alaska U.S. Customs Taxes Alaska Historical Society
1884 Longman's Magazine Publishes "A Humble Remonstrance" by Robert Louis Stevenson Robert Louis Stevenson Authors Journalism American Collection
In Fall River, Massachusetts, French Canadian Roman Catholic Parishioners Refuse to Accept an Irish Catholic Priest Fall River, Massachusetts Catholicism Massachusetts Foundation for the Humanities
Minnesota Machinist William H. Fruen Is Issued the First U.S. Patent for a Coin-Operated Liquid-Dispensing Vending Machine Massachusetts Scientists and Inventors Inventors and Inventions Patents and Trademarks Minnesota Historical Society
The New Orleans Exposition Opens through May 31, 1885 New Orleans Business Kansas State Library Arkansas History Commission
1889 The Minneapolis Public Library Opens Minneapolis Public Library Libraries and Reference Resources Minnesota Historical Society
1893 Anton Dvorak's "New World Symphony" Premieres Anton Dvorak Composers Historic Firsts American Public Media
1897 Georgia Designates Jefferson Davis' Birthday (June 3) as a State Holiday Georgia Government Jefferson Davis Holidays American Civil War University of Georgia
1898 U.S. President William McKinley Visits Alabama's Tuskegee Institute at the Invitation of Booker T. Washington, the School's President Tuskegee, Alabama Booker T. Washington President William McKinley Education African American Heritage Tuskegee University Alabama State Archives
Historical Events Occurring between 1900 - 1949
1913 Charlie Chaplin Reports to Work for His First Day in the Film Business English Performing Artists Charlie Chaplin Actors Film History Channel
1914 Germans Bombard English Ports of Hartlepool and Scarborough England Germany World War I Aviation Military History Naval Military History World War I History Channel
1916 Noblemen Murder Russian Mystic Gregory Rasputin Gregory Rasputin Religion Death New York Times
The Last Public Hanging in West Virginia Occurs in Ripley Ripley, West Virginia Capital Punishment Death West Virginia State Archive
1920 8.6 Magnitude Earthquake Hits China's Gansu Province: 200,000 Die China Earthquake Death History Channel Asian History USGS
1924 The First Trip over Florida's Cross-State Highway Is Completed From West Palm Beach to Tampa-St. Petersburg Florida Transportation Historic Firsts Florida Historical Society
1934 Construction Begins on the All-American Canal That Will Carry Water From the Colorado River to Southern California California Rivers and Canals Learn California
1935 In Lower Manhattan, Fire Ravages the Inside of the Merchants' Exchange New York City Markets & Investments Fire Safety New York Stock Exchange History Channel
The Movie "A Tale of Two Cities" Is Registered with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office Film Patents and Trademarks Internet Movie Database USPTO
1936 The Ohio Legislature Enacts an Unemployment Compensation Law to Provide Unemployment Insurance for Workers Ohio Business Labor Business Law Ohio Historical Society
1944 Battle of the Bulge Begins in Belgium when Germans Launch a Surprise Attack Belgium Nazi Germany Battle of the Bulge History Channel
1945 Prince Fumimaro Konoe Commits Suicide to Escape War Crimes Charges Japan War Crimes Death
1949 Achmad Sukarno Is Elected Indonesia's First President as a Sovereign Country Indonesia Encyclopedia Britannica
Mao Zedong, Leader of the Chinese Communist Party, Meets in Moscow with Josef Stalin, Leader of the Soviet Union Mao Zedong Josef  Stalin Cold War Asian History
Swedish Automaker SAAB Produces Its First Motorcar Swedish Business Automotives SAAB Historic Firsts History Channel
Historical Events Occurring between 1950 - 1999
1950 President Truman Declares State of Emergency in Reply to Chinese Intervention in Korea China Harry Truman The Korean War History Channel New York Times Asian History Florida Historical Society
1951 Dragnet First Appears on Television As a Sneak Preview Television Internet Movie Database History Channel
1954 The First Synthetic Diamond Is Produced at General Electric Research Laboratories Diamonds General Electric Historic Firsts Tracy Hall Foundation
Remote Dixie Valley, Nevada Is the Epicenter of a 7.1 Magnitude Earthquake Nevada Earthquake USGS
1955 England's Queen Elizabeth II Inaugurates New Buildings at Heathrow Airport Heathrow Airport Queen Elizabeth II Aviation Business and Economics BBC
1960 United DC-8 & TWA Super Constellation Collide over New York City: 134 People Die New York Air Disasters Death History Channel
1961 263 Demonstrators Led by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Are Arrested on the Steps of the Albany, Georgia City Hall Albany, Georgia Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Civil Rights/Human Rights Crime African-American Heritage University of Georgia
1962 Nepal's Revised Constitution Strengthening Royal Authority Is Adopted on the Second Anniversary of the Royal Coup Nepal Country Studies
Explorer 16 Is Launched From Cape Canaveral, Florida for the Study of Meteors and Other Space Debris Cape Canaveral, Florida Space Exploration Meteors Florida Historical Society
1963 Kenya Is Admitted to the United Nations Kenya African History The United Nations
1965 NASA Launches the Pioneer 6 Satellite into Orbit Around the Sun Space Exploration The Sun NASA
1966 United Nations Adopts Economic Sanctions Against Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) The United Nations Zimbabwe African History
Built for the Washington State Ferries, the Superferry Elwha Is Launched at the San Diego Yard of the National Steel & Shipbuilding Company San Diego, California Washington Naval History Washington State Ferries History Link
1969 British House of Commons Permanently Abolishes the Death Penalty Great Britain Capital Punishment BBC
1971 East Pakistan (Bangladesh) Resistance Defeats the Pakistan Army Bangladesh Pakistan India History Channel
Bahrain Gains Its Independence from British Protection Bahrain Great Britain CIA Factbook
1973 Buffalo Bills O.J. Simpson Is the First Running Back to Rush for More Than 2,000 Yards in a Single Season New York Sports Figures Professional Football Hall of Fame Historic Firsts New York Times
1976 President Jimmy Carter Appoints Georgia Congressman Andrew Young U.S. Ambassador to the U.N. The United Nations Andrew Young President Jimmy Carter African-American History University of Georgia
1977 England's Queen Elizabeth II Formally Opens an Underground Link to Heathrow Airport Heathrow Airport London Underground Queen Elizabeth II Aviation Business and Economics BBC
1978 Cleveland, Ohio Is the First U.S. City Since the Great Depression to Default on Loans Cleveland, Ohio Economics History Channel
1979 Women!! Make Turban in Own Home by Eudora Welty Is Published by Palaemon Press Limited Eudora Welty American Authors Mississippi Writers Project
1982 6.9 Magnitude Earthquake Kills 450 People in Afghanistan Afghanistan Earthquake Death USGS
1984 Future Soviet Leaders, Mikhail Gorbachev, Talks for 5 Hours with the British Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher Mikhail Gorbachev Margaret Thatcher Cold War BBC
1990 Jean-Bertrand Aristide Haiti's First Democratically Elected President Jean-Bertrand Aristide Elections New York Times
The African National Congress Ends Its First Conference in 31 Years to be Held Within South Africa South Africa South African History
1991 Kazakhstan Gains Its Independence from Russia Kazakhstan Russia Soviet Union CIA Factbook
United Nations Rescinds 1975 Resolution Equating Zionism with Racism The United Nations Israel Judaism Racism
1997 President Clinton Awards 14 Scientists the National Medal of Science President Clinton The American Presidency American Scientists & Mathematicians National Science Foundation
1998 President Clinton Orders U.S. Air Strikes in Retaliation for Iraq's Defiance of Weapons Inspectors Iraq President Clinton Aviation Military History History Channel
Historical Events Occurring between 2000 - 2009
2000 President-elect George W. Bush Selects Colin Powell as the First African-American Secretary of State Colin Powell Secretary of State George W. Bush African-American Political and Social Leaders Historic Firsts African American Heritage
2002 Canada Ratifies the 1997 Kyoto Protocol on Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Canada Global Warming Kyoto Protocol New York Times