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1774 Francis Beaufort (Irish Admiral Who Devised a Scale for Wind Force) Irish Scientists Wind Standards of Measurement
1845 Mary Mahoney (Massachusetts-born Nurse: The First African-American to Graduate from a Nursing School) Mary Mahoney First African-American Graduate Nurse Notable African Americans
1855 Oskar von Miller (German Engineer; Founder of the Munich Museum of Science and Technology) German Scientists & Mathematicians Science Museums
1909 Edwin Land (Connecticut-born Inventor of Polaroid Instant Film) Edwin Land Inventors Inventor of Polaroid Instant Film
Persons of Historic Significance Who Have Died on This Date
1840 A Tornado Strikes Natchez, Mississippi, Killing 317 Natchez, Mississippi Tornadoes Death Weather Notebook
1844 The Scioto Belle River Steamer Arrives at Galveston, Texas from New Orleans, Louisiana Galveston, Texas New Orleans, Louisiana Steamboats Texas State Historical Association
1878 J. R. Winters Patents a Fire Escape Ladder Inventors and Inventions Patents Fire Prevention & Safety USPTO
1897 Iowa's General Assembly Chooses the Wild Rose as the State's Official Flower Iowa Wild Rose State Historical Society of Iowa
1902 Martinique's Mount Pele Erupts Burying the City of Saint Pierre in Minutes and Capsizing 15 Ships in the Harbor Martinique Volcanoes Death History Channel
1975 U.S. Launches Explorer 53 Spacecraft to Study X-ray Emissions of Extragalactic Sources Space Exploration Radiation NASA
Anik A3 Is Third Domestic Communications Satellite Launched by NASA from Cape Canaveral for the Canadian Company Telesat Space Exploration NASA
1976 6.5 Magnitude Earthquake Is Worst in Italy's Recorded History, Killing 550+ People, Leaving 80,000 Homeless Italy Earthquake Death BBC
1984 5.8 Magnitude Earthquake Kills 3, Injures At Least 100 in Southern Italy. Italy Earthquake Death USGS
1986 7.9 Magnitude Earthquake Hits Alaska's Andreanof Islands Alaska Earthquake USGS
1989 5.6 Magnitude Earthquake Kills 1 and Destroys 5,300 Houses Along the Burma-China Border Burma China Earthquake Death USGS
1992 Space Shuttle Endeavour Is Launched into Space for the First Time Space Shuttle Historic Firsts NASA Center for the Study of Technology & Society
1997 NASA's Galileo Spacecraft Flies by Jupiter's Moon Ganymede at a Distance of 1585 km Jupiter Space Exploration NASA
2007 Astronomers Observe the Brightest Supernova in Recorded History Stars NASA

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